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Harvesting Forage

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Rollers vs flail (impeller) conditioners. Dan Undersander-Agronomy 2007 ... Adjust conditioner roller spacing. Measure clearance where 'Crimp' or smallest ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Harvesting Forage


1
Harvesting Forage
  • Dr. Dan Undersander
  • University of Wisconsin

2
Topics
  • Quality loss with advancing maturity
  • Wide swath system
  • Cost of ash in forage
  • Wheel traffic on alfalfa

3
Alfalfa Quality Loss with Advancing Maturity
4
Days without rain at La Crosse
5
Wide swath benefits
  • Faster drying
  • Higher forage quality

6
Sequence of Drying Forages
  • Phase I
  • moisture moves along stem
  • Primary moisture loss is through stomata
  • Phase II
  • Primary moisture loss from the stem surface
  • Phase III
  • Removes tightly held water below 45

7
Sequence of Drying Forages
80
Stomatal openings
70
Conditioning
Moisture
Weather regulated
Osmotic Cell forces
20
Time
8
Legumes 10X more stomata than Grass
9
Stomata Openings
  • Sunlight more they get the more they stay open
  • Shading closes Stomata
  • 20 30 of water removed before stomata close
  • Removes 30 of the water from the stem (grass)

10
Respiration continues after cutting until lose
some water
Breakdown of starch and sugars
Carbon dioxide
2 8 of Dry Matter loss
11
(No Transcript)
12
Relative humidity inside windrow
13
Wide swath
14
(No Transcript)
15
Mower-conditioner Swath Width Study (Windrow 33
and Swath 65 of Cutting Width)
16
Alfalfa Moisture Content after 6 Hours
Conditioned?
Herzmann, 2004, Univ of Wisconsin
17
Alfalfa Moisture Content after 6 Hours
  • Conditioned increased drying rate
  • Wide swath increased drying more

Conditioned?
Herzmann, 2004, Univ of Wisconsin
18
Maximum swath width versus cutting width
Maximum Swath Width Cutting Width
19
Moisture content of alfalfa 5.5 hours after
cutting with various windrow width to cut width
ratios, WI Farm Technology Days, 2002
20
Put hay into wide swath Keep off of ground
21
Mower Conditioner Options
  • Sickle Cutterbar - roll conditioner
  • Disk Cutterbar - roll conditioner
  • Disk Cutterbar - impeller conditioner

22
Cross Section of Crop Stem
23
Conditioned hay
24
Conditioner types
  • Flail/impellers
  • Rubber Rolls

25
Rollers vs flail (impeller) conditioners
26
Roll and Impeller Comparison
  • Roll creates a crushing action
  • Impeller creates a stripping action
  • Impeller tends to have higher losses
  • Roll with rotary mower will leave strips in light
    crops (Limited air through rear of machine)

27
Drying Rate Comparisons
  • Cutterbar Conditioner Drying Rate
  • Rotary Roll 0
  • Sickle Roll .2 hr
  • Rotary Impeller 1.8 hr

28
Conditioner drying rates
Alfalfa
Grass
29
Comparison of Losses() Wisconsin Study
30
Conditioner field losses
  • Flail conditioners have 2 to 3 higher field
    losses with alfalfa.
  • The loss is all leaves so forage quality is
    significantly reduced.

Stems
Leaves
31
Adjust conditioner properly
  • Tension on rollers
  • Spacing of rollers

32
Adjust conditioner roller spacing
Measure clearance where Crimp or smallest
clearance occurs
33
(No Transcript)
34
What is ash?
  • In forages, 2 sources.
  • Internal sources (e.g. minerals like calcium,
    magnesium, potassium, phosphorous).
  • External sources (e.g. dirt, sand, bedding).

35
Why should ash be a concern?
  • Ash provides minerals to the diet, but no
    calories (i.e. energy).
  • Takes the place of nutrients on almost a 11
    basis.

36
What about research looking directly at the
effect of ash in the forage in milk production?
  • While there have been few dairy research trials
    in this area, it is highly likely that cows do
    not milk well when fed dirt.

Pat Hoffman, Dairy Scientist, Marshfield ARS, 2002
37
What levels of ash should you expect in a forage
test?
38
Ash Content of Forage Samples
  • Raking increases ash content of forage

39
Lodged Alfalfa
Possible Causes of Higher Levels of Ash in Forages
40
Disk Cutterbar
Possible Causes of Higher Levels of Ash in Forages
Cutting height
41
Wheel Rakes
42
Mower knife type
Those knives that pick up hay better, also pick
up more ash
43
Percent Ash in First Cutting Growth of Alfalfa
Hoffman and Others, Marshfield Agricultural
Research Station, 1991
44
Rake properly
45
What can you do?
  • Cut hay onto layer of stubble
  • Keep hay off ground
  • Wide swath
  • Set rake not touch soil
  • Merge rather than rake

46
Typical Forage Harvesting Losses
Field curing -26
29 Fed 71 Lost
Harvesting -14
Storage -35
Feeding -30
47
Optimum Management
Field curing -12
71 Fed 29 Lost
Harvesting -8
Storage -5
Feeding -8
48
Reducing the cost of a ton of forage
If forage costs 50 / ton to produce
Cost of fed forage is 172/ton
Cost of fed forage is 70/ton
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