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Title: Autumn EDGE Lecture 9


1
Autumn EDGE Lecture 9
  • Update on Thailand Coup
  • Elections in Latin America
  • Rebuilding Lebanon
  • International Peace Initiatives and Moon and Mars
  • Student Report Schedules
  • Religious War and Peace,
  • Rwanda, Sri Lanka,Global Warming and Energy,
    Ghana and Africa Development
  • Brazil Development, Bolivia

2
BANGKOK, Oct. 23 (TNA) - Thailand's top central
bank official said the government's budget for
next year of Bt100 billion (about US2.7
billion) deficit is at an appropriate level for
the country's economic development. Crocodile
alert as reptiles escape illegal farms in flood
zones Former PM Thaksin likely to return home
when martial law ends PM counsels prudence
lifting martial law still difficult BANGKOK, Oct
22 (TNA) The privately-run Federation of Thai
Industries (FTI) has asked the government to
construct a deep sea port on the Andaman sea to
help boost exports, a senior FTI official said.
3
"Don't interfere" in Nicaragua vote, OAS tells
U.S.Sun Oct 22, 2006 151 AM BST
  • MANAGUA, Nicaragua (Reuters) - Election monitors
    from the Organisation of American states told
    Washington on Saturday not to meddle in
    Nicaragua's presidential election, which polls
    show Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega could win.

4
Lula far ahead in Brazil election home
stretchLula da Silva Geraldo Alckmin
5
Hezbollah leads reconstruction raceIn Beirut's
southern suburbs, the evidence of a month of
devastating Israeli airstrikes remains.
Lebanese Hizbullah supporters sweep the street in
a destroyed residential area in southern Beirut.
Photograph Kevin Frayer/AP Turkish soldiers
unload armoured personnel carrier from warship at
Beirut port
6
Firms seek share of Lebanon rebuilding By ZEINA
KARAM, Associated Press Writer Sun Oct 15, 209
PM ET
BEIRUT, Lebanon - A giant billboard east of
Beirut shows a dapper figure with a top hat and
cane, striding across a broken bridge with the
slogan "Keep Walking." Many of the new
billboards were erected by banks advertising
low-interest loans and touting the country's
entrepreneurial spirit and resiliency despite the
devastation of war. "No matter how cloudy it
gets, Lebanon's sun will shine again," reads an
ad for Bank Audi, one of the country's leading
financial institutions.
7
Baalbeck's Temple of Bacchus LEBANON home of
religious strife and worship Roman, Jewish,
Christian (Orthodox and Western) and Moslem
TraditionsTyre (Hebrew Zor Latin Tyrus) is an
ancient Phoenician city in southern Lebanon. In
the first century AD, it was the home of a
Christian community visited by St. Paul
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Mars Mission Components
14
Mars Mission Components (2)
15
1991 E235 Stanford-Russian Mars Study Team
  • Kamran Ashan Ali Yuri Ivschenko Bill Mills
  • Eric Bruni Muthu Jeganathan Eugenii
    Narimanov
  • Grace Chang Olivier Journet Bill Neuenfeldt
  • Stacey Cotton Vladimir Kotkin Dinh Ngo
  • Dave Ellis Daniel Kraft Jack Peters
  • Sally Fellenzer Jeff Kruczinski Louis
    Rosenberg
  • Rich Fuller Mike Lauer Sergei Stoiko
  • Mike Garceau Olivier Lesbre Mani Tamilan
  • John Gibb Dick McGrath Sam Yang
  • John lacometti Eric Miles Denotes
    Russian Team

16
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  • NASA SCIENTISTS TO CONTROL RUSSIAN ROVER
    EXPLORING VOLCANO
  • From a laboratory in California, NASA scientists
    next week will drive a modified Russian planetary
    rover around the most active volcano on Earth.
  • Scientists at NASA's Ames Research Center,
    Moffett Field CA, will use Russia's modified
    Marsokhod rover to conduct field tests simulating
    remote-controlled exploration of the Moon and
    Mars from laboratories on Earth. Tests will be
    conducted Feb. 13-18 in Hawaii Volcanoes National
    Park on the Big Island of Hawaii.

