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Physical Education and sport in the ancient world'

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Title: Physical Education and sport in the ancient world'


1
Physical Education and sport in the ancient world.
  • China
  • China in its past, was mainly an agrarian
    culture, as it still is today. Tradition and
    superstition controlled many of the tasks carried
    out in daily living just as it had been completed
    by their ancestors. The very cohesive society was
    based on a strong family unit, which was
    controlled by its eldest member. Every individual
    had close family ties and followed the traditions
    of ancestor worship. Obedience and subservience
    to the family or group were stressed, rather than
    individuality.

2
China
  • Education attempted to develop a students
    intellectual, moral, and aesthetic senses. In
    many cultures military needs are the reasons for
    developing a physical training programme. This
    was not the case for China, which has many
    natural barriers including the great wall (built
    200 BC). Although it should be noted much
    fighting went on internally.
  • There was an early version of soccer, polo,
    archery and wrestling. Much of Chinas exercise
    forms are based on oneness with their
    surroundings. This is shown in many of the
    martial art forms. These forms of exercise
    enhance the philosophy of moderation in view of
    keeping an unchanging society.

3
India
  • When looking at India it is impossible to do so
    without understanding Hinduism as its religion.
    This was a social system as well as a religious
    practice. The caste system of this religious
    faith fixed people at birth socially and
    educationally. The emphasis in Education was on
    the concept of the re-cycling of life.
  • Exercise was used for health similarly to Chinas
    culture. But the Indians had games and
    recreational sports such Karabadi.

4
Egypt
  • Although physical education was not a major part
    of Egyptian life, physical activities were very
    important to the Egyptians. They enjoyed many
    games and sports, and woman frequently
    participated. Swimming was popular (in the Nile),
    as were gymnastics activities, hunting, games
    involving skills of fighting and war, and many
    types of ball games. Boating and dance
    activities were extremely popular.

5
Ancient Greece
  • The following quotes are from the writings of the
    ancient Greeks, which gives us a great deal of
    information concerning physical training.
  • 1) Plato Laches 182a
  • 182a Since it is as good and strenuous as any
    physical exercise--but is also a form of exercise
    which, with riding, is particularly fitting for a
    free citizen for only the men trained in the use
    of these warlike implements can claim to be
    trained in the contest whereof we are athletes
    and in the affairs wherein we are called upon to
    contend.1 Further, this accomplishment will be of
    some benefit also in actual battle, when it comes
    to fighting in line with a number of other men
    but its greatest advantage will be felt when the
    ranks are broken, and you find you must fight man
    to man, either in pursuing someone who is trying
    to beat off your attack,

6
(No Transcript)
7
Ancient Greece
  • Lach.,182a,n1. I.e., in regular warfare.
  • 2) Plato Philebus 30b
  • 30b and the element of cause which exists in
    all things, this last, which gives to our bodies
    souls and the art of physical exercise and
    medical treatment when the body is ill, and which
    is in general a composing and healing power, is
    called the sum of all wisdom, and yet, while
    these same elements exist in the entire heaven
    and in great parts thereof, and area moreover,
    fair and pure, there is no means of including
    among them that nature which is the fairest and
    most precious of all.

8
Ancient Greece
  • 3) Xenophon Cyropaedia 1.6.17
  • 1.6.17 "In the first place, by Zeus," said
    Cyrus, "I try never to eat too much, for that is
    oppressive and in the second place, I work off
    by exercise what I have eaten, for by so doing
    health seems more likely to endure and strength
    to accrue.""That, then, my son," said he, "is the
    way in which you must take care of the rest also.
  • "Yes, father," said he "but will the soldiers
    find leisure for taking physical exercise?" "Nay,
    by Zeus," said his father, "they not only can,
    but they actually must. For if an army is to do
    its duty, it is absolutely necessary that it
    never cease to contrive both evil for the enemy
    and good for itself. What a burden it is to
    support even one idle man! It is more burdensome
    still to support a whole household in idleness
    but the worst burden of all is to support an army
    in idleness. For not only are the mouths in an
    army very numerous but the supplies they start
    with are exceedingly limited, and they use up
    most extravagantly whatever they get, so that an
    army must never be left idle."

