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Title: The%20Heart%20and%20Circulatory%20System


1
The Heart and Circulatory System
2
  • Our circulation is a double loop.
  • Blood must pass through the heart twice in order
    to complete the circuit.

3
THE HEART
  • The APEX of the heart is where the APICAL
    HEARTBEAT can be heart. It is in the 5th
    intercostal space, about 4 (10 cm) to the left,
    midclavicular.
  • The superior left corner is deep to costal
    cartilage 2, 1 to the left of midsternum.
  • The inferior right corner is 1 to the right of
    midsternal, deep to costal cartilage 6.

4
  • The final placement of the heart would require an
    axis placed
  • Tilted to the left
  • Tilted anteriorly
  • Rotated so the anterior side is to the left.

5
Heart Chambers
  • Anatomically, the heart has 4 chambers.
  • Functionally, the heart has 2 chambers or pump
    circuits.

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7
  • The top chambers are ATRIA (singular-atrium).
  • The bottom chambers are VENTRICLES.
  • The walls of the atrium are much thinner compared
    with the ventricles.

8
  • Topograhically, there is a small flap of tissue
    called the AURICLE.
  • Connected to the chambers are large vessels
    vena cavae, pulmonary arteries or trunk,
    pulmonary veins, and the aorta.

9
Sheep Heart Anterior View
1. Right Auricle
2. Right Ventricle
3. Brachiocephalic Artery (Oxygenated)
4. Aortic Arch (Oxygenated)
5. Pulmonary Artery (Deoxygenated)
6. Left Auricle
7. Interventricular Sulcus
8. Left Ventricle
10
1. Brachiocephalic Artery (Oxygenated)
2. Aortic Arch (Oxygenated)
3. Openings for Pulmonary Veins (Oxygenated)
4. Opening for Inferior Vena Cava (Deoxygenated)
5. Left Ventricle
6. Opening for Superior Vena Cava (Deoxygenated)
7. Right Auricle
8. Right Ventricle
11
  • If we look at the heart from the anterior side,
    we the right side of the heart.
  • Blood returns to the heart (right atrium) via the
    SUPERIOR and INFERIOR VENA CAVAE and CORONARY
    SINUS.

12
  • From the right atrium it is pumped into the RIGHT
    VENTRICLE.
  • It must pass through the TRICUSPID VALVE (which
    has 3 cusps) which is a ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVE.

13
  • From the right ventricle, the blood then passes
    through the PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE and into
    the PULMONARY TRUNK.
  • The pulmonary trunk carries blood to the lungs
    for re-oxygenation in the alveoli.

14
  • All the valves are made of connective tissue and
    function to prevent backflow of blood.
  • Problems with the valves cause a disorder called
    PROLAPSE or MURMUR.

15
  • Blood returns to the LEFT ATRIUM via the
    PULMONARY VEINS.
  • There are 2 pulmonary veins from each lung.
  • The blood next passes through the BISCUPID (2
    cusps) or MITRAL VALVE on its way to the LEFT
    VENTRICLE.

16
  • From the left ventricle, blood passes through the
    AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE into the AORTA.
  • To remember that the TRICUSPID VALVE comes before
    the BICUSPID VALVE, remember the saying
  • Try before you buy

17
VALVES
  • The valves open passively during ventricular
    relaxation.
  • They close passively during ventricular
    contraction.
  • The CHORDAE TENDINEAE connect the edge of the AV
    valve to the PAPILLARY MUSCLE.

18
Chordae tendinae
19
  • These muscles prevent the valves from being
    forced closed in reverse.
  • The chords contract when the papillary muscles
    pull on them.
  • The papillary muscles DO NOT cause the valves to
    open or close.

20
  • The SEMILUNAR VALVES are found between the
    ventricles and the large arteries leaving the
    ventricles.
  • They are TRICUSPID in structure. Heart sounds
    are caused by the closing of these valves.

21
The Semilunar Valves
1
2
3
22
  • SUMMARY
  • 4 chambers
  • 4 valves
  • 4 vessels
  • ARTERIEScarry blood AWAY from the heart.
  • VEINS carry blood TOWARD the heart.

23
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24
9. Right Atrium 10. Right Ventricle 11. Left
Atrium 12. Left Ventricle 13. Papillary
Muscles 14. Chordae Tendineae 15. Tricuspid
Valve 16. Mitral Valve 17. Pulmonary Valve
1. Right Coronary 2. Left Anterior Descending
3. Left Circumflex 4. Superior Vena Cava 5.
Inferior Vena Cava 6. Aorta 7. Pulmonary Artery
8. Pulmonary Vein
25
CIRCULATION
  • The importance of circulation is the movement of
    materials into and out of the cells.
  • Cells require O2 and need to get rid of CO2.
  • This is accomplished by two processes BULK FLOW
    and DIFFUSION.