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The Creatrix of Ka Lua (Lemuria) The All-Mother
is buried in the depths of the collective and
personal Intuition Any system of thought or
practice that aims at unlocking the (once hidden)
Sacred Laws Will eventually cause Her to be Seen
22
  • ILO WORKSHOP GROUP PHOTO CAPTION
  • Front Row Brad Blair, Peter Chen, Doug
    OHandley, Jim Head, UR Rao, Viacheslav Ivashkin,
    Steve Durst, Paul Lowman, Michael Cerney, Marla
    Tanimoto, Katie Stoy.
  • Middle Row Bruce Lusignan, Kohtaro Matsumoto,
    Paul van Susante, David Schrunk,
  • John Kohut, Hitoshi Mizutani, Jim Benson, Ken
    Sunshine, Chris Thomason, Roger Plante.
  • Back Row Jason Ventura, Hemant Dave, Leilehua
    Yuen, Olivier Lai, Daven Maharaj,
  • Chris Sallaberger, Bob Richards, Jean-Luc Josset,
    Robert Strong.

23
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24
  • The first pictures of the backside of the moon
    were obtained by Clementine launched by BMDO for
    only about 80 Million

25
Notes on the Clementine II Science MeetingHeld
at HQ US Air Force Space Command, Peterson AFB,
Colorado Springs 27th - 28th March 1997
Dr. S. Pete Worden (Brig. Gen., USAF, ret.) is
the new NASA Ames Research Center Director. Prior
to becoming Director, Dr. Worden was a Research
Professor of Astronomy, Optical Sciences and
Planetary Sciences at the University of Arizona.
..
  • Colonel SP Worden, the Deputy Director
    Requirements, US Air Force Space Command,
    introduced the meeting, and gave an overview of
    the Clementine programme.Clementine I was
    designed to demonstrate military technology, and,
    at thesame time managed to do some "neat
    science". It was, however, a shame thatthe
    asteroid fly-by element of the mission
    failed.There is high interest in Congress in
    the programme. 45 million has beenallocated,
    along with funds from the US Air Force budget,
    for a follow-onmission (Clementine II). The
    White House has directed that this mission is to
    be a collaborative effort with NASA. This cold
    result in a shuttle launch,allowing a larger
    payload.The USAF has recommended that
    Clementine II should be a deep space mission,
    with a launch date in late 1999 or early 2000,
    and should include interaction with an Earth
    crossing asteroid. NASA will lead the science
    aspects of the mission, while AFSPC will be the
    overall mission leaders.

26
SpaceDevs International Lunar Observatory Mission
  • This unmanned mission is designed to put a small
    dish antenna near the south pole of the Moon.
    From that location it will be in near-constant
    sunlight for solar power generation, and should
    be able to perform multi-wavelength astronomy
    while communicating with ground stations on Earth.

27
  • Mars Sample Return
  •  
  • In 2000, SpaceDev was awarded a subcontract by
    Boeing Space Communications to participate in
    the Mars Ascent Vehicle concept study for the Jet
    Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena,
    California.

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33

Moon Seen as Astronomical Outpost By Leonard
DavidSenior Space Writerposted 1100 am ET17
November 2003. Representatives from various
spacefaring nations, including China, India, and
Japan are taking part in the event, seeking to
develop global and inter-global partnerships to
further a lunar exploration agenda. ..
  • High atop Mauna Kea. The Submillimeter Array is a
    collaborative project of the Smithsonian
    Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica
    Institute of Astronomy Astrophysics of Taiwan.
    CREDIT Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

34
Stanford On the Moon by 2015
35
Lunar Mission Earth-to-Orbit Profile
  • Apollo-Type Program (USA)
  • Total Spacecraft Weight
  • 95,000 lb (43,100 kg) 1
  • Saturn V Launch Vehicle
  • 270,000 lb (122,500 kg) to LEO 1
  • 100,000 lb (45,360 kg) translunar 1

1 NASA Special Publication-4009
36
Separation of Cargo and Crew
  • Concept
  • Use energetic HLLVs to loft heavy
    cargo/vehicles
  • Use lighter and more reliable launch vehicles for
    crew transfer
  • Opposite of Apollo/STS/Buran/SsTO concepts
  • Consistently used by Russia to construct and man
    space stations
  • Reduces cost and Increases Safety
  • Limits Payload returned to Earth
  • NASA Leaning toward this approach in the
    future(phase out STS in favor of CEV)?

