WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND AIR QUALITY: part I: Intercontinental transport and climatic effects of pollutants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND AIR QUALITY: part I: Intercontinental transport and climatic effects of pollutants PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1ce48b-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND AIR QUALITY: part I: Intercontinental transport and climatic effects of pollutants

Description:

Better understand the role of intercontinental transport in ... OUTSIDE NORTH AMERICA IS A SIZABLE INCREMENT TOWARDS VIOLATION OF U.S. AIR QUALITY STANDARDS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:32
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 14
Provided by: daniel383
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND AIR QUALITY: part I: Intercontinental transport and climatic effects of pollutants


1
WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND AIR QUALITY part
I Intercontinental transport and climatic
effects of pollutants
  • OBJECTIVE
  • Define a near-term (-2003) research strategy for
    EPA/OAQPS to
  • Better understand the role of intercontinental
    transport in affecting ozone and PM air quality
  • Better understand the global/regional climate
    forcing of air pollutants (BC, OC, sulfate,
    ozone)
  • Enable an integrated appproach to assess the
    combined air quality and climatic implications of
    changes in anthropogenic emissions.
  • Develop a longer-term program for integrating
    intercontinental transport and climatic forcing
    issues in EPAs regulatory strategy

2
Dust transport over the Pacific, April 21-25,
1998.
R. Husar
3
Asian Dust Cloud Over North America
GOES Satellite Image
PM10 West Coast
R. Husar
4
OZONE TREND AT EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN SITES, 1870-1990
Marenco et al. 1994
Preindustrial ozone models

5
SURFACE OZONE BACKGROUND PRODUCED OUTSIDE NORTH
AMERICA IS A SIZABLE INCREMENT TOWARDS VIOLATION
OF U.S. AIR QUALITY STANDARDS(even more so in
Europe!)
Europe (8-h avg.)
Europe (seasonal)
U.S. (8-h avg.)
U.S. (1-h avg.)
0 20 40
60 80 100
120 ppbv
preindustrial
present background
6
GLOBAL RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE, 1750-present
IPCC 2001
7
Aerosol Effect on Surface Reflectance
  • Aerosols add to the reflectance and sometimes
    reduce the reflectance of surface objects
  • Aerosols always diminish the contrast between
    dark a bright surface objects
  • They change the color of surface objects
  • Haze adds a bluish while dust adds yellowish tint
    to the surface color of surface objects.

8
Future SO2 emissions in Asia are likely to be
much lower than the latest IPCC forecasts
9
Indexed trends in greenhouse-gas emissions in
China
The net effect of these emission changes on
global mean temperatures is an INCREASE, due to
the dominant effect of the sulfate aerosol
10
M.Z. Jacobson
11
PRIORITY QUESTIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR PHASE IIOF
EPA/OAQPS INITIATIVE, 2002-2003
  • How will changing anthropogenic emissions outside
    North America enhance background ozone and PM
    concentrations in the U.S., and the ability of
    the U.S. to meet the NAAQS?
  • Need improved 2000 global, gridded emission
    inventories for ozone and PM precursors
    partitioned by source sector
  • Need policy-relevant 2020 emission projections
  • Need nested global e regional model
  • Need to determine the PM background levels
    contributed by intercontinental transport
  • How will changes in emissions of PM, PM
    precursors, and ozone precursors, in the U.S. and
    in the rest of the world, contribute to climate
    change?
  • Need GCM calculations of climate response for
    selected policy-relevant emission projections,
    develop approach for linearizing the dependence
    of climate response on the perturbation
  • How do U.S emissions affect the ability of
    countries in Europe and Asia to meet their air
    quality objectives?

12
GOING BEYOND 2003 SOME PRIORITY ISSUES
  • Link to air quality objectives outside North
    America through different nested model strategies
  • Use observations from satellites and aircraft
    field campaigns to
  • Test model estimates of intercontinental
    transport
  • Improve emission estimates (esp. fires,
    megacities)
  • Better define errors and error covariances in
    emission inventories towards improving these
    estimates through inversion models.

13
QUANTIFYING INTERCONTINENTAL TRANSPORTTHROUGH
INTEGRATION OF OBSERVATIONS AND MODELS
SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS Global and continuous but
few species, low resolution
Source/sink inventories
3-D CHEMICAL TRACER MODELS
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS high resolution but
spatially limited
Assimilated meteorological data
AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS High resolution, targeted
flights provide critical snapshots for model
testing
Chemical and aerosol processes
INTERCONTINENTAL TRANSPORT CONCENTRATIONS,
FLUXES, BUDGETS
About PowerShow.com