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## Math Vocabulary Words

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Title: Math Vocabulary Words

1
Math Vocabulary Words

2
SUM
• To find the sum, I need to add.
• 18 25 43

3
DIFFERENCE
• To find the difference, I need to subtract.
• 38 - 15 23

4
QUOTIENT
• To find the quotient, I need to divide.
• 100 5 20

5
PRODUCT
• To find the product, I need to multiply.
• 2 x 3 6
• 15 5 x 3

6
RAY
A line with a starting point but no end point
7
Line Segment
A section of a line with 2 end points
8
Parallel Lines
Lines that are equal distance apart
9
Perpendicular Lines
Lines that intersect at a 90 degree angle
10
Parallelogram
A quadrilateral with 2 pairs of parallel sides
11
Trapezoid
A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides
12
Rhombus
• Parallelogram with four equal sides and equal
opposite angles

13
• A polygon with four sides

14
Pictograph
• A pictograph is a graph that uses symbols to
represent data.

15
Line Graph
• A graph that uses points connected by lines to
show how something changes in value

16
Ordered Pair
• Set of values that show an exact position.

17
Coordinate Plane
• A plane containing two perpendicular axes (x and
y).

18
Rotation
• A circular movement. There is a central point
that stays fixed and everything else moves around
that point in a circle.

19
Degree
• A measure for angles. There are 360 degrees in a
full rotation.

20
Improper Fractions
• An improper fraction is a fraction where the
numerator (the top number) is greater than or
equal to the denominator (the bottom number).

21
Fraction
• Part of a whole.

22
Mixed Fractions
• A mixed fraction is a whole number and a fraction
combined into one "mixed" number

23
24
acceleration
• A change in the speed or direction of an object's
motion

25
• A body part or behavior that helps an animal meet
its needs in its environment

26
air mass
• A huge body of air which all has similar
temperature and moisture

27
air pressure
• Particles of air pressing down on the Earth's
surface

28
amplitude
• A measure of the strength of a sound wave shown
by height on a wave diagram

29
anemometer
• An instrument used to measure wind speed

30
atmosphere
• The layer of air that surrounds our planet

31
axis
• An imaginary line that runs through both poles of
a planet

32
barometer
• An instrument that measures air pressure

33
camouflage
• An animal's color or pattern that helps it blend
in with its surroundings

34
climate
• The average temperature and rainfall of
• an area over many years

35
community
• All the populations that live in the same area

36
condensation
• The process by which water vapor changes from a
gas to liquid

37
conservation
• The careful management and wise use of natural
resources

38
constellation
• The pattern formed by a group of stars in the sky

39
consumer
• A living thing that eats other living things for
energy

40
decomposer
• A living thing that feeds on the wastes of plants
and animals or on their remains after they die

41
echo
• A sound reflection

42
ecosystem
• Groups of living things and the environment they
live in

43
effort force
• The force put on one part of the bar when you
push or pull on a lever

EFFORT FORCE
44
energy pyramid
• A diagram that shows how much food energy is
passed from one organism to another along a food
chain

45
environment
• Everything that surrounds and affects an animal,
including living and nonliving things

46
evaporation
• The process in which a liquid changes to a gas

47
food web
• A diagram that shows how food chains connect and
overlap

48
force
• A push or pull

49
friction
• A force that keeps objects that are touching each
other from sliding past each other easily

50
front
• The border where two air masses meet

51
fulcrum
• The fixed point, or point that doesn't move, on a
lever

52
gas
• The state of matter that has no definite shape
and takes up no definite amount of space

53
gas giants
• The planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
which are large spheres made up mostly of gases

54
gravity
• A force that pulls all objects toward each other

55
habitat
• An environment that meets the needs of an
organism

56
hibernation
• A period when an animal goes into a long, deep
"sleep"

57
humidity
• The amount of water vapor in the air

58
hygrometer
• A tool to measure moisture in the air

59
inclined plane
• A flat surface with one end higher than the other

60
inner planets
• The planets closest to the sun Mercury, Venus,
Earth, and Mars

61
instinct
• A behavior that an animal begins life with

62
lever
• A simple machine made up of a bar that turns
around a fixed point

63
liquid
• The state of matter that takes the shape of its
container and takes up a definite amount of space

