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Enhancing Innovation Capacity

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Goal: to reduce poverty & food insecurity. Components of an ... Network. Linkages between any two organizations in the AIS. Additional organizations in the AIS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enhancing Innovation Capacity


1
Enhancing Innovation Capacity
Tugrul Temel Department of Economics and
Development Research Institute Tilburg
University April 5, 2007
2
Outline
  • Background and Literature
  • Conceptual framework
  • The problem situation
  • Applications
  • The way forward

3
Background
  • Subject is Information Knowledge (I-K)
  • I-K in growth models innovation systems
  • Institutions ICT use for innovation capacity
    development
  • Innovation capacities for interactive learning

4
Literature
  • The Solow-Swan model (1956)
  • Endogenous growth (Romer 1990)
  • RD as a choice variable
  • In RD-based models, innovation drives growth
  • RD externalities increases economy-wide
    knowledge stock
  • Evolutionary growth (Nelson, Winter 1974)
  • role of institutions, path-dependency,
    uncertainty
  • dynamic firm-specific capabilities rather than
    RD
  • difficulty in measuring capacities at the
    aggregate level

5
Literature
  • National Innovation Systems
  • Freeman 1987 Lundvall 1992 Nelson 1993 Patel
    and Pavitt 1994 Metcalfe 1995
  • Common points
  • organizations interact in knowledge or technology
    generation, diffusion use
  • rules regulations pattern their interactions

6
The Problem Situation
  • Evolution
  • Global/regional networks for I-K exchange
  • From individual orgs to networks of orgs
  • Agr research systems viewed within innovation
    systems
  • Implications for individual orgs
  • Link innovation strategies to wider ST policies
  • Establish partnerships with private enterprises
  • Exploit ICT for better interaction with I-K
    networks

7
The problem situationI-K flow among a broad
range of actors
P
R
B
FX
I
M
Pr
C
X
8
Conceptual Framework
9
Agricultural Innovation System (AIS)
  • A set of public and private organizations that
    jointly and/or individually lead to valuable
    changes in agriculture when information
    knowledge are made available and are put into
    socially and economically productive use.

10
Components of an AIS
  • Agricultural POLICY, legislative, regulatory
    structure - Ministries, regulatory enforcement
    agencies
  • Agricultural Science Technology KNOWLEDGE Base
    - Agr Univ, Res-Ext orgs, NGOs for indigenous
    knowledge
  • MARKET System - Farmers, Agro-processors, input
    suppliers, marketing agents, consumers
  • EXTERNAL Sector - Donors, International RD Orgs
  • Goal to reduce poverty food insecurity

11
Assumptions of AIS
  • I-K central to economic growth development
  • Interactions critical for I-K flow org.
    learning
  • Learning as important as direct investment in
    RD
  • Innovations take place everywhere in society

12
Innovation Capacities
  • Absorptive capacity is strong if I-K receivers
    are competent.
  • Linkage capacity is strong if actors in AIS are
    linked and interact.
  • Competition capacity is strong if actors invest
    in human capital and learning.

13
Institutions
  • rules of the game or humanly devised constraints
    that structure human interaction (North, 1996)

14
Institutions create an enabling environment for
capacity development
  • secure the benefits from investment in I-K
  • improve rate of I-K generation, diffusion, use
  • shape the innovation process by managing
  • conflicts (i.e., IPR, enforcement)
  • information supply (i.e. labeling regulations)
  • uncertainty (i.e. governance of natural resources)

15
ICT facilitates capacity development
ICT use enhances the rate of I-K absorption,
exchange and use. ICT penetrates into the
innovation system when absorptive, linkage
competition capacities are strong.
16
Application 1Information and Knowledge Flow
  • Mapping I-K flow in the AIS
  • Components policy (P), research (R), education
    (E), credit (C), extension information (I),
    private enterprises (M), farming (F), consultancy
    (D) and external (X)
  • Characterizing the AIS
  • Policy recommendations

17
Application 1Information and Knowledge Flow
P
R
B
FX
I
M
Pr
C
X
18
Application 1Cause-effect structure of the AIS
19
Application 2ICT use in Georgia
  • Goal assess ICT infrastructure use to
    facilitate AIS for HV sector
  • Objective identify pivotal orgs to establish an
    IEN
  • Rationale weak market participation due to weak
    I-K exchange
  • Constraints Government is not transparent
    pluralistic information flow has not been a
    tradition
  • Data collection questionnaire Needs Assessment
    Interviews

20
Application 2 Information Exchange Network
P
PM
R
B
FX
I
Information flow by Face to Face Meetings Mass
Media (Radio, Newspapers, TV, Magazines)
Internet/Web Telephony, Call Centers
Information Exchange Network
M
Pr
C
X
21
The way forward
  • So far a methodology developed
  • To characterize the AIS
  • To assess ICT use
  • Now the challenge is to assess
  • the influence of I-K related institutions and ICT
    use on innovation capacity
  • the effect of changes in innovation capacity on
    the functioning of the innovation system

22
Survey Design Measurement
  • Survey of organizations in the innovation system
  • Absorption, linkage, competition capacities -
    skills and qualifications of human resources,
    networking capacity, ICT use in I-K exchange
  • Org innovation
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