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United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program

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Title: United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program


1
United States Naval Nuclear
Propulsion Program
9/12/2001
Afghanistan
Iran
Pakistan
India
FIRST SHIPS ON STATION CVN 65, CVN 70, SSN 719,
SSN 722
2
NAVAL NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROGRAM
  • FOCUSED MISSION
  • Provide militarily effective nuclear propulsion
    plants and ensure their safe, reliable, and
    long-lived operation
  • CLEAR, TOTAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY
    FOR ALL ASPECTS
  • Research, development, design, construction
  • Maintenance, repair, overhaul, disposal
  • Radiological controls, environment, safety, and
    health matters
  • Officer operator selection, operator training
  • Administration (security, nuclear safeguards,
    transportation, public information,
  • procurement and fiscal management)
  • Centralized control of Programs Industrial
    Base/Vendors
  • Spent fuel custody
  • SIMPLE, ENDURING, LEAN STRUCTURE
  • Director tenure 8 years, 4-Star Admiral/Deputy
    Administrator in NNSA
  • Dual agency structure with direct access to
    Secretaries of Energy and Navy
  • Small headquarters, field activities

EXECUTIVE ORDER 12344 SET FORTH IN PUBLIC LAW
98-525 AND 106-65

3
NAVAL NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROGRAM
REPORT TO DIRECTOR - Ensures focus on mission -
Immediate identification of concerns
NUCLEAR POWERED FLEET
- 82 ships
- Over 40 of
major combatants
DEDICATED LABORATORIES
- Bettis Atomic
Power Laboratory - Knolls Atomic Power
Laboratory - GOCOs
SHIPYARDS 4 Public / 2 Private
RD/TRAINING REACTORS - Train 2500 students/year
SPECIALIZED INDUSTRIAL BASE - 1 dedicated
equipment prime contractor -
Hundreds of suppliers
SCHOOLS -
Nuclear Power School - Nuclear Field A
School
103 reactors operating worldwide
LEAN, CENTRALLY CONTROLLED, DEDICATED, SUCCESSFUL
4
MASTERING NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY
Defense in Depth Design simple, rugged,
redundant, fail-safe, conservative Rigorous
quality control on-site reps, detailed specs,
HQ approval for deviations, separate
logistics/supply, documentation (quality
evidence) Comprehensive procedures and
procedural compliance Oversight NPEB,
squadron, type commander, field office People
carefully selected rigorous and continuous
training
THE KEY IS PEOPLE CAREFULLY SELECTED, HIGHLY
TRAINED, MOTIVATED
5
ENGINEERING c1PEOPLE3
  • Engineered systems are used by people
  • Engineering analysis is done by people
  • Engineered equipment is maintained by people

YOU CANT ENGINEER PEOPLE OUT OF THE EQUATION
6
NAVAL NUCLEAR PROPULSION PLANTPressurized Water
Reactor
7
Multiple Safety Drivers...which can be in
tension.
  • Reactor Safety
  • Ship Safety
  • Crew Worker Safety
  • Public Safety
  • Environmental Safety

The tyranny of the OR - Built to Last by James
Collins Jerry Porras

8
TRUE TO OUR ROOTS
  • Most technical requirements and administrative
    processes developed under ADM Rickover.
  • His experience included time aboard ship
    (pre-WWII) and as head of Electrical Division of
    BUSHIPS.

One must create the ability in his staff to
generate clear, forceful arguments for opposing
view points as well as their own. Open
discussions and disagreements must be encouraged,
so that all sides of an issue will be fully
explored. Further, important issues should be
presented in writing. Nothing so sharpens the
thought process as writing down ones arguments.
Weaknesses overlooked in oral discussion rapidly
become painfully obvious on the written page. -
H. G. Rickover
9
KEY SAFETY ATTRIBUTES
  • Self-regulating
  • Multiple safety barriers
  • Large margins to core damage
  • Long time for response for many casualties
  • Operator back-up
  • Thoroughly and continuously trained operators
  • Multiple systems