64
loudness
• A measure of the amount of sound energy reaching

65
mass
• The amount of matter something contains

66
matter
• Everything in the universe that has mass and
takes up space

67
migration
• The movement of a group of one type of animal
from one region to another and back again

68
mimicry
• An adaptation in which an animal looks very much
like another animal or an object

69
motion
• A change of position

70
niche
• The role or part played by an organism in its
habitat

71
opaque
• Reflecting or absorbing all light no image can
be seen

72
orbit
• The path that an object such as a planet makes as
it revolves around a second object

73
outer planets
• The planets farthest from the sun Jupiter,
Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto

74
phase
• One of the different shapes the moon seems to
have as it orbits around Earth

75
planet
• A large object that moves around a star

76
population
• A group of the same species living in the same
place at the same time

77
position
• A certain place

78
precipitation
• Water that falls to Earth as rain, snow, sleet,
or hail

79
prism
• A solid object that bends light not a lens

80
producer
• A living thing, such as a plant, that makes its
own food

81
pulley
• A simple machine made up of a rope or chain and a
wheel around which the rope fits

82
reflection
• The bouncing of light off an object

83
refraction
• The bending of the path of light when it moves
from one kind of matter to another

84
relative motion
• A motion that is described based on a frame of
reference

85
revolution
• The movement of any object in an orbit, such as
Earth moving around the sun

86
rotation
• The motion of a planet or other object as it
turns on its axis

87
satellite
• An object that moves around another object in
space the moon is a satellite of Earth

88
screw
• An inclined plane wrapped around a pole

89
shelter
• A place where an animal is protected from other
animals or from the weather

90
simple machine
• The basic machines that make up other machines

91
solar energy
• The energy given off by the sun

92
solar system
• A group of objects in space that move around a
central star

93
solid
• The state of matter that has a definite shape and
takes up a definite amount of space

94
sound
• A series of vibrations that you can hear

95
sound wave
• A moving pattern of high and low pressure that
you can hear

96
speed
• A measure of an object's change in position
during a unit of time for example, 10 meters per
second

97
star
• A huge, burning sphere of gases for example, the
sun

98
telescope
• A device people use to observe distant objects
with their eyes

99
temperature
• A measure of the average energy of motion of the
particles in matter

SLOW
FAST
100
translucent
• Allowing some light to pass through blurry image
can be seen

101
transparent
• Allows most light to pass through clear image
can be seen

102
water cycle
• The constant recycling of water on Earth

103
wavelength
• The distance from one compression to the next in
a sound wave

104
wedge
• A machine made up of two inclined planes placed
back-to-back

105
weight
• A measure of the force of gravity upon an object

106
wheel and axle
• A simple machine made up of a large wheel
attached to a smaller wheel or rod

WHEEL
AXLE
107
work
• That which is done on an object when a force
moves the object through a distance

108

109
Topic Sentence
Topic (main idea) subject that people write,
A TOPIC SENTENCE tells the main idea of the
paragraph.
110

Words to help students do well on the CRCT.
• Topic Sentence
• Paragraph
• Title Page
• Glossary and Narrator

111
Paragraph
• paragraph- a group of sentences that are about
the same idea.

Paragraphs usually begin on a new line and are
indented.
112
Title Page
Title page- a page at the front of the book that
gives the title and the name of the author and
publisher of the book.
Can you find the Title Page in every book you
113
that lists the chapter names and the pages of
where to locate each chapter in the book.

114
glossary
glossary a list of hard words at the end of a
book that tells the definitions or explanations
of each word.
115
narrator
• narrator a person who tells a story.
• Narrate - to give a continuous account or details
of an event

116
• persuasive paragraph- a paragraph that tries to
win you over to one side. To persuade is to argue
your point. Persuasion is a firm belief.

117
inform
• inform- a paragraph or story written to give
knowledge of something.
• (Something told or facts learned.)
• Factual information written in a paragraph.

118
entertain
entertain- a paragraph or story that that is
pleasing, amusing, or interesting to read.
119
Essential Question
• What are the 3 purposes an author has for
writing? (Remember PIE)
• P.I.E.- to persuade, inform and entertain.