26
Bulk Flow
  • Bulk flow is the movement of blood over
    significant distances in a short period of time.
    Accomplished by pressure gradients.
  • Blood moves from areas of high pressure to areas
    of low pressure.

27
  • We establish pressure gradients by using
  • 1. heart
  • 2. gravity
  • 3. skeletal muscle
  • 4. smooth muscle

28
Diffusion
  • Diffusion is the random movement of molecules
    with net movement from areas of high
    concentration to areas of low concentration.
  • It is only effective over short distances.
  • It only happens in capillaries.

29
  • This can happen because capillaries are blood
    vessels that are only one cell thick.
  • Capillaries are the FUNCTIONAL UNIT of
    circulation with the cells.

30
  • The circulatory system is a CLOSED SYSTEM with
    three main components
  • 1. heart (bulk flow)
  • 2. vessels (direct flow)
  • 3. blood (used for transport)

31
Path of Circulation
  • Heart -gt arteries -gt arterioles -gt capillaries -gt
    venules -gt veins -gt heart

32
  • Arterioles are small arteries and have a lumen
    diameter of about 0.5 mm. Their anatomy is the
    same as arteries.

33
Anatomy of an Artery
Fibrous tissue layer
Tunica Media middle smooth muscular layer
thick in arteries, thin in veins
Tunica Intima-inner lining endothelia and CT
Tunica Aventitia or Tunica Externa - contain CT
and Vaso Vasorum
Lumen
34
  • Recall that the arteries have a muscular pump to
    help blood get to the needed body parts.
  • Veins do not have this pump.
  • Skeletal muscle contractions help move the blood
    upward toward the heart. Also, veins have VALVES
    which prevent backflow of blood (gravity)

35
  • When blood cannot travel back toward the heart,
    it can accumulate in the veins. This causes a
    dilation of the vein, or VARICOSE VEINS.

36
In Review
  • VEINS ARTERIES
  • Toward heart CARRY BLOOD Away from heart
  • 2-3 cells thick MUSCULAR LAYER 40 cells thick
  • Semilunar Valves VALVES No
    valves
  • Decreased OXYGEN LEVELS Increased

37
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38
Categories of Circulation
  • Pulmonary Circulation-
  • Blood from right ventricle goes through the
    pulmonary trunk to lungs and back to left atrium.
  • There is much lower hydrostatic pressure
    than in the systemic circulation.

39
  • 2. Systemic Circulation
  • The second major circulatory loop. Blood
    leaves the left ventricle and is pumped
    throughout the body. It ends up in the right
    atrium.
  • This loop includes blood supply to the GI
    tract to help with nutrient absroption.

40
Collateral Circulation
  • Allows blood to flow around a blockage.
  • Arterioles meet head on in an ANASTOMOSIS.
  • Anastomoses serve as a natural bypass.

41
Portal Circulation
  • Veins from pancreas, spleen, small intestine, and
    stomach empty into the portal vein in the liver.
  • After excess glucose is removed and
    detoxification occurs, blood enters the hepatic
    portal vein to be returned to the vena cava and
    the general circulation.

42
Fetal Circulation
  • - needed because the fetal lung is not
    functional. Fetal oxygen source is the PLACENTA.
  • - blood from mother and fetus do not mix,
    but rather is in 2 adjacent capillary beds.
  • - permeable materials can pass through the
    adjacent capillary beds causing the fetus to be
    exposed to whatever is in the mothers
    bloodstream.

43
  • Blood flows from the placenta to the fetus via on
    UMBILICAL VEIN.
  • - The UV has the most oxygen rich blood for
    the fetus.
  • - This vein branches with one part going to
    the FETAL LIVER and the other going to the
    INFERIOR VENA CAVAE (DUCTUS VENOSIS).
  • - Blood then enters the right atrium.
    Blood so far is MIXED (both oxygenated and
    deoxygenated).

44
  • This blood is then combined with deoxygenated
    blood from the coronary sinus and superior vena
    cavae.
  • There is a hole (foramen) between the atria.
    This is called the FORAMEN OVALE.
  • There is also a linkage between the pulmonary
    artery and the aorta. This is called the DUCTUS
    ARTERIOSUS.

45
  • The UMBILICAL ARTERIES branch from the INTERNAL
    ILIAC ARTERIES found in the pelvis. The ILAs
    are branches of the COMMON ILIAC ARTERIES which
    are the terminal branches of the aorta.

46
Coronary Circulation
  • - heart has a separate circulation.
  • - these coronary vessels are the ones
    treated in bypass surgery.
  • - CORONARY SULCUS or ATRIOVENTRICULAR
    GROOVE
  • - INTERVENTRICULAR SULCUS.
  • - The coronary arteries and veins are
    located within these grooves.