Since engineering is a profession which affects
the material basis of everyones life, there is
almost always an unconsulted third party involved
in any contract between the engineer and those
who employ him that is the country, the people
as a whole Knowing more than the public about
the effects his work will have, the engineer
ought to consider himself an officer of the
court and keep the general interest always in
mind. - H. G. Rickover
10
DEFENSE IN DEPTH IN ANALYSES
  • Engineering modeling
  • Reactor safety and ship reliability for
    casualties
  • Public safety

the NRC staff comments positively on the
conservative design philosophy, the stringent
standards for construction and materials, the
incorporation of past operating experience, and
the consideration of human performance in the
VIRGINIA Class Submarines nuclear propulsion
plant. The VIRGINIA Class Submarines nuclear
propulsion plant represents an advancement in
safety over previous submarine classes that the
RNC has reviewed. - NRC letter of October 15,
2002
11
SAFETY CULTURE
  • IAEA definition The assembly of characteristics
    and attitudes in organizations and individuals
    which establishes that, as an overriding
    priority, protection and safety issues receive
    the attention warranted by their significance.
  • Another definition a work environment where a
    safety ethic permeates the organization and
    peoples behavior focuses on accident prevention
    through critical self-assessment, pro-active
    identification of management and technical
    problems, and appropriate, timely, and effective
    resolution of the problems before they become
    crises. (Jonathan Wert, 1986)

Culture the quality in a person or society
that arises from an interest in excellence ....
development or improvement of the mind by
education or training. - The Random House
College Dictionary (1980)
12
MAKING A SAFETY CULTURE
  • Ingredients
  • Assembly the whole must net out as viewing
    safety as important saying it is someone elses
    job does not suffice
  • Characteristics organizational structure and
    rules must support
  • Attitudes people have to believe, and show they
    believe, that safety is important
  • Overriding if cost and schedule keep taking
    precedence, people get the message and the
    culture suffers
  • Attention problems must be communicated to
    appropriate personnel
  • Significance cognizant personnel must be
    capable of assessing impact on safety to do so,
    they must be trained, given authority, given
    complete information.
  • Accident prevention before they become crises
    fix problems while they are still minor
  • Self-assessment know how well you are doing the
    job
  • Management AND technical problems are not
    limited just to hardware
  • Summary Identify, communicate, resolve,
    self-assess, train.

SAFETY CONSCIOUS WORK ENVIRONMENT
13
PROGRAM PHILOSOPHY
  • Centralized technical control of all aspects
  • Personal responsibility for technical, safety,
    radcon, environmental
  • In-depth technical understanding of all aspects
    of work at all levels
  • HQ involvement in all aspects (design,
    procedures, operations)
  • Organization with internal checks to ensure
    thorough review
  • Prompt reporting, evaluation, and correction of
    problems
  • Rigorous theoretical and practical training
    continuing training at all levels
  • Conservative designs with ample safety margins
    prevention first
  • Rigorous quality assurance of all aspects
  • Thorough testing of equipment prior to fleet
    application
  • Formality, discipline, and precision
  • Emphasis on close, frequent technical oversight
  • Skepticism, frankness, self-criticism, integrity,
    attention to detail.

PREVENT BIG PROBLEMS BY WORKING HARD ON THE SMALL
ONES
14
NNPP TRIANGLE VIEW OF PROBLEMS
15
CENTRALIZED TECHNICAL CONTROL
  • Director responsible for all aspects of work
  • Frequent oral written reports from all Program
    activities
  • HQ
  • Outstanding personnel management technically
    trained
  • Directly oversees adequacy of all technical
    requirements
  • Exercises technical approval over contractors,
    SYs, vendors
  • Multiple reporting chains ensure problems
    promptly brought to attention of cognizant
    personnel
  • Oversees all personnel actions related to the
    Program
  • Directs and oversees all logistic support
    functions
  • Controls special nuclear material, including
    shipment
  • Responsible from RD throughout life to final
    disposal
  • Periodic audits by cognizant technical personnel

KNOWLEDGEABLE AND DEMANDING CUSTOMER
16
CLOSE, FREQUENT TECHNICAL OVERSIGHT
  • On-site field offices do surveillance, auditing
  • Activity self-assessment capability reviewed
  • Periodic HQ reviews (DOE labs) and audits
    (shipyards) by cognizant technical leads
  • Regular letters to Admiral top HQ staff on
    issues
  • Reporting deviations from normal operation
  • HQ technical approval for almost every design
    detail and procedure