120
What are the (4)four types of sentences?
• Interrogative
• Declarative
• Imperative
• Exclamatory

121
Interrogative
• interrogative- a sentence that asks a question

Who read for one hour last night?
122
Imperative
imperative a sentence that gives an urgent
command
Stop in the name of the law.
123
Declarative
• declarative a sentence that tells you something
and ends with a period.

Jabril is going to attend Duke University and
become a doctor.
124
Exclamatory
exclamatory a sentence that shows excitement
and ends with an exclamation mark . (!)
Hurrah! We are all members of the 100 Club!
125
noun
• noun - a word that names a person, place or
thing.

boy, girl, dog, dress, coin, book, school, store,
key,
126
pronoun
• pronoun a word used in place of a noun

they, you, we, I, she, he, it
She loves to receive parent notes.
127
• adverb- a word that tells how, when and where
something happened.

Mrs. Mason spoke loudly to the students.
128
conjunction
conjunction- a word that connects words, phrases,
clauses or sentences. (and, but, though and if
are conjunctions.)
I like hot dogs and pizza.
129
What are transition words that can be used in a
paragraph?
First, next, finally, then, later,. In addition
to , In conclusion.
130
EXTRANEOUS means
• EXTRANEOUS
• extra words, details or sentences that are not
needed in a piece of writing

131
UNTIL
OUT
THROUGH
ACROSS
Prepositions
AMONG
DURING
BETWEEN
OVER
FROM
INTO
132
• 1) Do you like to play hide-and-go-seek?
• 2) My favorite place to hide is under the kitchen
table.
• 3) If someone is already there, I usually try in
the bathroom closet.
• 4) If there is not enough room in the closet, I
will crawl under my bed.

133
Here is a list of commonly used prepositions
across after among at before between by during for
over round since through to under until up with
from in into like near off on out opposite
134
Five easy rules for correct quotation punctuation!

135
Sentence StructureIndependent Clause
• A complete sentence has two components, a subject
and a verb.
• The subject and verb must form a complete thought
to be considered an independent clause.

The couple dances.
The couple dances. subject (S) verb (V)
136
Sentence StructureCompound Sentence
• Conjunctions
• for
• and
• nor
• but
• or
• yet
• so
• A sentence that contains two independent clauses
joined by a coordinating conjunction is called a
compound sentence.
• A conjunction joins words, phrases, and clauses
together in a sentence.

137
Sentence StructureCompound Sentence
• The comma in a compound sentence is placed before
the coordinating conjunction.
• Andy built a snowman, and Jeff played with his
dog.

S V conj. Andy
built a snowman, and Jeff played with his
dog. S V
138
Sentence StructureCompound Sentence
• Where would you place the comma in the following
sentence?

Dan struggled with his homework, so his father
helped him. S V conj. S
V
139
What is a Synonym?
• A Synonym is a word that has almost the same
or similar meaning
• Cold - Chilly
• Vacant - empty
• Big - Huge

140
What is an Antonym?
• Antonyms are words that mean the opposite of
another word.
• Hot - Cold
• Short Tall
• Big - Little

141
A prefix is a word part added to the beginning of
a root word.
142
A prefix changes the meaning of a word.
143
A suffix is a word part added to the end of a
root word.
144
A suffix also changes the meaning of a word.
145
Homophones
Sound alike
Spelled differently
Different meanings
146
See/Sea
147
ELEMENTS OF FICTION
• Authors Purpose
• Setting
• Character
• Plot
• Point of View
• Symbolism
• Style
• Mood
• Theme

148
Authors Purpose
• An authors reason for creating a particular
work is called the authors purpose. Sometimes
the author will state his or her purpose up
front. Other times youll need to make inferences
(reasonable guesses) about the authors purpose.
• There are four basic reasons an author might
choose to write
• to explain or inform
• to entertain
• to enlighten or reveal an important truth

149
Setting
If you could talk about the where and when of a
story, what youre really talking about is the
storys setting. Understanding a storys
setting can give you a context for the events of
the plot. It can also give you clues about the
mood, or atmosphere, of a story.
150
• CHARACTER
• A character is a person, an animal, or an
imaginary creature that takes part in the action
of a story. Sometimes the author will directly
describe a characters appearance, personality,
or feelings. Other times the author will leave
clues and expect you to draw conclusions about
what the person or animal is like.

