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Latin Americans in the American Political Process


Chicano is a Political/ideological term and Spanish American is preferred in New ... Diversity: Culturally, linguistically, racially, religiously, in assimilation rate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Latin Americans in the American Political Process

Latin Americans in the American Political Process
Latino Population
  • In 2007, by nationality
  • Mexican 29,189,334
  • Puerto Rican 4,114,701
  • Central/South American 6,033,333
  • Cuban 1,608,835
  • Other Hispanic 4,432,393
  • Total 45,378,596

Latino Population of the U.S. by Origin,2007
Latino Population
  • Diversity in educational attainment,
    occupational mobility, nationality,
    socio-economically, generational status
  • Disagreement in terms Hispanic is preferred on
    the east coast and Latino on the west coast
  • Chicano is a Political/ideological term and
    Spanish American is preferred in New Mexico

Where Most Latin Americans Live, 2007
Where Most Latin Americans Live, 2007
Population by Race and Ethnicity, Actual and
Projected 1960, 2005, and 2050
Latino Population
  • ¾ reside in five states CA (40), TX (19), NY
    (9), FL (8), IL (4)
  • In 1960 constituted 9.6 of L.A. county
    population. By 1990, 37.8
  • One of every 4 persons living in poverty in the
    U.S. is of Hispanic origin
  • Median Age 26.6 compared to 36.9 for
    non-Hispanic white
  • By 2025, will comprise 19 of U.S. population. By
    2050, 29

Latino Population
  • By year 2070 will constitute about 1/3 of U.S.
  • Today, approx. 30 speak only or mostly English
  • 1/3 speak Spanish at work, 60 at home, ¾ listen
    to Spanish radio
  • 86 are urban dwellers compared to 73 for total
  • Diversity Culturally, linguistically, racially,
    religiously, in assimilation rate

Household Income Trends, 1979-2003
Statistical Portrait of Latinos in the United
States, 2007Households by Income, Race
Ethnicity, 2007
People in Poverty Trends, 1979-2003
Latino Identity
  • Panethnicity - refers to a common identity and
    sense of solidarity among Latinos from different
  • While there is considerable diversity among
    Hispanics, a number of factors tend to bring the
    Hispanic community together

Latino Identity
  • 1. Language
  • 2. Spanish formatted television stations
  • 3. English and Spanish periodicals aimed at the
    Hispanic community
  • Divisions remain
  • culturally
  • Multiple subcultures
  • Mexican vs. Mexican American
  • Central American vs. South American
  • Puerto Rican vs. Dominican vs. Cuban

Latino Identity
  • politically
  • Cubans vote more Republican
  • Mexican Puerto Rican vote more Democrat
  • economically
  • Varying degrees of affluence, poverty rates,
    occupational mobility, social class among Latinos
  • Immigrant vs. 2nd or 3rd generation status

Latino Identity
  • racially
  • Color gradient recognizing the 22 shades of
    skin color between black and white
  • Historical amalgamation
  • national identity
  • Anglo/Dominant group tends to group all Latinos
    together not recognizing differences
  • Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens

The Language Divide
  • Bilingualism - involves the use of two or more
  • Bilingual educational
  • 1. English as a Second Language program
  • Most common program but most lack a bicultural
  • 2. English immersion program

The Language Divide
  • Problems in implementing bilingual education
  • 1. Lack of teachers to incorporate a Bicultural
  • 2. The number of languages spoken by children and
    the lack of qualified teachers
  • 3. Ethnocentrism
  • Research results on bilingual education

Official Language Movement
  • The 1980s and 1990s saw an increase in attacks
    on bilingualism
  • Political
  • Education
  • Decline in Federal support for bilingual programs
  • An increase in the number of States that have
    passed laws making English the States official
  • California and Proposition 227 end to bilingual
  • Attacks on bilingual education

Growing Political Presence
  • Voting rights
  • Banning literacy tests
  • In 1975 Congress moved in the direction that
    resulted in legislation that provided for
    multilingual election ballots in areas with at
    least a 5 minority population

Growing Political Presence
  • Political trends
  • Increase in registered voters
  • Increased number that vote
  • Less commitment to one party
  • In between major elections, little effort is made
    to count Latino interest except by Latino elected

  • The first Mexican-Americans became Americans with
    the Annexation of the Southwest and part of the
    Northwest after the Mexican-American war
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848
  • Under the treaty the new Americans were
    guaranteed rights of citizenship, rights to
    property and their cultural traditions, including
  • The loss of land and the lack of legal protection
    after the treaty
  • Land conflict with Anglo ranchers made
    Mexican-Americans outsiders on their own land