9
Ancient Greece
  • 4) Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 1143b
  • Knowing about them does not make us any more
    capable of doing them, since the virtues are
    qualities of character just as is the case with
    the knowledge of what is healthy and
    vigorous--using these words to mean not
    productive of health
  • 5) Aristotle Politics 1322b
  • On the other hand, peculiar to the states that
    have more leisure and prosperity, and also pay
    attention to public decorum, are the offices of
    Superintendent of Women, Guardian of the Laws,
    Superintendent of Children, Controller of
    Physical Training, and vigor but resulting from
    them we are not rendered any more capable of
    healthy and vigorous action by knowing the
    science of medicine or of physical training

10
Boxing
11
Ancient Greece
  • 6) Isocrates Antidosis 181
  • 15.181 Since this is so, certain of our
    ancestors, long before our time, seeing that many
    arts had been devised for other things, while
    none had been prescribed for the body and for the
    mind, invented and bequeathed to us two
    disciplines, physical training for the body, of
    which gymnastics is a part, and, for the mind,
    philosophy, which I am going to explain.
  • 7) Plato Republic 468e
  • 468e and also with 'seats of honor and meat and
    full cups'1, so as to combine physical training
    with honor for the good, both men and women."

12
Ancient Greece
  • 8) Plato Republic 547d
  • … and the devotion to physical training and
    expertness in the game and contest of war--in all
    these traits it will copy the preceding state.
  • 9) Xenophon Constitution of the Lacedaimonians
    1.4
  • 1.4 But Lycurgus thought the labour of slave
    women sufficient to supply clothing. He believed
    motherhood to be the most important function of
    freeborn woman. Therefore, in the first place, he
    insisted on physical training for the female no
    less than for the male sex moreover, he
    instituted races and trials of strength for women
    competitors as for men, believing that if both
    parents are strong they produce more vigorous
    offspring.

13
Ancient Greece
  • 10) Xenophon Ways and Means 4.52
  • 4.52 For the classes undergoing physical
    training will take more pains in the gymnasium
    when they receive their maintenance in full than
    they take under the superintendents of the torch
    races1 and the classes on garrison duty in a
    fortress, or serving as targeteers, or patrolling
    the country will show greater alacrity in
    carrying out all these duties when the
    maintenance is duly supplied for the work done.
  • The Iliad and the Odyssey are the first written
    accounts of sport competitions, along with the
    first coaching advice given to his son.

14
Spartan Education
  • Sparta was a military state. They lived for war
    and consequently allowed weak children to die.
    Education was given by the state, and it was a
    harsh system of physical training for males
    beginning at seven where they left home and lived
    in the barracks.
  • They trained in-groups under a youth leader until
    they were 14. Then from 14-20 years old they
    underwent more vigorous military training. They
    lived in barracks until they were thirty years
    old, when they were able to marry and leave, but
    they were still required to eat their meals with
    other soldiers.

15
Spartan Education
  • For girls training also began at seven years old
    until they were eighteen, with weight control and
    conditioning to prepare the girls for motherhood.
    The girls participated regularly in athletics and
    proud fathers and brothers placed many memorial
    markers, honoring their sporting achievements.
    When she married her athletic activities ended as
    she was expected to stay at home.
  • Boxing was discouraged because men fought to the
    death, because Spartans were taught never to
    admit defeat. Much physical training was
    conducted to the sound of music. The sole
    emphasis of their training was purely on the
    physical, and consequently they were not able to
    govern effectively through poor development of
    the intellect.

16
Athenian Education
  • The Athenian model of education has long been the
    theoretical balance in modern western education.
    The motto for education was a sound mind in a
    sound body (mens sana in corpore sano).
  • The philosophy of the education system was the
    beautiful and the good. This represented the
    ideal characteristics of the Athenian citizen
    aesthetic sensibilities, knowledge, physical
    skills and a strong sense of ethics. These
    philosophys culminated in the inscriptions on
    the temple of Delphi- know thyself and nothing
    in excess.

17
Athenian Education
  • Plato suggested boys begin physical education at
    6 years old, grammar at 10 and music at thirteen.
    At 18 years old, boys entered the military.
  • The program of physical education for older males
    was concentrated at the gymnasium. Greek athletes
    competed without clothing (hence the word
    gymnasium, from the Greek word meaning "naked,"
    gymnos ).
  • The physical education teacher was called a
    paidotribe, and the coach was called a gymnastes.
    The aim of these professions was to produce the
    qualities of the physical and intellectual
    through the physical. The training was similar to
    the Spartans except the Athenians sought a
    harmonious development of the individual.

