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Reporting results: APA style

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To offer readers an interpretation your data (and perhaps persuade them to believe your theory) ... Sexist and biased language. Try to be concise ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reporting results: APA style


1
Reporting results APA style
  • Psych 231 Research Methods in Psychology

2
Why present your research?
  • To get the work out there
  • To offer readers an interpretation your data (and
    perhaps persuade them to believe your theory)
  • To allow testing/falsifaction of your theory
  • To spur further research
  • To allow replication

3
Misconceptions about Scientific writing
  • Writing the paper is the routine part of the
    research process
  • Forces you to commit to your evidence and
    conclusions
  • Just the facts
  • The facts are just part of the argument that the
    author is making
  • What you say is more important than how you say
    it
  • Good writing leads to higher chance of
    accomplishing your goals

4
Why a structured format?
  • To ease communication of what was done
  • Forces a minimal amount of information
  • Provides a logical framework (for argument)
  • Provides consistent format within a discipline
  • People know what to expect
  • Where to find the information in the article
  • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources
    easily

5
Writing resources
  • The ultimate resource for APA style is the APA
    Publication manual
  • Also websites to help too.
  • Chapter 15 of your textbook is good too.

6
Writing resources
  • A great book for Psychological writing

Sternberg, R. J. (2003). The psychologists
companion A guide to scientific writing for
students and researchers. Cambridge University
Press, NY.
7
Writing style
  • Psychological writing tends to differ from other
    academic writings
  • Not a creative writing exercise
  • Presenting an argument based on data and logical
    reasoning
  • Try to avoid using direct quotes, restate things
    in your own words.
  • Avoid digression
  • Footnotes are rare, theyre used to
    elaborate/clarify a point. Try to do so in the
    text.
  • If long digressions, use the appendix

8
Major goal Clarity
  • Communicate with clarity
  • Write for the reader
  • Think about your audience, what do they already
    know, what dont they know
  • Avoid overstatements
  • Be conservative in your claims
  • Emphasize the positive
  • Focus on how the data supports a theory not just
    on how it refutes another theory

9
Major goal Clarity
  • Communicate with clarity
  • Avoid
  • Jargon when possible
  • Slang and colloquialisms
  • Sexist and biased language
  • Try to be concise
  • Dont use a whole paragraph when two sentences
    will do
  • Longer papers dont mean better papers
  • Eliminate unnecessary redundancy
  • Use simple words (sentences) rather than
    complicated words (sentences)

10
Major goal Clarity
  • Communicate with clarity
  • Use concrete words and examples
  • Use a consistent format (APA style)
  • It helps your reader understand your arguments
    and the sources theyre built on.
  • It also helps you keep track of your sources as
    you build arguments

11
APA style Parts of a research report

Adolescent Depression
1 Running Head ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION
Adolescent Depression and Attachment Ima
G. Student and Soyam Eye Purdue
University
  • Title Page

12
Title Page


Adolescent Depression 1
Running Head ADOLESCENT
DEPRESSION Adolescent
Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student and
Soyam Eye Purdue University
  • Title should be maximally
  • informative while short
  • (10 to 12 words recommended)

13
Title Page


Adolescent Depression 1
Running Head ADOLESCENT
DEPRESSION Adolescent
Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student and
Soyam Eye Purdue University
Order of Authorship sometimes carries meaning
14
Title Page


Adolescent Depression 1
Running Head ADOLESCENT
DEPRESSION Adolescent
Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student and
Soyam Eye Purdue University
Affiliation where the bulk of the research was
done
15
Title Page


Adolescent Depression 1
Running Head ADOLESCENT
DEPRESSION Adolescent
Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student and
Soyam Eye Purdue University
Running head will go on each page of published
article, no more than 50 characters
16
Title Page


Adolescent Depression 1
Running Head ADOLESCENT
DEPRESSION Adolescent
Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student and
Soyam Eye Purdue University
Short title goes in header (with page number)
on each page of the manuscript
17
Abstract
  • Short summary of entire paper
  • 100 to 120 words
  • The problem/issue
  • The method
  • The results
  • The major conclusions
  • Recommendation write this after youve finished
    the rest of the paper

18
Body
  • Hourglass shape

Background Literature Review
19
Body
  • Hourglass shape

Statement of purpose Specific hypotheses (at
least at conceptual level)
20
Body
  • Hourglass shape

- Methods - Results
21
Body
  • Hourglass shape

Discussion Conclusions Implications
22
Body
Introduction Background Literature
Review Statement of purpose Specific hypotheses
(at least at conceptual level)
23
Body
  • Methods (in enough detail that the reader can
    replicate the study)
  • Participants
  • How many, where they were selected from, any
    special selection requirements, details about
    those who didnt complete the experiment

24
Body
  • Methods (in enough detail that the reader can
    replicate the study)
  • Participants
  • Design (optional)
  • Suggested if you have a complex experimental
    design, often combined with Materials section

25
Body
  • Methods (in enough detail that the reader can
    replicate the study)
  • Participants
  • Design
  • Apparatus/Materials
  • Procedure
  • What did each participant do? Other details,
    including the operational levels of your IV(s)
    and DV(s), counterbalancing, etc.

26
Body
  • Results (state the results but dont interpret
    them here)
  • Verbal statement of results
  • Tables and figures
  • These get referred to in the text, but actually
    get put into their own sections at the end of the
    manuscript
  • Statistical Outcomes
  • Means, standard deviations, t-tests, ANOVAs,
    correlations, etc.

27
Body
  • Discussion (interpret the results)
  • Relationship between purpose and results
  • Theoretical (or methodological) contribution
  • Implications
  • Future directions (optional)

28
The rest


Adolescent Depression 29
References Barnett, P. A.,
Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial
functioning and depression Distinguishing among
antecedents, concomitants, and
consequences. Psychological Bulletin,
104. Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression
Inventory. San Antonio, TX
Psychological Corporation. Benoit, D.,
Vidovic, D., Roman, J. (1991, April).
Transmission of attachment across three
generations. Paper presented at the
Biennial Meeting of the Society for
Research in Child Development. Benoit, D.,
Zeanah, C. H., Barton, M. L. (1989).
Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to
thrive. Infant Mental Health Journal,
3, 185-202. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H.,
Boucher, C., Minde, K. (1989). Sleep
disorders in early childhood Association
with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of
the American Academy of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 86-93.
  • References
  • Authors name
  • Year
  • Title of work
  • Publication information
  • Journal
  • Issue
  • Pages

When something odd comes up, dont guess. Look
it up!
29
The rest
  • References
  • Authors Notes
  • Footnotes
  • Tables
  • Figure Captions
  • Figures

30
Figures and tables
  • These are used to supplement the text.
  • To make a point clearer for the reader.
  • Typically used for
  • The design
  • Examples of stimuli
  • Patterns of results

31
Checklist - things to watch for
  • Clarity
  • Acknowledge the work of others (avoid plagiarism)
  • Active vs. passive voice
  • Active Monroe and Wahlheim (2003) hypothesized
    that speakers use to much passive voice
  • Passive It was hypothesized by Monroe and
    Wahlheim (2003) that speakers use to much passive
    voice

32
Checklist - things to watch for
  • Avoid biased language
  • APA guidelines
  • Accurate descriptions of individuals (e.g., Asian
    vs. Korean)
  • Be sensitive to labels (e.g., Oriental)
  • Appropriate use of headings
  • Correct citing and references
  • Good grammar
  • APA style checklist

33
Next time
  • Read chapters 45.
  • Bring your APA Publication Manual to lab (if
    youve got one)
  • Dont forget your first journal summary is due
    this week in lab
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