Immigrant Experience
  • Immigration from Mexico has been continuous in
    part because of the proximity of the two borders
  • Lack of restrictive immigration policy directed
    towards Mexicans until the second half of this
  • The proximity of the two countries and the
    maintenance of cultural ties.
  • Mexican-American immigration both documented and
    undocumented is a function of a combination of
    push and pull factors
  • Mexican Revolution conflict and immigration
  • Mexican immigration has been tied closely to the
    economies of Mexico and the United States

Immigrant Experience
  • Agribusiness interests
  • Migration patterns to the Midwest and elsewhere
  • Population growth and immigration
  • The Great Depression of the 1930s and the push
  • for repatriation
  • The economic effect and personal impact of
  • repatriation on Mexican-Americans
  • Demand for labor during World War II and the
  • bracero program
  • Conflict between the braceros workers and
  • Mexican-American workers
  • Economic competition for jobs and Operation
  • Wetback and undocumented workers from Mexico

Political Organization
  • César Chavez and migrant farm
  • workers movement
  • Economic and social conditions
  • La Raza - pride in ones Spanish,
  • Native American and Mexican heritage.
  • Texas La Raza Unida Party

Political Organization
  • Chicanismo - emerged in part among
  • Mexican-American college students in
  • the 1960s
  • Chicanismo - influenced by the civil
  • rights movement
  • Chicanismo - emphasized political self
    determination and ethnic pride

Political Organization
  • Reies Lopez Tijerina - in 1963 formed the Alianza
    Federal de Mercedes (Federal Alliance of Land
  • Purpose of the organization was to recover lost
  • In 1967 Mexican American Legal Defense and
    Education Fund was formed (MALDEF)
  • Pursue issues through the courts

  • Maquiladoras - foreign-owned and established
    businesses on the Mexican side of the border
  • Job exportation from the manufacturing North in
    the United States and the exploitation of Mexican
  • Migradollars or remittances

The Borderlands
Cuban Americans
  • Patterns of immigration
  • Cuban settlements in Florida date back to the
    early nineteenth century
  • Where small communities organized around single
    family enterprises

Cuban Americans
  • Since the Cuban Revolution in 1959, there have
    been successive groups of immigrants
  • First About 200,000 came during the first three
    years after Castro came into power
  • Second Freedom flights - another 340,000 came
    from 1965-1973
  • Third Mariel - another 124,000 came in the
    freedom flotilla (Mariel controversy)
  • Fourth In 1994 - economic push factors

The Present Picture Cuban Americans
  • The influence of Cuban Americans
  • Miami area
  • In Urban centers
  • Generational relations among Cubans
  • Generational clash between cultures (parent and
  • Cuba and Cubans
  • Inter-ethnic relations between Cubans and other
    Hispanics at times have been strained
  • Adjustments were made by Cuban immigrants with
    the loss of income and family roles
  • Long-range perspective of Cubans in the U.S.
    depends on several factors

Central and South Americas
  • Central and South Americans came from
  • historically different experiences and times
  • culturally diverse backgrounds
  • Color gradient and race in the United States

Central and South Americans
  • Immigration has been influenced by a number of
    push and pull factors
  • U.S. immigration laws
  • Social and economic forces in their home country
  • War and persecution
  • Economic deprivation

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Puerto Rico
Puerto Ricans
  • Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States from
    Spain after the the Spanish-American War of 1898
  • Puerto Rico has been a United States colony since
    1898 (Commonwealth Status since 1948)
  • Puerto Ricans have been subjected to bureaucratic
    (Political) control by the United States

Puerto Ricans
  • Initial colonial policy had a devastating effect
  • on Language
  • on Puerto Rican cultural institutions
  • Jones Act of 1917 and United States citizenship
  • Have most rights except do not pay federal
    income taxes and do not vote for President or
    have voting members to Congress/Senate
  • In 1948 it became a commonwealth

Island and the Mainland
  • A number of push and pull factors have led to
    migration from the Island to the mainland
  • Economic underdevelopment and the pull of jobs on
    the mainland
  • Farm labor contracts
  • Overpopulation
  • Cheap airfares
  • Puerto Rican communities (New York City) on the

Island and the Mainland
  • Neoricans - term used by The Islanders to refer
    to Puerto Ricans that have lived in New York
  • Neoricans are often better educated and have more
    money than Puerto Ricans from the Island
  • Often resented by long time Islanders

Island of Puerto Rico
  • Commonwealth status and neocolonialism
  • Issues of Statehood and Self-Rule
  • In 1998 in the last vote over the issue 50
    favored commonwealth status , 47 statehood and
    3 favored independence
  • Only Puerto Ricans on the Island may vote
  • NAFTA and growing competition with Mexico and
    Canada for United States dollars
  • The debate goes on.