18
The athletic games and contests of the Greeks.
  • The word Olympiad means a four-year period, and
    the Olympic games were help every four years. The
    festival lasted for five days in late August.
  • Excellence (arete) as a competitive value for
    male Greek aristocrats showed up clearly in the
    Olympic Games, a religious festival associated
    with a large sanctuary of Zeus, king of the gods
    of the Greeks.
  • Although, the Olympic games were not exclusively
    the domain of the wealthy Greek aristocracy, with
    many poorer persons participating. The sanctuary
    was located at Olympia, in the northwestern
    Peloponnese (the large peninsula that forms
    southern Greece), where the games were beginning
    in 776 B.C.
  • During these great celebrations the men competed
    in running events and wrestling as individuals,
    not as national representatives on teams, as in
    the modern Olympic Games. The emphasis on
    physical prowess and fitness, competition, and
    public recognition by other men corresponded to
    the ideal of Greek masculine identity as it
    developed in this period. In a rare departure
    from the ancient Mediterranean tradition against
    public nakedness, the Olympic games grew.

19
The athletic games and contests of the Greeks.
  • The primary foot race was the stade (192 meters).
    A second race was twice this distance at 384
    meters. Other running races were held up to 5
    kilometers long. Field events included the long
    jump, the discus, javelin and wrestling.
  • In later Greek athletic competitions prizes of
    value were often awarded. Admission was free to
    men married women were not allowed to attend, on
    pain of death, but women had their own separate
    festival at Olympia on a different date in honor
    of Zeus' wife, Hera. Although less is known about
    the games of Hera, literary sources report that
    unmarried young women competed on the Olympic
    track in a foot race five-sixths as long as the
    men's stadion.
  • In later times, international games including
    the Olympics were dominated by professional
    athletes, who made good livings from appearance
    fees and prizes won at various games held all
    over Greece. The most famous of them all was
    Milo, from Croton, in southern Italy. Winner of
    the Olympic wrestling crown six times beginning
    in 536 B.C., he was renowned for showy stunts,
    such as holding his breath until his blood
    expanded his veins so much that they would snap a
    cord tied around his head.

20
The athletic games and contests of the Greeks.
  • Moreover, an international truce of several weeks
    was declared so that competitors and spectators
    from all the Greek communities could travel to
    and from Olympia in security, even if wars were
    otherwise in progress along their way.
  • In short, the arrangements for the Olympic Games
    demonstrate that in eighth century B.C. the
    Greeks had developed the aristocratic values of
    individual activity, and the pursuit of
    excellence by one's self efforts. These ideas
    were beginning to be channeled into a new context
    appropriate for a changing society.

21
The athletic games and contests of the Greeks.
  • Greek athletes were extremely serious about their
    training. This is evident in part from their
    lengthy careers, and a 6 months a year
    competitive season. Professional coaches
    appeared, and the athletes training programs
    were coordinated with medical advice.
  • A coachs handbook on training was written by
    Philostratus in the third century B.C. Amateur
    was not a word in the Greek language until the
    end of the 1800s of our era. The athletes of
    that time received great benefits from their
    victories.
  • Theodosius 1 abolished the Olympic games in A.D.
    394. As a Christian he considered them pagan
    events as they honored Greek gods.

22
The Roman Empire
  • Roman civilization grew by the Tiber River in the
    central part of the Italian peninsula. It was
    founded by shepherds and traders. As the city
    grew it conquered the whole of the Italian
    peninsular, and then progessed further into other
    parts of the Mediterranean . The essential
    characteristic of Roman civilization was
    pragmatism- if it works do it. Where as Greeks
    were thinkers and philosophers the Romans were
    doers.

23
Roman education
  • The object of early Roman education was to
    produce children who would be true to the ideals
    and religion of the state. During a childs early
    years the education took place at home.
  • Physical training for boys was directed almost
    entirely toward military goals. In contrast to
    the Greeks the Romans had no real interest in
    beauty, harmony or the balanced development of
    the individual, although a strong sense of morals
    were considered important.
  • Literature study came from the memorization of
    the Twelve Tables, Romes codification of their
    laws.

24
Roman education
  • As the power and influence of Rome grew they saw
    a need to educate their citizens in being able to
    administer their empire. The military orientation
    now was more of a full time army made up of
    mercenaries, and non-citizens who were paid to
    serve in the army.
  • Schools were developed outside the home as Rome
    grew. Greek slaves, who had a broader educational
    background than the Romans, now provided the
    education.
  • The study included grammar, but the Romans saw
    no use for gymnastics or music so these were
    discarded. The educational system was unbalanced,
    from the arts to the sciences. The Romans made
    great contributions in law and engineering, as
    they saw these were of practical use. The Roman
    baths were more like modern health spas although
    exercise was taken at them, but not on the scale
    of the Greeks.