151
Plot
• PLOT
• Plot is the action of a story. It is the series
of related events that the author describes from
the beginning of the story to the end. Most plots
follow a chronological order. In other words,
they proceed in the order in which the events
happen.

152
Style
• Style is the way writers express their ideas.
Its how they say something, not what they say.
Style involves these three elements
• Word choice
• Sentence structure and length
• Literary devices, such as figurative language,
symbols, dialogue, and imagery

153
Theme
• A writers message, or main point, is the theme
of his or her literary work. Looking for a theme
helps you look more deeply into the literature
and makes for more enjoyable reading.
• You will need to infer what the theme is from the
works title, key scenes, characters, symbols,
and plot events.

154
What is a fable?
• A fable is a very brief story in prose or in
verse that teaches a moral or a practical lesson
about how to succeed in life.

155
What is a Folk Tale?
• A folk tale is a story with no known author.
Folk tales are passed down from one generation to
another by word of mouth.

156
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY
• POET
• The poet is the author of the poem.
• SPEAKER
• The speaker of the poem is the narrator of the
poem.

157
POETRY FORM
• When it is said,
• Some say.
• I say it just
• Begins to live
• That day.
• FORM - the appearance of the words on the page
• LINE - a group of words together on one line of
the poem
• STANZA - a group of lines arranged together

158
RHYTHM
• The beat created by the sounds of the words in a
poem
• Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme,
alliteration and refrain.

159
FREE VERSE POETRY
• Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT
have any repeating patterns of stressed and
unstressed syllables.
• Does NOT have rhyme.
• Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds
like someone talking with you.
• A more modern type of poetry.

160
RHYME
• Words sound alike because they share the same
ending vowel and consonant sounds.
• (A word always rhymes with itself.)
• LAMP
• STAMP
• Share the short a vowel sound
• Share the combined mp consonant sound

161
ALLITERATION
• Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of
words
• If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?

162
SIMILE
• A comparison of two things using like, as than,
or resembles.
• She is as beautiful as a sunrise.

163
METAPHOR
• A direct comparison of two unlike things
• Her eyes were stars.

164
Hyperbole
• Exaggeration often used for emphasis.
• Example Im so hungry, I could eat a horse!

165
Idiom
• An expression where the literal meaning of the
words is not the meaning of the expression. It
means something other than what it actually says.
• Ex. Its raining cats and dogs.

166
SYMBOLISM
• When a person, place, thing, or event that has
meaning in itself also represents, or stands for,
something else.
• Innocence
• America
• Peace

167
Social Studies PowerPoint
• CRCT Prep/ Year Review

168
The First Americans
• A long time ago North America was very different
from the way it is today. There were no
highways, cars, or cities. There were no
schools, malls, or restaurants. But even long,
long ago, there were still communities. A
community is where a group of people live and
have fun together. People made their own homes,
food, and clothing from the plants and animals
they found around them, or natural resources.
These first Americans descended, or came from
cave men of Asia. These were the first people to
live in North America. That is why we call them
Native Americans. These people have lived in
North America for thousands of years, and there
are still Indian communities today.

169
Cultural Regions of North America
Tribes of Native Americans
• Northwest Coast
• Kwakiutl
• Southwest
• Hopi
• Nez Perce
• Great Plains
• Pawnee
• Eastern Woodland
• Seminole
• Arctic
• Inuit

Cultural Regions
170
Northwest Kwakiutl
• There were plenty of fish, especially salmon.
There were also deer and bears.
• There was wood to build houses and to make tools.
• People traveled by water.
• Outside each house stood a wooden pole called a
totem pole. Each totem pole was carved with each
familys history.

Northwest Coast
171
Southwest Hopi and Pawnee
• They lived in Pueblos-adobe houses of many rooms
next to or on top of one another.
• Water was not in abundance. The Hopis used
springs from under the ground and from rain
showers to water their crops.

Southwest
172
Great Plains Pawnee
• Indians known as The Plains lived in the Great
Plains.
• Buffalo was the most important natural resource
of the Plains Indians.
• Indians of the Great Plains lived in tepees.
• The Plains Indians were hunters.
• Buffalo provided these Indians with their basic
needs, food, clothing, and shelter.

