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Interacting with

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A standard computer keyboard has about 100 keys. Most ... The mouse is a pointing device. ... Touch-screens are useful for selecting options from menus. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interacting with


1
essential concepts
lesson 2
Interacting with the Computer
2
  • This lesson includes the following sections
  • The Keyboard
  • The Mouse and Its Variants
  • Alternative Methods of Input
  • Monitors
  • Sound Systems
  • Printers

3
The Keyboard
  • A standard computer keyboard has about 100 keys
  • Most keyboards have keys arranged in five groups
  • 1. Alphanumeric keys
  • 2. Numeric keypad
  • 3. Function keys
  • 4. Modifier keys
  • 5. Cursor-movement keys


4





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5
The Mouse and Its Variants
  • Using a Mouse
  • Variations of the Mouse

6
The Mouse and Its Variants - Variations of the
Mouse
The mouse is a pointing device. You use it to
move a graphical pointer on the screen and to
issue commands without using the keyboard. Using
the mouse involves five techniques.
  • Pointing Move the mouse to move the on-screen
    pointer.
  • Clicking Press and release the left mouse
    button
  • once.
  • Double-clicking Press and release the left
    mouse
  • button twice.
  • Dragging Hold down the left mouse button as you
  • move the pointer.
  • Right-clicking Press and release the right
    mouse button.

7
Variants of the Mouse - Trackballs
  • A trackball is like a mouse turned upside-down.
    Use your thumb to move the exposed ball and your
    fingers to press the buttons.
  • A trackpad is a touch-sensitive pad that provides
    the same functionality as a mouse. To use a
    trackpad, you glide your finger across the
    surface.
  • An integrated pointing device is a small joystick
    built into the keyboard. To use an integrated
    pointing device, you move the joystick.


8
Many styles of trackballs are available
9
Alternative Methods of Input
  • Devices for the Hand
  • Optical Input Devices
  • Audio-Visual (Multimedia) Input Devices

10
Alternative Methods of Input - Devices for the
Hand
  • With a pen-based system, you use an electronic
    pen to write directly on the screen and choose
    commands. Pens are common input devices for
    handheld computers, like PDAs.
  • Touch-screen systems accept input directly
    through the monitor by detecting the touch of a
    finger. Touch-screens are useful for selecting
    options from menus.
  • The two primary types of game controllers are
    joysticks and game pads. Game pads usually
    provide controls for each hand. Joysticks are
    popular for flight simulator and driving games..

11
The user can point, tap, draw and write on the
computers screen with a pen.
12
Alternative Input Devices - Optical Input Devices
  • Bar code readers can read bar codespatterns of
    printed bars. The reader emits light, which
    reflects off the bar code and into a detector in
    the reader. The detector translates the code
    into numbers.
  • Image scanners digitize printed images for
    storage and manipulation in a computer. Optical
    character recognition (OCR) software translates
    scanned text into editable electronic documents.


13
Bar code readers commonly track sales in retail
stores
14
Alternative Input Devices - Audio-Visual
(Multimedia) Input Devices
  • Microphones can accept auditory input. A
    microphone requires a sound card in the PC, to
    digitize analog sound signals, and convert
    digital sound signals to analog form.
  • PC video cameras digitize full-motion images.
    Digital cameras capture still images. These
    cameras break images into pixels and store data
    about each pixel.


15
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16
Monitors
  • Categories of Monitors
  • CRT Monitors
  • Flat-Panel Monitors
  • Comparing Monitors
  • Video Controllers



17
Monitors - Categories of Monitors
Monitors are categorized by the technology they
use
  • Cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors
  • Flat-panel displays

18
Monitors - CRT Monitors
  • In CRT monitors, electrons are fired at phosphor
    dots on the screen.
  • The dots are grouped into pixels, which glow when
    struck by electrons.

19
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20
Monitors - Flat-Panel Monitors
  • Most flat-panel monitors use liquid crystal
    display (LCD) technology.
  • Passive matrix LCD uses a transistor for each row
    and column of pixels.
  • Active matrix LCD uses a transistor for each
    pixel on the screen.
  • Thin-film transistor displays use multiple
    transistors for each pixel.


21
Monitors - Comparing Monitors
When comparing monitors, consider four features
  • Size
  • Resolution
  • Refresh rate
  • Dot pitch


22
Monitors - Video Controllers
  • The video controller is an interface between the
    monitor and the CPU.
  • The video controller determines many aspects of a
    monitor's performance, such as resolution or the
    number of colors displayed.
  • The video controller contains its own on-board
    processor and memory, called video RAM (VRAM).

23
Sound Systems
  • Multimedia PCs come with a sound card, speakers,
    and a CD-ROM or DVD drive.
  • A sound card translates digital signals into
    analog ones that drive the speakers.
  • With the right software, you can use your PC to
    edit sounds and create special sound effects.


24
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25
Printers
  • Categorizing Printers
  • Evaluating Printers
  • Dot Matrix Printers
  • Ink Jet Printers
  • Laser Printers

26
Printers - Categorizing Printers
Printers fall into two categories
  • Impact printers use a device to strike an inked
    ribbon, pressing ink from the ribbon onto the
    paper.
  • Non-impact printers use different methods to
    place ink (or another substance) on the page.


27
Printers - Evaluating Printers
When evaluating printers, consider four criteria
  • Image quality Measured in dots per inch (dpi).
    Most printers produce 300 600 dpi.
  • Speed Measured in pages per minute (ppm) or
    characters per second (cps).
  • Initial cost Consumer printers cost 250 or
    less, but professional printers can cost
    thousands of dollars.
  • Cost of operation This refers to the cost of
    supplies used by the printer.


28
Printers - Dot Matrix Printers
  • Dot matrix printers are a common type of impact
    printer.
  • A dot matrix printer's print head contains a
    cluster of pins. The printer can push the pins
    out to form patterns in rapid sequence.
  • The pins press an inked ribbon against the paper,
    creating an image.


29
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30
Printers Ink Jet Printers
  • Ink jet printers are an example of non-impact
    printers.
  • The printer sprays tiny droplets of ink onto the
    paper.
  • Ink jet printers are available for color and
    black-and-white printing.

31
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32
Laser Printers How Do Laser Printers Work?
  • Laser printers are non-impact printers.
  • They use heat and pressure to bond particles of
    toner to paper.
  • Laser printers are available for color and
    black-and-white printing.

33
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34
lesson 2 review Essential concepts
  • Identify the five key groups on a standard
    computer keyboard.
  • Identify the five essential techniques for using
    a mouse.
  • List three categories of alternative input
    devices.
  • Name two categories of computer monitor.
  • List the four criteria you should consider when
    evaluating monitors.
  • List the three most commonly used types of
    printers.

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