25
Roman education
  • As Rome grew more wealthy slaves completed many
    of the tasks of the former poor.
  • Roman moral climate declined as Romans did not
    have to work to survive. Food was provided free
    for all that were in need of it by the state.
  • In the latter stages of the Roman Empire, the
    Romans saw little reason for physical training
    and became a nation of spectators.
  • They would attend the circus or the amphitheater
    and watch gladiatoral fights to the death. These
    events became more and more debauched as time
    went on. The early Christians receiving many
    painful methods of dying for their faith.

26
Roman Sport
  • Romans were not interested in the intrinsic value
    of sport as the Greeks were.
  • The Romans primary practical pursuit for physical
    training was in regard to war and entertainment.
  • Romans were mainly spectators and there is great
    debate whether to call the participants athletes
    or entertainers.
  • It most be noted that the Romans did not consider
    these events as cruel. The gladiators were
    criminals or slaves and not free persons. The
    arena was a way of entertaining the masses and
    distracting them from the less pleasant realities
    of their own lives.

27
Roman Sport
  • The difference between the Greek and Roman
    cultures is shown in how they viewed sport by the
    words they used for it. The Greek word is agon
    meaning contest, whereas the Roman word is ludi
    which meant game, amusement or entertainment. The
    Roman Empire lost the concept of mind-body
    balance, and the idea of all-around bodily
    development.
  • The Greeks emphasized the honor of victory and
    the joy of competition, but this changed over the
    Roman era to victory alone. Few sought after this
    type of competition and so consequently the
    majority became spectators and gambled on the
    outcome.

28
Questions
  • Why did sport and games emerge in these
    societies?
  • List differences and similarities between the
    different societies.
  • Using the differences and similarities between
    the different societies explain why certain
    sports and games emerged in some societies and
    not others?
  • Can you note any differences or similarities
    between the ancient world and today?

29
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe.
  • The Roman Empire fell, and the growing Catholic
    church (in the west) was then the only stable
    institution in Europe during the medieval period.
    The feudal system was the dominant social
    structure.
  • Education begun at seven years old for noblemen.
    The boys served as a page in another Noblemans
    home. This stage lasted until they were fourteen
    years old.
  • Woman and household workers trained the page
    during this phase of his education.

30
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe.
  • At fourteen he became a squire until he was
    twenty-one years old. This phase of training
    involved serving a Knight or a group of Knights.
  • He trained in learning the arts of war,
    developing his body and performing acts of
    obligation to his lord. At twenty-one years old
    or younger if noted for bravery, he was knighted.
    This was a serious religious ceremony.
  • Physical training lay at the core of the training
    for knighthood at all the stages, with the goals
    of acquiring military prowess and developing
    social graces and sports skills.

31
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe.
  • It is believed the Catholic Church was opposed to
    Physical Education for the following reasons
  • The debased character of the Roman sports and
    games consequently were view as an evil activity,
    which disturbed the early Medieval Church.
  • It closely associated the Roman games with pagan
    religions.
  • The church was growing in the belief of the evil
    nature of the body. The body and soul were
    becoming viewed as two separate entities. The
    soul should be preserved and strengthened but the
    body should not be catered for in any way. It
    should not be given entertaining or beneficial
    exercises.

32
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe.
  • The church attempted to suppress many games and
    sports at this time as they were considered
    frivolous and tinged with sin. Dancing was
    strongly discouraged because of its sensual
    nature. Although Thomas Aquinas advocated
    Physical Education being the most prominent
    churchmen of his time.
  • The role Thomas Aquinas played is crucial to
    understanding the development of modern thought
    and practice of physical education. There were
    two great schools of thought emerging from the
    Greek philosophies of Plato and Aristotle.

33
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe.
  • Platonism viewed reality from a spiritual
    standpoint, whereas Aristotle viewed reality as
    the here and now.
  • Thomas Aquinas revived the Aristotle world-view
    in the middle ages and his teaching was the
    precursor for the renaissance period.
  • The church was the provider of education in the
    middle ages and it consisted of seven liberal
    arts courses arithmetic, geometry, astronomy,
    music, grammar, rhetoric and logic.
  • Sport during the middle ages (like much of
    history) was mainly for the wealthy upper
    classes. During the Middle Ages the tradition of
    chivalry dominated much of the physical training.
    These events were tournaments where knights
    fought to prove the strength and prowess.

