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Navigating Through Change: How to Plan the Optimum Campus Parking System

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Title: Navigating Through Change: How to Plan the Optimum Campus Parking System


1
Navigating Through ChangeHow to Plan the
Optimum Campus Parking System
  • Presented by
  • Tryst M. Anderson
  • Timothy Haahs Associates

2
Presentation Outline
  • Change
  • Campus Planning
  • Parking Planning
  • Campus Parking Survey
  • Case Studies
  • Navigation Tips for the Changed Campus
  • Evolving to Structured Parking
  • Conclusion

3
Navigating Through Change
Athletics
Academics
Facilities
Parking
4
Navigating Through Change
Culture
Campus
Environment
The Perfect Storm
5
Campus Changes
  • Enrollment Increasing
  • Facility Expansion
  • Research Activities
  • Commuter Students
  • Non-Traditional Students
  • Graduate Students Unionized

that impact parking
6
Culture Changes
  • SpeedFast food isnt fast enough
  • Technology
  • Service-oriented
  • Generation Y meets Gen X
  • Car focusMore drivers
  • More Women in workforce

that impact expectations
7
Environmental Changes
  • Water quality
  • ADA
  • Wetlands
  • Green Buildings
  • Recycling
  • Energy Conservation

That impact delivery of campus facilities
8
Bottom Line of Change
  • Increased Parking Demand
  • Higher Expectations
  • More restrictive construction regulations

If things seem under control, youre not going
fast enough --Mario Andretti
9
What Hasnt Changed
  • Campus Mission Educate Students
  • Faculty Teaching Schedules
  • Student Driving Behaviors
  • Funding for Parking
  • Politics of Decision Making

10
General Planning Principles
  • Respectful of Historic Core
  • Maintain Scale with Existing Buildings
  • Renovation versus New Construction
  • Parking Distribution
  • Landscape and Open Space
  • Pedestrian-Friendly
  • Safety/Security

11
General Parking Planning Principles
  • Respectful of Historic Core
  • Maintain Scale with Existing Buildings
  • Renovation versus New Construction
  • Parking Distribution
  • Landscape and Open Space
  • Pedestrian-Friendly
  • Safety/Security

12
Campus Parking is.
  • Work/life issue for employees
  • Education access issue for commuter students

Should such an asset still be considered an
auxiliary enterprise?
13
Philosophical Differences
  • Parking should be free and convenient as possible

Parking should be as expensive as possible to
encourage the use of transportation alternatives
Reconciling divergent views is difficult
14
Auxiliary Enterprise
  • Does all parking revenue pay for parking-related
    costs, or have the funds been used for other
    campus projects?
  • Free evening and weekend parking? (Not a good
    policy if the enterprise needs money)
  • Convenient campus parking is a value beyond the
    enterprise.

15
Every truth passes through three stages before
it is recognized
  • First it is Ridiculed
  • Secondly it is opposed
  • Finally it is regarded as self-evident
  • --Arthur Schopenhauer

How long will it take for the truth about
parking finance to become self-evident?
16
Campus Parking Planning
Campus
17
Campus Parking Planning
P
Campus
P
P
1200 Students 600 Faculty/staff
P
18
Current Trend Campus Interior
  • Perception
  • Attractive
  • Multi-use
  • High Income

Campus
P
19
Parking
meets
Facilities Planning
20
Pieces of the Same Puzzle
Parking
Facilities
21
Pieces of the Same Puzzle
Parking
Facilities
22
Personality MixDifferent Views of Reality
Parking Professionals View of Facilities people
Facilities View of Parking Professionals
23
Parking Supports Facilities Needs
Facilities
Academic
24
Parking Supports Facilities Needs
Facilities
Academic
Parking
25
If you dont have a seat at the table
  • Youre probably on the menu!