Political Issues
  • Puerto Rican Legal Defense Education Fund -
  • Educational status and issues
  • Increasing segregation
  • 1. Function of residential segregation in large
    metropolitan areas
  • 2. Increase in population as desegregation
    movement began to decline
  • 3. Desegregated schools have become resegregated

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Between 1990 and 2008, the number of Hispanic
jail inmates increased at a faster average annual
rate of growth (4.5) than white (3.8) and black
inmates (3.3)
Demographic Trends in Jail Populations
Source Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional
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Present View
  • Many immigrants have problems because they came
    to the United States without the proper documents
  • Many were professionals and had to adjust to
    downward mobility
  • lower status jobs
  • Unemployment
  • Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 -
    Brain drain

  • Ending Segregation with Mendez v. Westminster
  • Isolation in the classroom because of tracking
    (placing students in specific classes or
    curriculum groups on the basis of testing or
    other measures)
  • Educational effect of tracking
  • Bilingual educational programs
  • Higher education
  • Adjusting to college and campus life dominated by
  • Dealing with prejudice
  • Economic cost of college

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Educational Attainment by Race Ethnicity, 2007
Statistical Portrait of Latinos in the United
States, 2007
Research by The Tomas Rivers Policy Institute
(TRPI) has shown that college financial aid
opportunities abound in the form of scholarships,
grants, and loans. Yet many Latino students
and their parents are not aware that numerous
grants and scholarships are earmarked especially
for them.
California Latino Youth Perceptions of College
Financial Aid
  • 98 of respondents felt it was important to have
    a college education
  • 38 of respondents did not feel the benefits of
    college outweigh the cost
  • Over half of all respondents erroneously thought
    students have to be U.S. citizens to apply for
    college financial aid
  • Few respondents could accurately estimate the
    cost of attending either a UC or the CSU
  • There is a lack of familiarity with government
    grants for education

Tomas Rivers Policy Institute, June 2006 study
Latinos And Education Explaining the Attainment
  • Nearly nine-in-ten (89) Latino youths say that a
    college education is important for success in
  • Yet only about half that number (48) say that
    they themselves plan to get a college degree
  • Nearly 74 of respondents who cut their education
    short during or right after high school say they
    did so to support the family

National survey conducted Aug.5 to Sept. 16, 2009
by Pew Hispanic Center
  • Hispanic community lack of access to healthcare
  • Function of poverty and employment patterns
  • Use of folk practitioners - traditional folk
    remedies or curanderismo
  • Form of holistic medicine

  • Religion is the most important formal
    organization in the Hispanic community
  • Roman Catholic church
  • Early on, took an assimilation role
  • Today, more community oriented
  • Hispanic role in the church has grown
  • Worship (more expressive)
  • Hispanics underrepresented in the clergy
  • PentecostalismEvangelical Christianity within
    Hispanic American communities

Religious Preferences
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Latino/Hispanic Political Activists and Interest
Groups Cuban American National Council
(CANC) Cuban American National Foundation
(CANF) Committee for Cuban Democracy
(CCD) Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute
(CHCI) Dominican American National Roundtable
(DANR) Hispanic Association for Corporate
Responsibility (HACR) Hispanic National Bar
Association (HNBA) Latin American Defense
Organization (LADO) Latin Council for Latin
American Advancement (LCLAA) Latino National
Political Survey (LNPS) League of United Latin
American Citizens (LULAC) Latinos United for
Political Rights (LUPA) Mexican American Legal
Defense an Education Fund (MALDEF) National
Association of Bilingual Educators
(NABE) National Association of Hispanic Dentists
(NAHD) National Association of Hispanic
Journalists (NAHJ) National Association of Latino
Elected and Appointed Officials (NALEO) National
Council of La Raza (NCLR) National Hispanic
Corporate Council (NHCC) Puerto Rican Legal
Defense an Education Fund (PRLDEF) Society of
Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE) Southwest
Voter Registration and Education Project
(SVREP) United Farm Workers (UFW) U.S. Hispanic
Chamber of Commerce (USHCC)
Hispanic Political Action Committees NDN PAC
(New Democrat Network-Hispanic Strategy
Center) Hispanic Action Committee Hispanic CEO
PAC Hispanic Democratic Organization Hispanic PAC
AMERICA Peace Justice Hispanic PAC Latina
Roundtable PAC Latino Alliance Latino Citizens
for Respect Latina PAC Latinos for America PAC
(Non-profit) Honor PAC Building Our Leadership
Diversity PAC
Intergroup Relations Continuum
More information/graphs