2
2
37
Launch Vehicles Considered
  • Arienne 5 (France, ESA)
  • Atlas V (USA, Lockheed)
  • Energiya/Zenit (Russia)
  • Delta IV, Delta IV Heavy(USA, Boeing)
  • H2 (Japan)
  • ChangZheng (Long March) (China)
  • Soyuz (Russia-ESA)
  • Shuttle-C STS Derivative (USA)
  • Kistler K-1
  • Falcon 1 V(SpaceX)
  • Proton (Russia)

38
Shuttle Derivative(The Shuttle-C)
  • Shuttle-C concept devised in the mid 1980s
  • NASA Marshall design for replacement of shuttle
    orbiter with recoverable main engine pod
  • Uses Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters and
    External Fuel Tank
  • Payload
  • 77 metric tons to LEO
  • 8.7 m diam / 56 m length(comparable to Energiya)
  • Cost per Launch?
  • Less than the STS(big deal)
  • 120 - 550 mil USD? 12

Shuttle-CCredit Boeing
12 sci.space.policy newsgroup
39
Delta IV Heavy
  • Country USA
  • Manufacturer Boeing
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 25800
  • GEO (kg) 6300
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 17 / 4.57
  • Flights / success 3/66
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 261 Million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes Booster Upgrade

40
Atlas V
  • Country USA
  • Manufacturer Lockheed Martin
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 12500
  • GEO (kg) 5000
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 12.68 / 3.05
  • Flights / success 4/100
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 142 million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes Upgrades w/ Boosters

41
Ariane 5G
  • Country France
  • Manufacturer EADS
  • Mass (kg) 746,000
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 16,000
  • GEO (kg) N/A
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 9.6/5.4
  • Flights / success 19 / 94.74
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 203 million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes none

42
Proton
  • Country Russia
  • Manufacturer Chelomei
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 21000
  • GEO (kg) 3000
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 2.7 / 2.5
  • Flights / success 5 / 80
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 80 million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes Lunar Upgradable
  • Proton designed for Raketoplan and Lunar Missions
  • The Proton booster would uses only liquid fuels
    storable at room temperature.
  • By adding a third stage and combining the three
    stage vehicle with the Block-D LOX / kerosene
    upper stage, Proton could place large manned
    payload on trans-lunar trajectories.
  • 1980s use in lofting interplanetary probes
  • In 1997, Lockheed Martin signed an agreement with
    Russia to market the Proton Internationally as
    part of their International Launch Services
    subsidiary.

43
H2-A
  • Country Japan
  • Manufacturer Mitsubishi
  • Mass (kg) 289,000
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 11,730
  • GEO (kg) N/A
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 9.2 / 4
  • Flights / success 6 / 100
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 100 million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes none

44
Long March CZ-3B
  • Country China
  • Manufacturer CALT
  • Mass (kg) 425,800
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 11200
  • GEO (kg) N/A
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 12.3 / 3
  • Flights / success 5 / 80
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 81 million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes none

45
China National Space Administration
  • October 15, 2003 first Chinese person in space
  • Lunar probe project announced in February
  • Efficient space program
  • 2 billion budget
  • Cooperating with ESA on Galileo project
  • Could gain ISS access without US approval

46
Astronaut Nie Haisheng (R) talks to
journalists after he and Fei Junlong got out of
the re-entry capsule of the Shenzhou VI spacecaft
at the main landing field in Central Inner
Mongolia Autonomous Region Monday morning October
17, 2005. The module landed 433 A.M. after a
five-day flight
47
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48
Falcon I
  • Country USA
  • Manufacturer Space-X
  • Mass (kg) 27,200
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 670
  • GEO (kg) N/A
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 2.5 / 1.3
  • Flights / success N/A
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 6 million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes re-usable 1st stage