26
Problems with the Fit
  • Different departments
  • Different missions, agendas, etc.
  • Different customers
  • Different alliances
  • Academic versus auxiliary
  • Different cultures

27
Blending Differences
  • Communication
  • Remember the mission
  • Understanding
  • It is ok to have differences
  • Outcome-based
  • What is in it for facilities
  • What is in it for parking
  • Creating strategic alliances

28
2004 Campus Parking Survey
  • 80 Campuses Surveyed
  • Range in size from 3500 to 51,000
  • Campus Parking Ranged 1921 to 24,900
  • Number of Parking Lots 7 to 147
  • Parking Tickets 3,000 to 145,000
  • Visitor Parking 4 spaces to 2,900

29
Survey Questions
  • Enrollment
  • Staff
  • Permits
  • Tickets
  • Parking Lots
  • Parking Structures
  • Campus Buildings
  • Demand Reduction
  • Visitor Parking
  • Rates
  • Events
  • Commuter Students
  • Budget
  • Level of Success
  • Peak Day
  • Adequacy

30
The Key Result
  • Parking Lots

31
(No Transcript)
32
(No Transcript)
33
Facility Development Opportunities
  • Remember Facility Master Planning Concepts
  • Maintain Green Space
  • Pedestrian Friendly
  • Respect the historic core

34
Parking Lots for Facility Development
  • 28 Parking lots on average campus
  • Most are located on campus interior
  • Most sites not appropriate for Parking
    Structures
  • Size
  • Location
  • Best use of land

35
Parking Lots Lost by Default
  • Is there a campus policy for surface parking lot
    acquisition for facility development?
  • Are you represented when surface lots are
    discussed for development?
  • What is reasonable compensation?
  • Do facility people understand parking needs?

36
Can Lost Parking Make A CampusParking System
Stronger?
37
Case Study University of Illinois
  • 36,738 Students
  • 10,000 Faculty/Staff
  • 450 Daily Visitors
  • 3,000 Faculty/Staff on parking waiting lists1700
    on lists wanting to move closer to the building
    they work in.
  • 13,609 parking spaces/147 parking lots
  • Lose all surface parking lots in 10-20 years

38
Additional Spaces Requested by Lot
Current Spaces Supplied by Lot
39
Existing Decks
Anticipated Future Decks
Projected Short-fall
1504 cars
600 cars
750 cars
744 cars
588 cars
400 cars
578 cars
750 cars
1000 cars
1000 cars
600 cars
7,920 Spaces in 20 Years when all lots are gone
40
University of Illinois Parking Strategy
  • Parking lots purchased at market value versus
    book value
  • Purchase assumes 15,000 for each lost parking
    space
  • Parking Master Plan identifies facility
    development options for next 10 years
  • Funding mechanism for new parking includes 50 of
    revenues coming from parking lot land
    acquisitions.
  • Plan incorporates parking permit and meter rate
    increases for next 10 years.

41
Proposed Rates
2003
2006
2009
Permit Rates
367
523
744
Annual permit rate for faculty, staff and
students
42
Parking Reimbursements
Total reimbursement received by FY 2005
11,728,000
Total reimbursement received by FY 2010
17,152,000
Total revenues in above table assumes parking
is reimbursed 100 for land and 50 for lost
spaces.
43
Case Study Central Missouri
  • Parking structure 10 years away
  • Two new large facilities in master plan built on
    large surface lots
  • Recommend implementation of parking rate increase
    program to build reserve
  • Three years later Rates are the Same

44
Politics of Parking Planning
  • Tuition increases
  • Faculty Unions (Graduate Students)
  • Reduced resources for academic buildings
  • Parking fines
  • Administration has convenient parking
  • 20 years of subsidized parking rates

45
The Problem Subsidized Parking
  • Cost of parking user fees 0
  • Two ways to fund parking expansion
  • Incremental rate increase for everyone
  • Significant rate increases for users
  • When the model includes structured parking,
    initial cost and maintenance costs increase

46
The Solution Publicize the Costs
Relate to Permit Fees
47
The Result of Poor Communication
  • Frustration and anger by users
  • Employees perceive parking as a fringe benefit
  • Rate increase seen as a hardship

