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Applying%20Population%20Ecology:%20The%20Human%20Population

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Title: Applying%20Population%20Ecology:%20The%20Human%20Population


1
Applying Population Ecology The Human Population
  • Chapter 5

Applying the principles of population dynamics
and sustainability to the growth of the human
population
2
Current Population Trends
  • World population 6.4 billion (6,400,000) in
    2004
  • Doubled since 1963 3.2 billion
  • In 2050 could be 7.2 10.6 billion
  • Amplifies all environmental problems
  • Largest increase expected in developing countries
    (approximately 97)
  • Decreasing in some developed countries
  • Rate actually decreased between 1963-2004, but
    the population has still doubled from 3.2 6.4
    billion

3
Rate 80 million new people/year New York City
every month Germany every year United States
every 3.7 years
4
Washington State Population
5
Population projections For the next 20 years
6
Factors Affecting Human Population Size
  • Population change equation
  • Population change (Births Immigration)
    (Deaths Emigration)
  • Crude birth rate births per 1000 people in
    population per year
  • Crude death rate deaths per 1000 people in
    population per year

7
  • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) - Number of children a
    woman has during her lifetime, averaged for
    population.
  • same as biotic potential (r)
  • Replacement Level Fertility - Number of children
    needed to replace everyone in the population.
  • Varies between regions
  • 2.1 with low infant mortality
  • 2.5 with high infant mortality
  • Zero Population Growth - Birth rate equals death
    rate.

8
Sex Ratio - Age Distribution
  • Sex Ratio- Relative number of males and females
    in a population
  • Age Distribution - Number of individuals of each
    age in a population
  • Together they tell how a population will grow

9
Population Age Structure
Developing Countries
Developed Countries
Growth is determined by teenagers the
population wave of the future. 30 of popn lt15
years 1.9 billion more into reproductive years.
10
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11
Population Trend Comparisons
  • Developed Countries
  • Low infant mortality rate
  • Life expectancy 77 years
  • Total fertility rate 2.0
  • 21 population lt15
  • 12 population gt65
  • Per capita GDP 36,110
  • Developing Countries
  • High infant mortality rate
  • Life expectancy 52 years
  • Total fertility rate 5.7
  • 44 population lt15
  • 3 population gt65
  • Per capita GDP 800

12
Human Population Issue
  • Several factors determine the impact of a society
    on natural resources.
  • Population size
  • Population density
  • Degree of technological development
  • Demography - Study of populations and their
    characteristics.
  • Larger ecological footprint in U.S. than in
    developing countries. Why?

13
Environmental Impact
14
The fertility rates have significantly fallen
since 1950.
15
Factors Affecting Birth Rates and Total
Fertility Rates
  • Children in Labor Force
  • Cost of raising and educating children
  • Availability of pension systems
  • Urbanization
  • Education and employment for women
  • Infant mortality rate
  • Average marrying age
  • Abortion
  • Availability of birth control

16
  • Major social factor determining family size is
    the role of women in society.
  • Early marriages foster high fertility rates.
  • Lack of education opportunities for women reduces
    their options.
  • When level of education increases, fertility
    rates fall.
  • The most important factor is the ability of women
    to control the size of their family.
  • Access to birth control is key.

17
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18
United States Population Picture
  • US population has a post-war baby boom period,
    significantly affecting pop. trends.
  • 20 yr period following WWII
  • By 2030, 20 of US pop will be over 65

19
U.S. Birth Rates 1910-2004
20
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21
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22
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23
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24
US Immigration rates
Immigration accounts for 41 of popn growth in
the U.S. Should we have tougher immigration
laws to help preserve our natural resources?
25
Demographic Transition
As countries become industrialized, death rates,
then birth rates decline.
26
Case Study Slowing Population Growth in India
  • Generally disappointing results
  • 1952 400 million
  • 2004 1.2 billion
  • Poor planning
  • Bureaucratic inefficiency
  • Low status of women
  • Extreme poverty
  • Lack of support
  • Culture Indian women believe you need children
    to work, care for when they are old.

27
Case Study Slowing Population Growth in China
  • Economic incentives (food, large pensions, better
    housing, salary bonuses, free schooling)
  • Free medical care
  • Free sterilization
  • Locally administered
  • Very intrusive and coercive
  • Problem with parents selecting for males
  • Fertility rate decreased from 5.7 in 1972 to 1.7
    in 2004.

28
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29
Cutting Global Population Growth
  • Family planning
  • Improve health care
  • Elevate the status of women
  • Increase education
  • Involve men in parenting
  • Reduce poverty
  • Sustainability

30
Global Megacities
Number of large cities growing. Worlds urban
population will increase from 3.1 billion to 5
billion from 2004-2030.
31
US metropolitan areas
32
Undesirable Impacts of Urban Sprawl
33
Loss of crop land, forest land, and wetlands
34
Fragmenting fish and wildlife habitats
35
Increased impervious surfaces means more flooding
36
And soil erosion
37
And a larger ecological footprint
38
Beneficial is all a matter of ones
perspective..
39
Urban Land-Use Planning and Control
  • Land-use planning
  • Property taxes
  • Zoning
  • Smart growth
  • Urban growth boundary
  • Greenbelts

40
Growth Management Act1990
  • The GMA requires state and local governments to
    manage Washingtons growth by identifying and
    protecting critical areas and natural resource
    lands, designating urban growth areas, preparing
    comprehensive plans and implementing them through
    capital investments and development regulations.
  • GMA is passed to help protect areas critical for
    natural resources by concentrating growth in
    urban areas

41
Public voices concerns at GMA hearing - Sounding
off Land division and road upgrades among issues
addressed at four-hour hearing
42
Transportation
  • Mass transit vs. automobile
  • What makes one or the other feasible?
  • Why is most of the US developed around cars?
    When did it happen?
  • Where does mass transit work?
  • What are the pros and cons to each?
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