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Tools of the Historian


Historians study what archaeologists find and write about the past. ... Look for credibility or truthfulness. What is the author's point of view ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tools of the Historian

Tools of the Historian
  • World History Journey Across Time

Historians Archaeologists
  • Archaeologists are scientists who dig up the
    remains of the past.
  • Historians study what archaeologists find and
    write about the past.
  • They study how people lived, what happened to
    them, and what happened around them.
  • They research and organize the data.
  • They look for the causes and effects of events.

How do Archaeologists Work?
Measuring Time
  • Historians rely on calendars and the dating of
    events to measure time.
  • Calendars developed by many civilizations and
    based on important events in their history.
  • Christian based on when Jesus was born.
  • Muslim dates based on Muhammad
  • Jewish based on Jewish belief of creation of
    the world.
  • Dating Events We use the Western or Christian
  • B.C. (before Christ) events before Jesus was born
  • A.D. (anno domini or in the year of Our Lord)
    events after Jesus was born
  • Count backwards from A.D. 1 for events before
    Jesus was born.
  • B.C. is listed after the number A.D. is listed
    before the number.
  • 183 B.C. or A.D. 183

Organizing Time
  • Historians organize history by dividing it into
    blocks of time.
  • Periods of History also called eras, are blocks
    of time that have common events.
  • Pre-history
  • Middle Ages
  • Blocks of time
  • 10 years is a decade
  • 100 years is a century
  • Numbered since Jesus was born.
  • We live in the 21st century.
  • 1,000 years is a millennium

What is a Time Line?
  • A diagram that shows the order of events within a
    period of time.
  • Interval is even 100 years or 10 years etc.
  • If the time span is too long to show all the
    events, a slanted line (//) may be used to show a
    break in the even spacing.
  • Includes dates of important events that happen in
    a particular place.
  • Can be stacked to show events in different places
    at the same time.

How Does a Historian Work?
  • Historians study a variety of sources to learn
    about the past.
  • Where is the evidence?
  • Primary sources firsthand evidence from people
    who saw or experienced an event.
  • Written documents such as diaries, letters,
    official documents.
  • Spoken interviews
  • Objects such as pictures, clothing, tools,
  • Secondary sources created after the event by
    who were not there.
  • Biographies, encyclopedias, and other books.
  • Stories passed through generations

How a Historian Works
  • Examining Sources
  • Determine where and when a source was created
  • Also look at why the source was created.
  • Was it a private document or a public one?
  • Can the Source Be Trusted?
  • Look for credibility or truthfulness
  • What is the authors point of view
  • Bias - unreasoned, emotional judgment
  • Look at many different sources to collaborate

Cause and Effect
  • Historical events are linked by cause and effect.
  • Cause is what makes an event happen
  • Event is the event that happens
  • There can be multiple causes of an event, and
    multiple effects that result from a cause.

History and Geography
  • Historians try to understand how climate,
    landforms, and human activities have shaped past
  • Location absolute/relative location
  • Place its characteristics
  • Human/Environment Interaction how people are
    changed by or change the environment
  • Movement exchange of goods, ideas, and
    information. Transportation and movement of
  • Region common features that bring areas
  • Can be defined by physical, political, or human

What is a Historical Atlas?
  • Maps give information about areas of the world at
    different periods of history.
  • Historical Maps show political events such as
    battles, invasions, and boundary changes.
  • Historical Routes show the way people or goods
    have traveled through history.