48
Expansion Cost High
Reduce Demand
49
Parking Demand Reduction Ideas
  • Change class schedules
  • Restrict freshmen
  • Raise rates for convenient parking

50
Survey says
  • Most campuses had used these ideas
  • Some had tried to implement all of them
  • Academic scheduling was taboo across the board
  • Parking rates could never be raised high enough
    to cause enough pain to alter behaviors

51
The Law of Supply and Demand
  • Parking should be like any market-driven
    commodity
  • Use pricing to stabilize a high demand/ low
    supply market
  • Price controls on gasoline in the 70s didnt
    stabilize the market during the oil embargo
  • Students use guerilla tactics to beat pricing
    strategies
  • If you cant decrease demand, you must increase
    supply
  • Like Federal farm supports, most campus parking
    rates are subsidized

52
Facilities Planning Can Help
  • Evaluate space management plans
  • Services that can be located off-campus
  • Located on periphery
  • Group departments in zones with lower demand
  • Consider off-campus academic buildings
  • Transportation Planning
  • Incentives
  • Convenient Routes

53
Navigation Tips for the Changed Campus
  • Promote the value of campus parking
  • Sit at the table
  • Create what if scenarios for campus development
  • Understand funding mechanisms and partnerships

54
Optimize the Campus Parking Plan
  • Define User Needs
  • Convenience versus price
  • Seniority versus salary
  • Parking Plan in sync with Campus Master Plan
  • Parking/Transit Alternatives
  • Parking Management Strategies
  • Multiple-use parking facilities

55
Evolving to Structured Parking
  • Cost
  • First cost
  • Life Cycle cost
  • Maintenance costs
  • Location
  • Aesthetics
  • Users
  • Mixed-use
  • Security

56
Location
  • Respect Campus Master Plan
  • Optimum site dimensions
  • 180 x 225
  • Site issues
  • Slope
  • Soil
  • Environmental
  • Users Final Destination

57
Blending Aesthetics and Function
This.
58
Blending Aesthetics and Function
. or this?
59
Blending Aesthetics and Function
60
Blending Aesthetics and Function
61
Users Create Functional Changes
62
Multiple Uses for Parking Structures
  • Grade level commercial/office space
  • Top level recreation, green space, office, housing

Hamilton Square, University of Pennsylvania
63
Multiple Uses for Parking Structures
Temple University
64
S E C U R I T Y
65
Changing Nature of Campus Security
  • Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act of 1990
  • Post 9/11
  • Homeland Security
  • On-line campus crime statistics

66
2002 Campus Crime Statistics
  • Auto Theft17,198
  • Robbery7,609
  • Sexual Assault3,601

Statistics dont identify exact location of
crime, i.e. parking facility.
67
Why Crime in Parking Areas?
  • Large area
  • Multiple access points
  • Low activity level
  • Individuals can be isolated

68
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
  • Use design features to improve security
  • Landscaping in surface lots
  • Perimeter fences
  • Lighting
  • Long span/high ceilings in parking structures
  • Glass-backed stair/elevator towers
  • Minimize hiding places
  • Graphics/signage

Key is Visibility
69
Campus Dynamics
  • People are there to be in buildings
  • Parking Area Building Area
  • Each parking space 300-400 sq. ft.

70
Planning Challenge Make People Feel Safe
  • Perception
  • Parking lot
  • Parking Structure
  • Clean/Open
  • Well Lit
  • Understandable Signage/Graphics
  • Staff present
  • Panic Alarms
  • Cameras
  • Reality
  • Passive and active security design deters
    criminal activity
  • Active systems must be staffed

71
Achievement Review
72
Achievement Review
Optimum Solution
73
One Last Thing
Navigating through change requires bold
leadership.
Dont ignore the power of and value of your
parking system. It will help you keep a seat
at the table.
74
Thank You for Attending
You Captains of Parking Navigation
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