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Mark Weal

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... is part of the digital world & knowledge capture crosses the physical-digital divide ... who wanted the boy to follow a learned ... Metadata meets devices ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mark Weal


1
Auld Linky and the AKT - EQUATOR Bridge
  • Mark Weal

2
Auld Linky
  • Auld Linky (Leaky) is a contextual structure
    (link) server
  • Serves FOHM structures
  • Uses XML representations of linkbases
  • Query via pattern matching
  • Results are filtered by context

3
FOHM Navigational Structure
4
Context
  • Context objects can be attached at any point on
    the FOHM structure
  • They are simple lists of key/value pairs
  • A Context Object can also be attached to a query

5

Link
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DEST
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6
Link
SRC
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7
Link
SRC
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8
Link
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9
Applications Glasgow Servlet
  • Generates a dynamic document about the History of
    Glasgow
  • Based on user interests (e.g. Government,
    Culture)
  • Inspired by the beginning of Vees trip to
    Glasgow

10
Applications Glasgow Servlet
Tour (list)
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3
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LoD (list)
LoD (list)
LoD (list)
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11
Applications Glasgow Servlet
Tour (list)
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LoD (list)
LoD (list)
LoD (list)
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3
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text
text
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12
Applications Glasgow Servlet
Tour (list)
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3
2
LoD (list)
LoD (list)
LoD (list)
1
3
2
1
2
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3
2
text
text
text
text
text
text
text
text
13
Applications Glasgow Servlet
Tour (list)
1
3
2
LoD (list)
LoD (list)
LoD (list)
1
2
1
3
text
text
text
text
14
Applications Glasgow Servlet
Tour (list)
1
3
2
LoD (list)
LoD (list)
LoD (list)
1
2
1
3
text
text
text
text
15
Applications City Project
  • Linky is being used to store the information
    behind the City Project
  • Using three structures
  • Explanations
  • Transitions
  • Tours
  • Use Glasgows Recer to recommend transitions
    (goal driven vs. narrative smoothing)

16
Applications City Project
17
Applications Short Story Engine
  • Problem is that the story structure is static
  • The narrative is determined by a fixed tour of
    alternative fragments
  • Tells the same story in different ways
  • Narrative needs to be more dynamic
  • Telling different stories in different ways

18
Applications Short Story Engine
  • CGI based Hypertext Story Engine
  • Constructs short stories for the reader on the
    fly
  • It maintains a user profile, in the form of a
    context, that it uses to find the next
    appropriate story fragment
  • Readers move through the story with their context
    being modified by what they read.
  • Thus we enable some form of narrative structure
    over otherwise loosely coupled story fragments

19
Short Story Structures
20
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21
Link
Link
SRC
DEST
SRC
DEST
Link
SRC
DEST
Story
Fragment
Story
Fragment
Story
Fragment
Link
SRC
DEST
Link
Link
Story
SRC
DEST
Fragment
SRC
DEST
Story
Story
Fragment
Fragment
22
Link
Link
SRC
DEST
SRC
DEST
Link
SRC
DEST
Story
Fragment
Story
Fragment
Story
Fragment
Link
SRC
DEST
Link
Link
Story
SRC
DEST
Fragment
SRC
DEST
Story
Story
Fragment
Fragment
23
Link
SRC
DEST
Link
SRC
DEST
Story
Fragment
Story
Fragment
Link
SRC
DEST
Story
Fragment
24
On the
Bridge
Dave in Hawaii
25
Southampton Aberdeen Edinburgh Open
University Sheffield
26
The Knowledge Lifecycle
27
Why the synergy?
  • Philosophically - Knowledge representation is
    part of the digital world knowledge capture
    crosses the physical-digital divide
  • Practically - Equator activities have metadata
    and knowledge requirements, e.g.
  • recording a trail
  • capturing data from Cliffs devices
  • annotation
  • expressing context
  • modelling users interests
  • interoperability of system components
  • AKT is conducting Technology Integration
    Experiments

28
The O-Word
  • There is a role for ontologies, for
  • Interoperability
  • Ontologies provide shared vocabularies necessary
    for common understanding (of content, events,
    services, profiles, )
  • Inference
  • Ontologies can include axioms/rules, which enable
    inference
  • AKT has expertise in all aspects of ontologies
    and the tools for working with them

29
Bridge construction
  • Dave and Wendy are members of both projects,
    Richard Beales is jointly supervised PhD student
  • Monthly joint Equaktor research discussions
    plus additional meetings for projects on the
    bridge
  • Has resulted in three research activities
  • Artequakt
  • Knowledgeable Devices
  • CoAKTing
  • Also cofunded visit by Ted Nelson

30
ARTEQUAKT
  • ARTiste, EQUator, AKT
  • Artiste European project on an integrated art
    analysis and navigation environment
  • Advanced Knowledge Technologies IRC on building
    and maintaining knowledge