Great Plains
173
Eastern Woodlands Seminole
• The Eastern Woodlands region covered the east
coast of what is today known as the United
States, west to the Mississippi River. It also
included parts of southern California.
• These Indians depended on the natural resources
around them for all of their basic needs.
• Because these Indians lived in the forests, they
were called the Eastern Woodland Indians.

Eastern Woodlands
174
Arctic Inuit
• Lived in the Northern Region.
• They used all their resources to make food
clothing and shelter.
• These Native Americans hunted for food and used
the animal skins for clothing in the winter.

175
Christopher Columbus
• Sailed west to Indies
• Landed on the Bahamas
• Sailed for Spain (King Ferdinand and Queen
Isabella)

176
Ferdinand Magellan
• Searched for passage to Pacific Ocean
• Sailed through straits of Magellan
• First to circumnavigate the world

177
John Cabot
• Sailed for England
• Landed on coast of Newfoundland
• Gave England claim to North America

178
Ponce de Leon
• 1st to land on the mainland of North America
• Looking for fountain of youth
• Established St. Augustine, Florida

179
Vasco Nunez Balboa
• Spanish Explorer
• Claimed Pacific Ocean and adjoining lands for
Spain

180
Henry Hudson
• Explored the Northwest Passage
• Hudson River was named for him.
• English explorer to the new land.

181
Jacques Cartier
• He sailed for France.
• Cartier was looking for a water route to Asia.
• He explored the area in the north and in Canada.

182
When the Colonies were Founded
• Virginia (1607)
• Massachusetts (1620)
• New York (1626)
• Maryland (1633)
• Rhode Island (1636)
• Connecticut (1636)
• Delaware (1638)
• New Hampshire (1638)
• North Carolina (1653)
• South Carolina (1663)
• New Jersey (1664)
• Pennsylvania (1682)
• Georgia (1732)

183
The New England Colonies
• Massachusetts
• Rhode Island
• Connecticut
• New Hampshire

184
The Middle Colonies
• New York
• Delaware
• New Jersey
• Pennsylvania

185
The Southern Colonies
• Virginia
• Maryland
• North Carolina
• South Carolina
• Georgia

186
Virginia
• Founded by the London Company (John Smith).
• Great place to grow tobacco, wheat, and corn.

187
Massachusetts
• Founded originally as two different colonies
Plymouth Colony in 1620 by the Pilgrims, and
Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 by the Puritans.
The two colonies were united in 1691. (John
Winthrop)
• Great for fishing, growing corn, and raising
livestock.
• Also, great place for lumbering and shipbuilding.

188
New York
• Founded by the Dutch West India Company and was
known as New Netherland. It was renamed in
1664 when the English took control. (Peter
Minuit)
• Area was great for shipbuilding and iron works.
• Also, a good place to grow grain, rice, indigo,
and wheat and to raise cattle.

189
Maryland
• Land was granted to Lord Baltimore.
• Great land to grow corn, wheat, rice, and indigo.
• Also a good place for shipbuilding and iron works.

190
Rhode Island
• Settled by two different Massachusetts groups and
was united in 1644. (Roger Williams)
• Rhode Island was a great place for raising
livestock, dairy, and fishing.
• It was also a good area for lumbering.

191
Connecticut
• Founded by settlers originally from Massachusetts
and other colonies. Was named New Haven Colony
in 1638 and soon renamed Connecticut. (Thomas
Hooker)
• Great land for growing wheat and corn and for
catching fish.

192
Delaware
• Originally settled by the Swedes, but taken over
by the Dutch in 1655. Then England took control
in 1664. Finally, in 1682, the land was granted
to William Penn. (Peter Minuit)
• Great area for fishing and lumbering.

193
New Hampshire
• Originally part of Maine, but became its own
colony in 1629. Then from 1641-1643, it became
part of Massachusetts. Finally, in 1679 it
became its own colony again. (John Wheelwright)
• Great place to manufacture textiles and for
shipbuilding.
• It also, had good land for growing potatoes and
the water surrounding it was great for fishing.
• Named for the county of Hampshire in England.
• Officially became a state on June 21, 1788.

194
North Carolina
• Settled by members of the other colonies.
Granted a private company in 1663 and divided
into two colonies in 1711.
• Great place to grow indigo, rice, and tobacco.
• Name came from the Latin word carolus, meaning
Charles.
• Officially became a state on November 21, 1789.