49
Falcon V
  • Country USA
  • Manufacturer Space-X
  • Mass (kg) 129,700
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 4200
  • GEO (kg) 1250
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 3.5 / 2.7
  • Flights / success N/A
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 12.5 million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes re-usable 1st stage

50
Kistler K-1
  • Country USA
  • Manufacturer Korolev
  • Mass (kg) 382,300
  • Payload
  • LEO (kg) 4500
  • GEO (kg) 850
  • Height(m) / Diam.(m) 5.6 / 3.35
  • Flights / success N/A
  • Cost per launch (2005 US)
  • 20.5 million
  • Crew rated no
  • Special attributes wide cargo hold, and
    re-usable 1st and 2nd stages (up to 100 flights)

51
Launch Vehicle Payload Comparison
Price in 2005 U.S.D. computd from 1992 U.S.D.
published in Reference 11. A 1992 to 2003
inflation rate of 28 is used 11.
astronautix.com
52
Lunar Mission Cost Comparison (cont)
Price in 2003 U.S.D. computd from 1992 U.S.D.
published in Reference 11. A 1992 to 2003
inflation rate of 28 is used 11.
53
The Energiya
  • Successor to N1 moon rocket
  • 2 Stage Launch Vehicle(Stanford IMM requires
    additional third stage)
  • Cryogenic core 4 LO2/kerosene strap on boosters
    (Zenit)
  • Length 193 ft (59 m)N1-L3 stood 345 ft (105 m)
  • Payload
  • 88 Tons to LEO
  • 22 Tons to GEO
  • 32 Tons translunar
  • 28 Tons Venus/Mars
  • Track Record
  • May 15,1987, mock-up of Polyus spacecraft
  • Nov. 15, 1988, Buran Orbiter

54
Russian EU Cooperation
Perminov also said that two leading space
companies - the Energia Space and Rocket
Corporation and the Khrunichev Center - would not
be merged in the first stage of the reform but
would be enlarged separately. He also said the
agency had canceled a tender for a new piloted
shuttle Clipper after it was decided that the
project would be managed by Energia with
recommendations from the European Space Agency.
  • The Energia Rocket and Space Corporation plans
    to explore the Moon in three stages a Soyuz
    spacecraft flight to the Moon, the construction
    of a permanent base on the Moon (from 2010 to
    2025), and the industrial exploration of space
    around the Moon, Nikolai Sevastyanov said at the
    5th Airspace Congress in Moscow.

55
  • China, Russia plan moon explorationUpdated2006-0
    9-12 090034
  • Russia will cooperate closely with China on moon
    exploration, and the two nations could sign space
    cooperation agreements by the year's end, the
    Russian space chief said Monday. "Russia is ready
    for close cooperation with China in the field,
  • " Perminov said in remarks posted on his agency's
    Web site. "This is a serious and quite promising
    field of cooperation. In the past the
    Russian-Chinese cooperation have been mostly
    limited to the sales of Russian equipment, but
    now we are considering the development and
    implementation of joint projects."

56
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57

After several years of consideration, Europe
committed to fund the construction of a launch
pad for the Soyuz-2 family of rockets in Kourou.
On November 7, 2003, Russian and French
governments formally agreed to bring Soyuz to
Kourou. With the signing of a formal agreement
between Arianespace and Russian Space Agency on
April 11, 2005, the countdown for the
construction of the launch pad officially started
on April 26, 2005. According to the contract, the
Moscow-based KBOM design bureau had to be ready
for the "all out" tests of the launch pad with
the Soyuz-2 (Soyuz-ST) rocket within 35 months
from the beginning of the construction. The tests
were expected to last for two months, culminating
with the actual launch of the first mission
sometime in 2008, or 37 months after the
beginning of the construction.