34
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe
  • As the middle ages progressed into the fourteenth
    and fifteenth centuries, medieval civilization
    began to decline. Towns, education and the arts
    began to flourish. Nations in Europe became
    united under various kings and queens and began
    to resemble the nations we know today. This was
    the beginning of the renaissance period.
  • As the renaissance drew near the middle and lower
    classes began to develop their own sports
    activities separately from those of the upper
    classes. These physical activities resembled
    throwing objects, running and jumping. The Middle
    class that had been steadily growing since the
    10th Century, began to develop their own games.
    They developed variations of the Knights games as
    they attempted to train to defend their cities.

35
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe
  • Many of the modern ball games came from this
    time where the masses played games and had
    goals, which were often the city gates. One such
    influence is the French game "soule" which is
    similar to Rugby. All classes began to
    participate in these contests.
  • The Bayeux Tapestry (which illustrates the Norman
    Conquest of England in 1066) illustrates a
    constant thread through this period of play is
    ritualized aggression and that play is training
    for war. Cock fighting, stone and javelin
    throwing bear bating, hunting, ice-skating and
    football were some of the sports played during
    this period.

36
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe
  • Due to the influence of Aquinas, the Church began
    to accept more worldly recruits into the newer
    religious orders.
  • Many of the customs and games of the countries
    the Catholic Church Christianized became
    popularized and accepted into the church.
  • The Moslem spring ball game became associated
    with Easter. The growing number of public
    holidays became a natural time for these games
    and recreational activities to be played.
  • There are accounts of the three-wall handball
    game being played up against churches using the
    corners of the buttresses as the court.

37
Physical Education and sport in medieval and
early modern Europe
  • In the late middle ages both the church and the
    state began to make rules and laws against
    sporting activities partly because of civil
    disturbances and occasional deaths that resulted
    form sports.
  • The other important factor in this was national
    defense and the state wanted men to practice
    archery rather than play games.
  • The decline of the Knight was due to the English
    longbow and with it the chivalrous tournaments
    disappeared with the emergence of gunpowder. The
    field of cloth of gold in 1520 was the last
    tournament under Henry V111.
  • The view that the body is evil and the emergence
    of the popularity of games and sports was played
    out, right up to the twentieth century.

38
Questions
  • Why did the Catholic church suppress sports and
    games?
  • Why did many sports and games continue despite
    the Catholic churches ban?
  • Why did the Catholic church begin to accept
    sports and games later on?

39
The Renaissance Period
  • The Middle Ages did not disappear suddenly
    Medieval life and civilization gradually waned
    for more than a century before the Renaissance
    burst out in full force in Italy.
  • The Renaissance began in Italy in the thirteenth
    century and spread throughout North and Western
    Europe for the next two centuries.
  • The Renaissance required a utilitarian kind of
    Education that could not be found within
    theological study. The demands of business
    necessitated the study of law. Scholars began to
    search for the Roman codes and indexes, which led
    to the study of other classical works from
    ancient Greece.

40
The Renaissance Period
  • The Renaissance was endeared to the ancient
    philosophy of stoic-humanism, which combined the
    life of action and that of contemplation.
  • The men of the Renaissance felt obligated to
    serve the community as well as to learn all they
    could about the rational world.
  • This education was dispelled from the new
    Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Bologna,
    Salerno, and Paris.
  • The increase of humanistic thought brought the
    decrease of church-controlled education to a more
    popular secular educational model.
  • Physical education was a part of these
    universities at this time, but it was limited by
    the belief that physical training would interfere
    with academic studies.
  • Their sport was more intramural rather than
    varsity athletics. The Renaissance helped to
    bring back the all-round person, allowing for the
    development of team games and individual
    competitive activities (such as military skills).

41
The Renaissance Period
  • One typically Roman trait that became the
    hallmark of the Renaissance man was universality.
  • The complete man had mastery of many facets of
    life. Leonardo da Vinci was the epitome of this
    ideal. He was a writer, painter, optician,
    cartographer, astronomer, geologist, botanist,
    and studied anatomy and mechanics. He was an
    engineer and inventor as well.
  • There were others during this time that excelled
    in many fields such as Michelangelo, Cellini and
    Lorenzo de Medici.

42
The Renaissance Period
  • The study of the ancient writings that expressed
    many humanistic ideas brought a conflict between
    the church and intellectuals. The Renaissance
    perhaps is the clearest example of the necessity
    of a balance between freedom and order,
    individual interests and social and political
    stability, rights and obligations, power and
    responsibility.
  • The education of the period began to develop
    along the lines of the Greek ideal it stressed a
    classical education combined with physical
    education. A major leader was Vittorino da Feltre
    (1374-1446). His school for children of nobility
    taught the Athenian model of classics but also
    included swimming, fencing, riding, and dancing.
    The universal model was vigorously promoted in
    this education program.