31
ARTEQUAKT
  • Artiste provides a large store of images and
    associated metadata
  • AKT meta-data mines the web and dynamically fills
    ontologies of information about the images
  • Equator processes those ontologies, creating
    dynamic narratives about the paintings (initially
    we are working on artists biographies)

32
What is a Narrative?
Narrative
Story
Fabula
33
What is a Narrative?
Narrative
Narrative
Story
Story
Fabula
34
What is a Narrative?
Narrative
Narrative
Narrative
Narrative
Story
Story
Fabula
35
What is a Narrative?
Narrative
Narrative
Narrative
Narrative
Story
Story
Fabula
Implementation
36
Templates
  • Specified as XML FOHM structures
  • Story fragments are stored as queries into the
    ontology
  • Some have original stored sentences, others need
    to have sentences constructed using NL techniques
  • Each story section (e.g. Introduction) has
    several forms according to the information in the
    ontology

37
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38
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
39
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Paragraph with DOB and Place
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on July
15, 1606, in Leiden, the Netherlands. His father
was a miller who wanted the boy to follow a
learned profession, but Rembrandt left the
University of Leiden to study painting.
Sequence
1
2
Best option is to have one paragraph that
contains both pieces of information
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
40
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Otherwise need a sequence of two fragments. This
first one deals with date of birth
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
41
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Otherwise need a sequence of two fragments. This
first one deals with date of birth Best option
here is to have a paragraph containing the date
of birth
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
Paragraph with DOB
The greatest artist of the Dutch school,
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, was born on July
15, 1606.
42
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Otherwise need a sequence of two fragments. This
first one deals with date of birth Otherwise
need to construct the sentence out of raw facts
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
DOB
Constructed sentence Rembrandt was born on July
15, 1606.
43
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Otherwise need a sequence of two fragments. This
second one deals with place of birth
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
44
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Otherwise need a sequence of two fragments. This
second one deals with place of birth Best option
here is to have a paragraph containing the place
of birth
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
Paragraph with Place
He was born in Leiden, the Netherlands and went
on to become a giant in the history of art.
45
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Otherwise need a sequence of two fragments. This
second one deals with place of birth Otherwise
need to construct the sentence out of raw facts
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
Place
Constructed sentence Rembrandt was born in
Leiden, the Netherlands .
46
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Now when we query the template with a profile
saying what information we have, the parts of the
template that are impossible to build are culled
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
47
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Now when we query the template with a profile
saying what information we have, the parts of the
template that are impossible to build are culled
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
48
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
1
2
Now when we query the template with a profile
saying what information we have, the parts of the
template that are impossible to build are culled
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
1
2
1
2
49
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
2
Now when we query the template with a profile
saying what information we have, the parts of the
template that are impossible to build are
culledresulting in a finished sequence of
sentences
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
2
1
50
Intro paragraph DOB place
Level of Detail (LoD)
2
Now when we query the template with a profile
saying what information we have, the parts of the
template that are impossible to build are
culledresulting in a finished sequence of
sentences
Sequence
1
2
LoD
LoD
2
1
Constructed sentence Rembrandt was born on July
15, 1606.
He was born in Leiden, the Netherlands and went
on to become a giant in the history of art.
51
Knowledgeable devices
  • Metadata meets devices
  • Devices to capture metadata, e.g. physical
    location, RFID tags, Cliffs body device of the
    day, capturing annotations
  • Metadata is live and continuous
  • Inference meets devices
  • Knowledge transferred when devices communicate
  • But distributed inference is an open issue

52
CoAKTing
  • Bring knowledge technologies into computer
    mediated collaboration between smart spaces
    (physical and virtual)
  • Extends knowledgeable devices into virtual
    environments
  • Builds on continuous metadata work, e.g. link
    streams
  • Grew out of early plans to exploit CVW on bridge

53
CoAKTing
  • Originally conceived as joint AKT Equator
    project, CoAKTing is funded as 2 year AKT
    e-Science (led by DDeR)
  • Southampton Edinburgh (AIAI) Open University
    (Knowledge Management Institute) BT Exact
  • In e-Science terms this is next generation
    Access Grid

54
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55
Coartequaktoring Conclusion
  • Early collaborations do appear to be mutually
    beneficial
  • There is a problem staffing the bridge as both
    teams have plenty to do!
  • Activity based in Southampton - in time we plan
    to feed skills through to the wider Equator
    project
  • Equator medical devices e-Science activity could
    be a useful route to channel this
  • CoAKTing will bring in other AKT partners

56
Web Site
  • Details of all Southamptons Equator work is
    available on our Equator website
  • Details of the CityMack, Narrative and ArtEquAkt
    projects
  • Contact Details
  • Publications
  • Presentations
  • On-line Demos
  • Auld Linky downloads
  • www.equator.ecs.soton.ac.uk
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