ASSURING PERFORMANCE TO HIGH STANDARDS
17
ASSURE PLANTS OPERATE WITHIN SAFE LIMITS
  • Compliance with technical requirements
  • Detailed procedures and description
  • Analyses for casualty conditions
  • Operation only by highly trained, qualified
    operators
  • Rapidly reporting deviations from normal
    operation via multiple paths
  • Strong, continuing maintenance

QUESTIONING ATTITUDE
18
CONTROL OF WORK
  • Naval nuclear shipyard organization set
  • Nuclear work groups
  • Test and refueling organization
  • Maintenance controlled by NR documents
  • General process specified in NR manual
  • Detailed testing prior to unrestricted operations
  • Multiple oversight internal shipyard
    organization, ships crew, NR field office.

YOU GET WHAT YOU INSPECT, NOT WHAT YOU EXPECT
19
NR HQ TECHNICAL APPROVAL PROCESS
  • Cognizant technical organization submittal
  • NR HQ review
  • Lead engineer
  • Internal section agreement
  • Concurrence of other sections
  • Copy to ADM
  • Resolution of any dissent
  • Additional iterations may be required

You must tell me the technically correct answer.
Once we decide that a way forward is technically
acceptable, we should then consider the schedule
and cost implications of these solutions. - ADM
Bowman
20
LESSONS LEARNED
  • Learn from your mistakes.
  • Even better, learn from other peoples mistakes.
  • When the unexpected happens, investigate.
  • Understand the consequences had it happened under
    less fortuitous circumstanceswhat if?
  • Dont assume it wont happen again.
  • Evaluate need for corrective action.
  • May need preliminary action (e.g., procedure or
    training change) while waiting for longer term
    (hardware modification)

Those who do not learn from history are doomed
to repeat it. - George Santayana
21
EXAMPLES FROM PRIME CONTRACTOR
  • Reactors and nuclear facilities are designed,
    constructed, maintained, and operated in
    accordance with applicable requirements and in a
    manner that protects people, the environment, and
    property.
  • Every employee is personally responsible for
    performing their duties in a manner that
    preserved the nuclear safety values
  • Line organizations have the primary
    responsibility for reactor and nuclear safety.
    This responsibility is not diminished by reviews
    external to the line organizations.
  • Reactor and nuclear safety-related activities are
    formally reviewed by an organization of knowledge
    experts independent of the line organizations.

Line organizations have the primary
responsibility for reactor and nuclear safety
22
QUESTIONS THAT SHOULD BE ASKED
  • What are the acceptance criteria (i.e. , what is
    the basis for accepting this recommendation)?
  • What is the consequence of failure that this
    recommendation is designed to prevent?
  • What are the areas and levels of uncertainty (has
    there been an uncertainty analysis performed)?
  • What is the level of conservatism or margin to
    failure?
  • What change in the margin to failure will result
    from accepting the recommendation?
  • Is there a precedent for the recommendation?
  • How does this recommendation affect other design
    areas and/or how does it interact with other
    historical design changes and safety
    requirements?
  • Why should this recommendation be accepted (i.e.,
    what is the benefit)?

QUESTIONING ATTITUDE
23
ADM Bowmans Core Values - The Culture
  • Technical Excellence - technically correct
    solution identified, technically expert decision
    makers, minority opinions, appropriate
    conservatism, simple/robust designs, cautiously
    challenge status quo
  • Responsibility - own your job, face facts tell
    the truth, mainstream safety, overlapping
    responsibilities
  • People - selectivity, continuing training,
    professional competence, personal responsibility,
    dedication, long-term perspective, decisive
  • Formality and Discipline - decisions and their
    basis are documented, written procedures,
    procedural compliance, dont live with
    deficiencies, dont normalize deviance, effective
    communications

CONSTRUCTIVE DISSATISFACTION
24
COMMITMENT TO SAFETY
  • Mainstreamed carried out day-to-day as a normal
    way of doing work by all personnel.
  • An enduring deep fundamental core value of the
    organization, not a short term program or add-on.

In a submarine environment, with these
constraints, there is only one way to ensure
safety it must be embedded from the start in
the equipment, the procedures, and, most
importantly, the people associated with the
work. - ADM F. Bowman (as quoted in NNBE
Progress Report of July 15, 2003 p 16)
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