43
The Renaissance Period
  • The energy and enthusiasm of the Renaissance
    found expression in a wide variety of sports and
    games.
  • Schoolmasters in general considered physical
    activity an essential part of the curriculum.
    Exercise was deemed a necessity for both young
    and old.
  • The fore-runners to tennis, baseball and bowling
    were very popular.
  • Physical activity was both utilitarian and
    enjoyable. It provided for the sound body in
    which a sound mind could exist, and it was fun.
    Other sports were ball games, horse races, boxing
    matches, racquet games, gambling, dancing, hunts,
    and dancing.

44
The Renaissance Period
  • A quote from the time by Castiglione reveals the
    Renaissance noblemans perception of sport.
  • Also it is a noble exercise, and meete for one
    living in Court to play at Tenise, where the
    disposition of the body, the quickness and
    nimbleness of every member is much perceived, and
    almost whatsoever a man can see in all other
    exercises. And I reckon vaulting no less praise,
    which for all it is painefull and hard, maketh a
    man more light and quicker than any of the rest.
  • War and invasion took the ideas of the
    Renaissance Italy to other areas in Europe.
    Although during this time other European nations
    were developing vibrant cultures.

45
The Renaissance Period
  • The working masses during the Renaissance were on
    the whole able to improve their circumstances and
    many were freed from serfdom. Their carnival
    festivities held on public holidays, were full of
    eating, drinking, games and dancing.
  • The struggle at this time for people to break
    away from the Catholic Church produced men such
    as Martin Luther and Calvin. The beginning of the
    Protestant Church gave a greater support for
    physical activities. Protestants believed that
    physical activities might help to prevent
    corruption of the body in word and deed, and
    therefore, were of moral value.
  • Also, the Protestant belief that everyone has the
    right to read the Scriptures increased the need
    for general education to ensure literacy.
    Education under the Catholic Church had been for
    its leaders and scholars.

46
The Renaissance Period
  • As we move closer to the modern era, sport was
    still in a low level, informal state. Games had
    general forms but were not standardized.
  • Many variations of each sport existed across
    Europe. Nationalism was a product of the
    Renaissance, but international sport on the scale
    of the Greeks had not yet emerged.

47
Questions
  • What were some of the changes from medieval
    Europe to renaissance Europe?
  • What are the arguments presented for and against
    sport/PE/games from a religious perspective
    during this time?

48
Education and Physical Education in the 1600s
  • The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw more
    progress toward our current educational practices
    than any previous time, except perhaps ancient
    Greece. To follow this progress of physical
    education during this time period, it is
    important to look at the educational theorists
    rather than organized programs, as they were
    none.
  • This period is known as the age of reason and
    enlightenment. The atmosphere was characterized
    by optimism. In education realists proposed
    that that goal of education was to tie reality to
    life as it really was.

49
Education and Physical Education in the 1600s
  • The humanistic theories previously discussed were
    developed and broken away from. These were
    humanistic realists, social realists, and sense
    realists.
  • Physical education was still a minor part of the
    curriculum but as educational theory developed,
    physical education began to become a valuable
    part of the educational process. These realists
    called for physical activities in education and
    their primary motivation was for improved health.

50
Education and Physical Education in the 1600s
  • Francois Rabelais (1495-1553) believed in
    physical educations importance in preparation
    for war. The difference in Rabelaiss ideas was
    he believed a Knight should also be trained as a
    scholar. The physical activities were designed to
    strengthen his body and serve as recreation.
  • John Milton (1608-1674) the English writer
    believed that a classical education was useful,
    but felt that eight years of study should be
    condensed into one. He divided the study day into
    three parts study, exercise and meals. The
    exercises were basically war orientated although
    play and games were used, but in a sense of
    honing skills for war.

51
Education and Physical Education in the 1600s
  • A social theorist Michael De Montaigne
    (1533-1592) focused his education theories on
    aristocratic boys. He believed that experience
    and reason were the roads to knowledge. He said,
    to know by heart is not to know.
  • Much of modern educational theory can be traced
    to his theories, with his use of physical
    activities to further a pupils experiences
    stressing the cohesiveness of mind and body. He
    did not link learning experiences through games
    though.