47
Coronary Circulation
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50
  • Each blood cell must pass through the heart twice
    in order to complete a full circulatory circuit.

51
Lymphatics (in general)
  • The lymphatic system is a system that collects
    and recycles fluids that have leaked from the
    circulation. It is also involved in fighting
    infections.
  • It is made of a series of LYMPH VESSELS and tiny
    bean-shaped NODES.
  • Lymph tissue is located in various parts of the
    body including thymus, tonsils, spleen, and bone
    marrow.
  • The lymph tissue is eventually drained into the
    vena cava to go into the right atrium.

52
What is carried in the blood?
  • Respiratory gasses (oxygen and CO2)
  • Nutrients
  • Hormones
  • Defense cells/Immune cells
  • Repair cells
  • It also regulates body temperature by carrying
    warmth from the center of the body to the
    periphery.

53
Blood Anatomy
  • Blood is composed of two parts.
  • 1. FORMED ELEMENTS
  • - cellular component
  • 2. PLASMA
  • - liquid component

54
Centrifuge
  • Machine which spins tubes of blood to separate
    the components.

Plasma
WBCs BUFFY COAT
RBCs
55
Plasma
  • A straw-colored, sticky fluid.
  • Contains over 100 different kinds of molecules.
  • Contains three proteins
  • a. Albumin important in keeping osmotic
    pressure constant. Also important in wound
    healing.
  • b. Globulins important for antibody
    production and transport of other molecules.
  • c. Fibrinogen important for blood clotting

56
Formed Elements
  • These are the blood cells
  • Erythrocytes
  • a. RBCs
  • b. Carry oxygen
  • c. No nuclei or organelles
  • d. of blood volume that contain
    erythrocytes is known as the HEMATOCRIT.

57
  • e. cytoplasm is filled with HEMOGLOBIN.
  • f. Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrying
    protein.
  • g. Pick up oxygen in the lung capillaries
    and release carbon dioxide.
  • h. Spherical shaped
  • i. When the shaped changes, individual
    cells have difficulty entering and traveling
    through the capillary lumen.
  • j. Efficient oxygen transporters as they do
    not use any of the oxygen they transport. This
    is because they do not have organelles
    (mitochondria). The erythrocytes must get their
    energy through anaerobic means.

58
  • k. Live for 120 days. Therefore, it is
    easy to use them for clinical testing. For
    example, glucose binds to the RBC. The more
    glucose that is bound to the RBC, the higher the
    patients average blood sugar levels. HbA1C is a
    measurement of how much sugar is bound to the
    RBC. If this test is performed every 120 days,
    physicians can determine the range of blood sugar
    control.

59
LEUKOCYTES
  • White Blood Cells (WBC)
  • Crucial to the bodies defense against disease.
  • Have all the organelles and nuclei of a true
    cell.
  • Leukocytes perform their function outside the
    circulatory system. They function in the
    connective tissue (where infections usually
    occur).
  • When a leukocyte senses an infection, it moves
    out of the circulation by squeezing out between
    the endothelial cells which line the blood
    vessels. This is known as DIAPEDESIS.
  • Once outside the circulation, the WBCs use
    amoeboid motion to find the offending organism.

60
5 Types of Leukocytes
  • Granulocytes
  • 1. Neutrophils most abundant
  • - lobuated nuclei
  • - Polymorphonuclear
  • Leukocytes (PMNs)
  • - Polys or Segs
  • - phagocytize and
  • destroy bacteria.

61
  • Eosinophils
  • - rarely found
  • - nuclei with only 2 lobes
  • - stain red with acidic dye Eosin
  • - fight parasites and parasitic diseases

62
  • Basophils
  • - rarest of all WBCs
  • - nuclei stain dark with basic stain
  • - secrete histamine to mediate allergic
    reactions.

63
  • Agranulocytes
  • 1. Lymphocytes
  • - most important cell in the immune
    system
  • - function in the connective tissue,
    not the bloodstream
  • - important for fighting infection
  • - substances that cause a reaction from
    a lymphocyte is called an ANTIGEN.
  • - 2 types of lymphocytes T-cells
    (kill organisms directly)

  • B-cells (become mast cells

64
  • Monocytes
  • - become macrophages which ingest a wide
    variety of foreign debris

65
CLINICAL CORELLATION
  • A complete blood count (CBC)
  • Quantifies the various cell types found in the
    blood.
  • A DIFFERENTIAL identifies the percentage of each
    type of leukocyte.

66
Platelets
  • Known as THROMBOCYTES
  • Function to plug small tears in the walls of the
    blood vessels to limit bleeding.
  • Adhere to exposed collagen at the edges of a
    tear.
  • Release THROMBOPLASTIN, a molecule that initates
    clotting.
  • Platelets adhere only to damaged blood vessels.
    When a clot develops or persists in an intact
    blood vessel, a THROMBUS results.
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