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SchoolBased SLPs' Collaborative Practices in Literacy

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School-Based SLPs' Collaborative Practices in Literacy. Lauren A. Katz, Ph.D., CCC-SLP ... 73% with CCCs. Mean age = 45 (range 23-68, sd = 11.0) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SchoolBased SLPs' Collaborative Practices in Literacy


1
School-Based SLPs' Collaborative Practices in
Literacy
  • Lauren A. Katz, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
  • Bowling Green State University
  • Karen A. Fallon, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
  • Towson University
  • Abby Maag, B.S.
  • Bowling Green State University
  • ASHA 2008 Convention Chicago, IL

2
Acknowledgements
  • We are grateful for the extraordinary number of
    school-based SLPs from across the country who
    participated in this study. There would be no
    story to tell without their generous
    contributions.
  • We are also grateful for the recruiting efforts
    made by graduate students from Bowling Green
    State University
  • Katie Blenkarn
  • Jeeva John
  • Krista Olszewski
  • Megan Smith

3
To collaborate or not to collaborate… That is our
question
  • Tone of Todays discussion
  • Discussion about Collaboration
  • No judgment on current practice
  • Sharing our findings on what SLPs across the
    country feel about collaboration and literacy
    service provision
  • Tell us what you think
  • Open forum discussion at the end of the talk

4
The SLP Written Language
  • Expanded Roles
  • SLPs expected to have written language expertise
    (ASHA 2001)
  • Collaborative partnerships recommended for the
    provision written language services
  • Literacy teams
  • Classroom teachers
  • Reading specialists
  • Speech-language pathologists
  • Special education teachers

5
The Role of the SLP in Literacy
  • SLPs are responsible for providing written
    language services (ASHA 2001)
  • ASHA Certified graduate programs are now required
    to provide coursework and clinical experience in
    the area of written language
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Phonetic skills
  • Reading fluency
  • Reading comprehension
  • Vocabulary knowledge

6
Why collaborate?
  • It takes a team
  • Struggling readers and writers require the help
    of many to succeed
  • Critical for team members to be aware of what
    each other is doing
  • Integrated services yield better student outcomes
  • (Butler, Nelson, Roth, Paul, 2006 Ehren
    Ehren, 2001).

7
In theory….
  • SLPs are experts in language, including written
    language (Catts Kamhi, 2005)
  • The literature supports collaboration for written
    language service provision.
  • (Butler, Nelson, Roth, Paul, 2006 Ehren
    Ehren, 2001).
  • Recommended that SLPs become productive members
    of literacy teams
  • (Ehren Ehren, 2001 Staskowski, 2003)

8
In practice….
  • SLPs struggle to fit written language into their
    growing list of duties (Janota, 2004)
  • SLPs often fail to forge successful partnerships
    for written language service provision
  • (Ehren Ehren, 2001, Katz Fallon, 2006)

9
So whats the problem?
  • Time, Time, Time
  • Teachers often dont understand SLPs role
  • Teachers may not want to collaborate
  • Administrators may not support collaborative
    practice or even recognize the SLP as a
    literacy service provider
  • Many SLPs feel unprepared to handle the literacy
    needs of students
  • (Ehren Ehren, 2001, Fallon Katz, 2007 Katz
    et al., 2007).

10
A Complex Issue
  • So, whats the answer??
  • Lets answer the question with some more
    questions….

11
Research Questions
  • To what extent are school-based SLPs
    collaborating with teachers?
  • Does collaboration seem to be a positive practice
    for service provision?
  • How do school-based SLPs feel about working
    collaboratively with teachers in the area of
    literacy?
  • What factors predict a greater likelihood of
    being a high collaborator?

12
Methodology
13
Recruitment
  • Special education director for each state
  • If not, accessible counties or districts
    identified
  • 2 urban, 2 suburban, and 2 rural counties chosen
    randomly
  • District coordinators asked to provide email
    addresses
  • If not provided, districts and schools were
    searched (on-line)
  • If not found, district was abandoned and new one
    pursued

14
The Survey
  • Electronic, web-based survey
  • Emailed to school-based SLPs between April and
    May 2007
  • One reminder after one week
  • Estimated time to complete was 15-20 minutes
  • Question formats
  • 1) choices presented in drop-down boxes
  • 2) Likert-type questions
  • 3) check-list items
  • 4) yes/no response items
  • No open-ended questions

15
WRITTEN LANGUAGE AND THE SCHOOL-BASED
SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST
16
WRITTEN LANGUAGE AND THE SCHOOL-BASED
SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST
17
WRITTEN LANGUAGE AND THE SCHOOL-BASED
SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST
18
WRITTEN LANGUAGE AND THE SCHOOL-BASED
SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST
19
WRITTEN LANGUAGE AND THE SCHOOL-BASED
SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST
20
Who are the participants?
  • Original n 717 (38 response rate)
  • preschools only excluded ? n 693 SLPs
  • 95 female
  • 73 with CCCs
  • Mean age 45 (range 23-68, sd 11.0)
  • Years experience ( range 0-30) 71 at least 10
    years

21
Where are the participants?
  • 49 states (no returns from Hawaii)
  • Rural (44), suburban (35), and urban (21)
  • Variety of age levels
  • 65 working with more than one age level
  • 47 in preschools
  • 91 in elementary schools
  • 38 in middle schools
  • 18 in junior high schools
  • 30 in high schools
  • 41 in one school, 30 in 2 schools, 29 in 3 or
    more schools

22
What are the participants caseload
characteristics?
  • Mean caseload size for full-time 49
  • (range 3-100 sd 17.6)
  • Serving 2 to 10 disability groups (e.g., AAC,
    ASD, SLI, etc.).
  • Greatest numbers language-learning disabilities
    and articulation disorders

23
Results
  • The SLPs weigh in…

24
Research Question 1
  • To what extent are school- based SLPs
    collaborating with teachers?

25
23
36
47
33
3
26
23
7
26
37
30
46
6
28
10
19
At Least Weekly 1-2 x/month Rarely
Never
26
Research Question 2
  • Does collaboration seem to be a positive practice
    or service provision?