52
Education and Physical Education in the 1600s
  • John Locke (1632-1704) an English social theorist
    used the now popular phase of physical educators
    a sound mind in a sound body. This in fact came
    from Juvenal, a Roman writer. Locke believed that
    mind and body were separate entities and all
    ideas came from personal experiences.
  • This may be better translated to the paradigm
    experiences of the senses combined with mental
    reflection or thought which is based from those
    experiences. He stressed physical exercise as a
    way of health and recreation as a beneficial
    break in the normal pattern of life. Similar to
    Jay Nashes twentieth century statement of
    recreation as re-creation.

53
Education and Physical Education in the 1600s
  • A leading sense realist was Richard Mulcaster
    (1531-1611) from England. He believed a tutor at
    home should teach students with other students,
    rather than individually. Mulcaster was also
    convinced that teachers should be trained
    professionally. He suggested that both men and
    woman should receive education, rather than only
    males, and he was one of the first to suggest
    coeducational activities among woman.
  • He was interested in physical and moral training
    through exercise and believed that mass education
    could use physical activities to develop social
    values. He strongly encouraged physical education
    and his works were rediscovered in the 1800s.

54
Education and Physical Education in the 1600s
  • Wolfgang Ratke (1571-1635) of Germany was another
    great theoretician of educational reform. He
    developed education on a scientific basiss by
    teaching students what they needed to learn, and
    at an age they are ready to learn it. He is
    considered the father of modern education despite
    his failing to translate his ideas into practice.
  • John Comenius (1592-1670) a Czechoslovakian,
    believed that children could learn much through
    recreational activities as well as improve their
    health.

55
The Book of Sports 1618
  • The Puritan party mistakenly supposed that Sunday
    was to be identified with the Jewish Sabbath.
    Their views had aroused great opposition and King
    James had ordered the Book for Sports to be read
    from the pulpit. The clergy refused and so the
    request was withdrawn until Charles 1 reissued
    the decree in 1633 (see handout).
  • The realism of the 1600s was followed by the
    enlightenment of the 1700s. This move attempted
    to spread rationalism and knowledge to all
    people.

56
Education and Physical Education in the 1600-1700s
  • The educational theorists of the enlightenment
    believed in a more general education for all,
    growing out of the realists theories a century
    before.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1788) of France
    published two books Emile (1762) and The Social
    Contract (1767). These books expounded that all
    humans are free and equal by nature and that
    inequality appeared only after Governments had
    developed. Rousseau believed people to be good by
    nature but were corrupted by civilization.
  • Education was allowing the child to develop as
    nature intended and to avoid anything that would
    hamper this development. Children were given
    tasks that were geared toward learning from
    nature and experience and were considered to be
    age appropriate. This education was for males
    only.

57
Education and Physical Education in the 1600-1700s
  • Rousseau regarded play as both healthful and
    educational but did not think it should be
    forced.
  • John Basedow (1724-1790) a German educator used
    Rousseaus naturalism and made it into an
    educational practice. He financed a school, which
    became known as the Dessau Educational Institute
    in 1774. He treated children as children, not as
    young adults.
  • He placed a heavy stress on physical activity,
    with the school day broken into 5 hours of
    classes, three hours of recreation (fencing,
    riding, dancing and music) and two hours of
    manual labor that taught a craft for the student.
    He organized camping trip, which resembles our
    outdoor education programs. Although this school
    did not survive it had great influence throughout
    Europe in regard to the importance of physical
    activities for the child.

58
Education and Physical Education in the 1600-1800s
  • A school that did survive was the Schnepfenthal
    Educational Institute near Gotha in eastern
    Germany. Christian Salzmann founded it in 1785.
    He employed Johann Guts Muths who taught there
    for fifty years developing the Dessau gymnastics
    program. Salzmanns book on these physical
    activities reached the United States in 1825.
    Many of his practices are similar to those
    followed today.
  • Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) was a Swiss teacher
    who taught in Yverdon, Germany. He believed
    humans to be social creatures and that education
    was a natural process where the child wanted to
    learn and the teacher was a guide taking them
    from easy to difficult activities. He saw
    education as having three aspects intellectual,
    practical, and most importantly moral. Physical
    education was also important to bring mind and
    body into full harmony. His school offered daily
    one hour of gymnastics five days a week.

59
Education and Physical Education in the 1600-1800s
  • Phillipp Von Fellenberg (1771-1844) based his
    ideas on Pestalozzi who began a very successful
    vocational school of labor. He felt that his
    students had enough activity through a planned
    curriculum of manual labor, but allowed his
    students outdoor activities as free choices in
    their leisure time.
  • Freidrich Froebal (1782-1852) developed a theory
    of play based on his observations of Pestalozzis
    school. He stressed that play was essential to
    the education and development of children. He
    began a kindergarten in Germany and put his ideas
    into practice.