195
South Carolina
• Originally part of the Carolina Colony.
Separated in 1711, and became a Royal Providence
in 1729.
• Like North Carolina it had great land for growing
indigo, rice, tobacco, and cotton.
• South Carolinas land could also support the
raising of cattle.
• Like North Carolina, the name came from the Latin
word carolus, meaning Charles.
• Officially became a state on May 23, 1788.

196
New Jersey
• Originally settled by the Dutch, but in 1644 it
was taken over by England.
• Great place for ironworking and lumbering.

197
Pennsylvania
• Settled by the Dutch and Swedes, but England took
control in 1664. Then it was granted to William
Penn by Charles II in 1681.
• Great place to grow and raise wheat, corn,
cattle, and dairy.
• Also known as a place for papermaking,
shipbuilding, and textiles.

198
Georgia
• Granted a private company by George II in 1732
and was settled a year later in Savannah. (James
Oglethorpe)
• Great land for growing indigo, rice, and sugar.

199
The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770)
• It started with the colonists throwing
snowballs.
• A shot was fired and 5 colonists were killed.

200
Committees of Correspondence
Purpose ? warn neighboring colonies
resistance movement.
201
Tea Act (1773)
• British East India Co.
• Monopoly on Br. tea imports.
• Many members of Parl. held shares.
• Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols.
without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!)
• North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the
cheaper tea.

202
Boston Tea Party (1773)
• The Parliament passed the Tea Act which angered
the colonists.
• They did not want to pay the Tea Tax so they
rebelled and dumped the tea into the harbor.

203
The Coercive or IntolerableActs (1774)
1. Port Bill
2. Government Act
3. New Quartering Act
Lord North
204
First Continental Congress (1774)
55 delegates from 12 colonies
Agenda ? How to respond to the Coercive Acts
the Quebec Act?
1 vote per colony represented.
205
The British Are Coming . . .
Paul Revere William Dawes make their midnight
ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British
soldiers.
206
The Shot Heard Round the World!
• This was the first battle of the Revolutionary
War.

Lexington Concord April 18,1775
207
The Second Continental Congress (1775)
• This is where the colonists decided to create a
Continental Army to fight in the war.
• The British would still not give the colonies
freedom.
• Olive Branch Petition was written as a peace
agreement between the colonies but King George
III would not accept it.

208
Thomas Paine Common Sense
• This was a pamphlet published to promote freedom
in the colonies.
• Thomas Paine wrote about the mistreatment of the
from Britain.

209
Declaration of Independence (1776)
• Thomas Jefferson and 3 other men wrote this
document to declare their freedom from Britain.
• Jefferson wrote that all men had equal rights in
this document.

210
New National Symbols
211
Britain believed that ______________ had legal
authority in the colonies, while the colonists
believed their local assemblies had legal
authority.
Parliament
212
The colonists believed they should not be taxed
since they had no _________________ in Parliament.
representation
213
Patrick Henry inspired other patriots when he
spoke out against _________ without
________________.
His famous phrase
give me liberty or give me death.
214
What document expresses the reasons for colonial
independence?
Declaration of Independence
215
It was written by a Virginia hero
Thomas Jefferson
216
The Declaration of Independence states that the
authority to govern belongs to the ________
rather than to kings.
people
217
The Declaration of Independence states that all
people are created equal and have the right to
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
218
The army fighting for independence was the
_________________ army.
Continental
219
patriots
220
loyalist
221
neutral
222
Some slaves fought for the English because they
were promised
freedom
223
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224
The capital was moved from Williamsburg to
Richmond
225
The British army surrendered after the American
victory at
Yorktown
226
And the United States of
America was born!
227
KING GEORGE III
• George III became King of Great Britain in 1760
during the Seven Years' War
• He saw the loss of the American colonies in the
War of Independence
• George III took the throne at the age of 22.
• His abilities were limited and he was poorly
suited for the rigorous demands of being the
king.
• It is believed that he suffered from a hereditary
disease which would cause long periods of
insanity which lasted until his death in 1820.

228
GEORGE WASHINGTON
• George Washington was the first president of the
United States.
• He served two terms from 1789-1797.
• He is called the Father of Our Country.