27
Levels of Collaboration
  • Mean responses for the preceding 4 questions used
    to create 3 groups of SLPs
  • 1 High Collaborators (at least weekly)
  • (n137)
  • 2 Moderate Collaborators (bimonthly to 8x/year)
  • (n193)
  • 3 Low Collaborators (few times/year to never)
  • (n363)

28
The Service of Students with WL Needs by Level of
Collaboration
Percent Students Served
F (2, 665) 15.09, p lt .001
29
Levels of Collaboration in Relation to Knowledge
Percent Agreement
Percent agreement
30
Levels of Collaboration in Relation to Attitudes
Percent Agreement
31
Research Question 3
  • How do school-based SLPs feel about working
    collaboratively with teachers in the area of
    literacy?

32
Percent Agreement
33
Research Question 4
  • What factors predict a greater likelihood of
    being a high collaborator?

34
Logistic Regression
  • To identify the variables that significantly
    predict the likelihood of being a high
    collaborator
  • Entered the following 10 variables
  • Years experience
  • Number of schools
  • Number of disability groups
  • Caseload size
  • Caseload manageability (SA to SD)
  • WL training in masters program (Yes/No)
  • Knowledge and expertise in literacy (SA to SD)
  • Belief that literacy should be included in scope
    of practice (SA to SD)
  • Belief that teachers in my school are
    interested in collaborating (SA to SD)
  • Percent of students with WL needs served

35
The Significant Variables
  • Years experience
  • Number of schools
  • Number of disability groups
  • Caseload size
  • Caseload manageability
  • WL training in masters program
  • Knowledge and expertise in literacy
  • Belief that literacy should be included in scope
    of practice
  • Belief that teachers are interested in
    collaborating
  • Percent of students with WL needs served

36
The Odds of Being a High Collaborator
For every additional school an SLP works in, the
odds of being a high collaborator go down
20. With each higher rating of knowledge and
expertise, the odds of being a high collaborator
go up 64. In relation to teacher interest, the
odds of being a high collaborator more than
double with each step along the Likert scale. In
relation to students needing service in WL, for
every increase of 10 percentage points of
students served, the odds of being a high
collaborator increase by 6.
37
So, the survey says….
38
  • Collaboration seems to be a positive practice
  • High levels of collaboration are related to
  • high levels of expertise
  • positive attitudes
  • greater numbers of students receiving written
    language services

39
  • But, there is a twist…

40
Collaboration and Caseload Manageability
  • Another logistic regression
  • Examined variables predicting the likelihood of
    feeling that ones caseload size is manageable.
  • Entered
  • CA
  • Years experience
  • CCC
  • District
  • of schools
  • of age groups
  • of disability groups
  • students with WL needs
  • students with WL needs being served
  • Caseload size
  • Knowledge and expertise in WL
  • Level of collaboration

41
Logistic Regression Findings
  • Among those SLPs with caseloads gt 47, there were
    3 significant variables
  • Caseload size ? The larger his/her caseload, the
    less likely the SLP found it manageable
  • Years experience ? The more years of experience,
    the less likely the SLP found his/her caseload
    manageable
  • AND… hold on…
  • 3. Level of collaboration ? Low collaborators
    were almost 3 times more likely to report their
    caseloads as manageable compared to high
    collaborators

42
Ahhhh!!!
  • While this last finding seems out of sync with
    the others,
  • lets try to make sense of this.

43
  • The more schools an SLP is placed in, the less
    likely she/he is to collaborate
  • The more knowledge and expertise an SLP has about
    literacy, the more likely she/he is to
    collaborate
  • When SLPs believe that teachers want to
    collaborate with them, it is more likely that
    SLPs will pursue a collaborative partnership
  • The greater the percentage of students receiving
    written language services, the more likely
    collaborations are taking place

44
Factors that Did Not Impact Collaboration
  • Experience
  • Caseload size
  • Manageability of caseload
  • Written language training in graduate program
  • Attitudes about written language in scope of
    practice
  • Variety of students on caseload

45
On the flip side…
  • Compared to high collaborators, low collaborators
    reported caseloads to be significantly more
    manageable
  • Hypothesis Working alone is often easier…no
    team management issues, one has more control, and
    spends less time coordinating services.

46
However….
  • Low collaboration was associated with
  • Less knowledge and preparedness to provide
    written language services
  • A lower frequency of written language service
    provision.
  • Poorer attitudes about providing literacy
    services

47
Where do we go from here?
  • Is it a No pain no gain situation??
  • Is it better to be less stressed and find your
    day more manageable, but be less effective? Or-
  • Do SLPs have to be stressed out and unhappy to do
    a good job?
  • Is there some happy medium, another way??

48
Future Directions
  • Survey pairs of SLPs and teachers
  • Get teachers perspectives
  • Evaluate the factors that make collaborative
    practices between SLPs and teachers successful
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of pre-service
    training programs addressing collaboration in
    literacy for SLPs and teachers
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