60
Education and Physical Education in the 1800s
  • From about 1800 onward, educational theories in
    Europe moved rapidly to the United States as
    immigrants brought many ideas with them. Many
    educational developments were concurrent on both
    continents by 1850, but developing American
    educational practices were strongly based on the
    work of the nineteenth-century European theorist
    (Freeman, 1997).

61
Questions
  • Define humanistic realists, social realists, and
    sense realists?
  • Should teachers be professionally trained?
  • Define the mind?
  • Define the body?
  • What does a sound mind in a sound body mean?
  • Why is this period known as the age of reason and
    enlightenment?
  • Why do children learn through recreational
    activities as well as PE and can it improve their
    health?

62
The seeds of modern sport
  • The transition to modern sport began during the
    1700s as some sporting activities started to
    develop higher levels of organization and
    standardized rules.
  • For example the Jockey Club was formed in 1750 as
    an organization of rich owners and horse
    breeders. Club members began to write rules for
    racing, appoint officials and assess penalties
    for breaking the rules. The Marlybone cricket
    club was founded in 1787 and they quickly
    standardized the sport.
  • The Royal and Ancient Golf Club was founded in
    1754 at St Andrews, Scotland and they published
    and standardized the rules of golf, with 18 holes
    being introduced by 1764. In boxing the
    Broughtons Rules were introduced in 1741,
    which became the London Prize Fighting Rules in
    1838 and eventually the Queensburys Rules in
    1867.

63
The seeds of modern sport
  • These sports were held on Monday and Tuesday to
    enable spectators to view them. They were not
    held on Sundays. The tempo of the work increased
    as the week progressed and so Monday was regarded
    as a holiday.
  • The increase in town population and cities
    brought sports events to a greater forum and a
    fee paying basis, as people left villages to work
    in the towns.

64
Nineteenth-century European Physical Education
and Sport
  • There is no clear demarcation between the
    eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in European
    physical education. The philosophies and
    experimental schools of the 1700s produced the
    progress of the 1800s.
  • During the 1800s Napoleon was put to rest, but
    the unrest of the populace during 1815-1850 saw
    many rebellions. National pride was at an all
    time high. Many sought to establish educational
    systems to strengthen their nations. Those
    disenchanted with European life were leaving for
    the United States.

65
Nineteenth-century European Physical Education
and Sport
  • Freidrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852) a German
    educator is often considered the father of
    gymnastics. He began using an open area, which he
    called the turnplatz or exercise group, which was
    basically a playground with apparatus for
    exercises. It later spread and was called
    Turnvereins.
  • He went to prison for his political views and
    Adolf Spiess (1810-1858) carried his ideas
    forward. He developed the ideas of Guts Muth and
    Froebel into the Gymnastics Manual for Schools.
    This manual classified exercises by difficulty
    and by appropriate age and sex. He developed
    exercises that required almost no apparatus. He
    used musical accompaniment for those activities.
  • He also stressed that professionally trained
    specialists should only be allowed to teach
    gymnastics. He wanted indoor areas as well as
    outdoors to ensure all year round activity. He
    also stressed his gymnastics was for girls
    especially the free exercises. His system also
    included marching, and this emphasized discipline
    and obedience.

66
Nineteenth-century European Physical Education
and Sport
  • Franze Nichtegall (1777-1847) is the father of
    Danish physical education, inspired by Guts Muth
    in 1804 he was made director of the newly
    established Military Gymnastics Institute, which
    prepared teachers of gymnastics first for the
    military and then later for schools. He was also
    a promoter of Per Henrik Lings Swedish system of
    Gymnastics.
  • Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839) was the founder of
    Swedish gymnastics, although he was influenced by
    Nachegalls work while living in Denmark. He
    returned to Sweden and became the Director of the
    new Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in 1814
    where he used simple, fundamental movements for
    both educational and military purposes. The
    system was fully developed by his son.

67
Nineteenth-century European Physical Education
and Sport
  • Archibald Maclaren (1820-1884) had a major
    influence on physical training in England. He
    designed a physical training program for the
    military, which encompassed body exercise as well
    as the use of apparatus.
  • Above all, Maclaren stressed a balance between
    recreational activities and educational
    activities. His gymnastics never took hold in
    England, but his writings were a major influence
    on physical education in England until the late
    1800s.

68
Questions
  • Define clearly what marks the development of
    modern sport?
  • What was the background to modern sports
    development?
  • Define modern sport?
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