229
REVOLUTIONARY WAR
• The United States fought England in the
Revolutionary War.
• The Revolutionary war was from 1775-1783.

230
COMMANDER
• George Washington was the Commander of the
military forces during the American Revolution.

231
Ben Franklin's Life
• 1730 Ben marries
• 1737 Poor Richards Almanac

Timeline
232
Thomas Jefferson
-Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of
Independence
-Invented plow, lap desk and a machine that could
figure out codes
-Thomas Jefferson was president
-Before presidency Thomas was a vice president to
-1803, bought a huge area from France attached it
to the U.S
233
The Declaration Of Independenceby, Thomas
Jefferson
• The Congress was working on a document called the
Declaration of Independence. They recognized Tom
as a excellent writer. So he wrote in 17 days
and when he turned it he grew ranks, he turned
into vice president to John Adams The Declaration
of Independence is now one of the most famous
documents in the United States. It holds the
government together

234
• 1735-1826
• He was one of four men elected to represent the
Massachusetts Bay Colony at the First and Second
Continental Congresses.
• He was the first Vice President of the United
States.
• He was the second President of the United States,
1797-1801.
• He was the first President to live in the newly
built White House. Upon his second night in the
White House, he wrote to his wife, "May none but
honest and wise Men ever rule under this roof."
• He wrote most of the state constitution of
Massachusetts, which was acclaimed, for its
specific bill of rights. Many other states used
features of Adams documents in writing their own
states' constitutions.
• He died on July 4, 1826, on the same day that
Thomas Jefferson died.

235
Benedict Arnold
He was loyal to the Patriots and became a general
in 1777.
Arnold left the country and fled to England.
Traitor! He became a British spy, and also sent
vital military information to the British for
money.
He died on June 14, 1801 in England, but was
buried in his American uniform.
He wanted to turn over Stony Point to the
British, and almost got caught!
236
• Patrick Henry
• Born in Hanover County, Virginia in 1736
• Homeschooled
• Obtained law license in 1760
• He argued that a king who would veto a law
passed by a locally elected legislature was "a
tyrant who forfeits the allegiance of his
subjects." This was the beginning of his struggle
to ensure independence for the 13 Colonies.
• Elected to Virginia House of Burgesses
• Wrote numerous speeches throughout his lifetime
• He ended this famous speech with the words "I
know now what course others may take but as for
me, give me liberty or give me death."

237
Three Branches of our US Government
238
Separation of Powers 3 Branches of Government
Executive (carries out laws)
Judicial (evaluates laws)
President
Legislative (makes laws)
Supreme Court
Cabinet
Congress
Vice President
House of Representatives
Senate
239
Legislative Branch
makes laws
Congress
Capitol Building, Washington, D.C.
House of Representatives
Senate
Determined by population of each state
2 Senators per state
New York has 29 representatives in the House
240
Legislative Branch makes laws
Capitol Building, Washington, D.C.
Congress
House of Representatives
Senate
241
Executive Branch
carries out laws
President Barak Obama
Vice President Joe Biden
242
Judicial Branch
evaluates laws
United States Supreme Court
(top row, left to right) Stephen Breyer, Clarence
Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Samuel Alito
(bottom row, left to
right) Anthony Kennedy, John Paul Stevens, Chief
Justice John Roberts, Antonin Scalia, David Souter
243
Maximum of two four-year terms
President
Supreme Court
Judicial
Executive
Legislative
Legislative
Congress House of Representatives
Congress Senate
Unlimited two-year terms
Unlimited six-year terms
244
Louisiana Purchase
• Louisiana Purchase (1803-1804)
• Purchased By Thomas Jefferson from France
(Napoleon Bonaparte)
• France needed money for war (15 million)
• Doubled the size of U.S.

245
Lewis and Clarks Expedition
• Thomas Jefferson Sent Lewis Clark to explore
the land and learn about Native Americans

246
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247
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248
Gold Rush- January 24, 1848
• The California gold rush began when gold was
discovered at Sutters Mill
• As the news of discovery spread, some 300,000
people came to California from the rest of the

249
Gold Rush
• These early gold
• seekers called 49ers
• traveled to California by
• sailing ships and
• covered wagons across
• the continent.

250
• Led convention at Seneca Falls

251
• Harriet began her work in the Underground
Railroad because she wanted to save members of
her own family.
• Harriet is believed to have helped over 300
people to freedom.

www.courier-journal.com/.../
252
Sojourner Truth She was an abolitionist who
believed slavery wrong. At the end of the war she
acted as a consoler for newly freed slaves.
253
• Hi! My name is Stan and today I am going to
teach you about economics. Economics is the
study of the making, buying, and selling of goods
or services.

254
What does barter mean?
• These days people usually use money to get what
they want. Before there was money, people had to
barter to get what they wanted. To barter means

255
• Some people were good hunters, some were
craftsmen, and some were farmers. One person
might have traded five rabbits for milk and eggs.
Eventually people wanted something smaller to
carry around as money. People started using
coins, as well as paper money for trade.

256
• Yesterday, when I was walking through town, I
decided to go to Bubbas Ice Cream. My friend
Diana works there. Diana provides a service to
me because she serves me ice cream. A service is
any kind of work performed for others. The ice
cream is a good. A good is something you can
feel, or any kind of merchandise.

257
• Look at the pictures on the right. Which of
these pictures show goods and which ones show
services?

258
What is supply and demand?
• The supply of mint chocolate chip ice cream at
Bubbas was gone because it was in high demand
(wanted) by many customers. Look at the chart on
the left to see what flavors are in supply at
Bubbas Ice Cream.

259
• Scarcity means that there are limited resources,
and therefore, people must make choices. Look at
the pictures on the right. Which pictures show a
scarcity?

260
What are producers and consumers?
• A consumer is anyone who buys a good or a
service.
• A producer is anyone who makes or grows a good or
performs a service.

261
• Opportunity cost is the process of choosing one
good or service over another. The item that you
dont pick is the opportunity cost. The rabbit
is Saras opportunity cost and the skateboard is
Andys opportunity cost.

262
What is a profit?
• Profit is the making of gain in business activity
for the benefit of the owners of the business

263
What is a loss?
• A negative difference between retail price and
cost of production

264
What is specialization?
• Specialization is when an individual or a company
specializes in doing one part of a task, and
relies on others to complete the other parts.

265
What are taxes?
• Taxes are the money that the government collects
from individuals and businesses to pay for public
goods and services.
• People also pay an income tax. An income tax is
a percentage of money taken out of your income.

266
What is an entrepreneur?
• An entrepreneur is a person who comes up with a
product or service, or a better way to produce
one. He found the resources, the money, and the
time to produce a new product.

267
What is free enterprise?
• Both popcorn stands lowered their prices because
of free enterprise. Free enterprise means
competition. Companies compete with one another
to get the most customers, and therefore, make
the most money. I decided to buy popcorn from the
first popcorn stand, because their price was the
lowest.

268
Income/Banking
• The money workers make is called income, or
earnings.
• If you put your money in a savings account, the
bank will pay you a small amount of money, called
interest,
• on the amount you save. Your money stays safe
and it grows! Banks also offer checking accounts.
These allow people to pay for things like rent,
electricity, groceries and
• other bills, using checks instead of cash.
Writing a check can be safer and more convenient
than carrying
• around a lot of cash.

269
Budgeting
• Budgets are personal plans for spending and
saving income. Making a personal budget can help
you plan wisely for spending your money.
• Plan how you will spend your money so you can buy
what you need first and if theres money left
over, you can save for the things you want. This
is called making a budget a written plan for

270
Investing
• Purchasing something of value (for example,
stocks or real estate) with the goal of earning
money over time if the value increases.

271
Natural Resources
• Natural resources are substances we obtain from
the land, water, and air around us.
• People use many of the Earth's natural resources.
All of the products we use have a natural
resource base. Minerals, forest products, water,
and soil are just a few of the natural resources
humans use to produce energy and make things
people use.

272
Renewable Resources
• Some natural resources can be reproduced within a
few years or decades. These are called renewable
resources. Trees, water, plants, and air are
examples of renewable resources.

273
Non-renewable Resources
• Underground minerals must be
• mined or dug up from the earth.
• Some of these minerals are gold, silver, salt,
iron, diamonds, petroleum and coal.
• Oil, minerals, and soil take hundreds, thousands
and even millions of years to be made. These are
called non-renewable resources.