58
NASA Names Manned Lunar Spaceship Contractor
  • The vehicle is Orion, named for one of the
    brightest and most recognizable star formations
    in the sky. It will be a multi-purpose capsule --
    the central member of a family of spacecraft and
    shuttle-derived launchers that NASA's
    Constellation Program is developing to carry
    astronauts back to the moon and later to Mars.
    The first flight with astronauts aboard is
    planned for no later than 2014. Orion's first
    flight to the moon is planned for no later than
    2020.
  • The contract with Lockheed Martin has a
    seven-year base valued at about 3.9 billion for
    design, development, testing and evaluation of
    the new spacecraft. Production and sustaining
    engineering activities are contract options worth
    more than 4 billion through 2019.

59
Launch Vehicle Cost Summaries
60
Intelsat Today Boeing Zenit Coventure
61
Shackleton Base Location
  • Selected for ease of access to both light and
    dark regions of the surface
  • Rim of the Shackleton Crater illuminated 80 of
    the time
  • Two nearby locations collectively receive 98
    illumination
  • Regions in the crater lie in permanent shadow

The marked sites indicate the areas with the most
sunlight. Point A is on the rim of the
Shackleton crater1
1http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/297783.stm
62
Purpose
  • To build and maintain a permanent lunar habitat
    through International cooperation by the year
    2015.
  • To create a global peace initiative through space
    agency private business collaboration utilizing
    existing launch technologies.

63
Which Earth Orbit to Use?
  • Which parking orbit around the Earth is better
    before firing into a lunar transfer orbit a
    circular low Earth orbit (LEO), or a more
    elliptical orbit?
  • In both cases, the total ?V is the same from the
    Earths surface to the lunar transfer orbit, but
    the breakdown between the launch and move into
    lunar transfer orbit varies greatly.

64
Direct to Lunar Orbit
65
12-Hour Staging Orbit
66
Arrival at Moon Orbit
67
Space Ferry Orbiter/Utility Planetary Service
(UPS)
  • Crew transport between Earth and lunar orbits
  • Biconic crew module
  • 4 crewmembers
  • 8 day trip
  • Preferred for performance during reentry,
    descent, and landing
  • Attach to Space Tug and Moon Taxi for propulsion
  • Sized to fit in the fairing of either the Delta
    IV Heavy or Ariane launch vehicles
  • UPS Vehicle
  • Transfer cargo between Earth and Moon
  • Space Ferry shell without crew accomodations or
    life support

68
Lunar Taxi Overview
  • Taxi will transfer modules between lunar orbit
    and lunar surface
  • Refueled after every cycle using fuel depots
  • Max fuel deliverable to lunar orbit by
  • Delta-IVH 10 tons
  • 3 Scenarios
  • Land with payload, return to orbit empty
  • Land with payload, return to orbit with payload
  • Land without payload, return to orbit with payload

69
Lunar Taxi Specs
  • Tanks hold 10 tons of UDMH/N2O4 at O/F ratio of
    2.61
  • Engine needs to be 40 kN
  • Engines currently in production that meet
    requirement
  • YF40 (China) 49 kN
  • RD8 (Ukraine) 78 kN
  • Similar size to Apollo Lunar Module (42 kN)

4.5m
3m
0.8m
1.38m
6m
  • Insert Shawns 3-D picture here

70
Lunar Taxi Scenario 1
Mp Mf (e?V/(Ispg) 1) 1.04 Mf
Mp 10 tons -1.04
F
Mf 1 ton
T
P
Mf 1P 1.04
F
F
Mp 1.04 tons
T
T
gt Pmax 6.58 tons
71
Lunar Taxi Scenario 2
Mp Mf (e?V/(Ispg) 1) 1.04 Mf
P
Mp 10 tons -1.04(1P)
F
Mf 1 ton P
T
P
P
Mf 1.04(1P) 1 P
F
F
Mp 1.04(1P)
T
T
gt Pmax 2.16 tons
72
Lunar Taxi Scenario 3
Mp Mf (e?V/(Ispg) 1) 1.04 Mf
P
Mp 10 tons -1.04(1P)
F
F
Mf 1 ton P
T
T
P
Mf 1.04(1P) 1
F
F
Mp 1.04(1P)
T
T
gt Pmax 3.2 tons
73
Jeep
  • Jeep Crew Excursion Vehicle
  • Manned Unmanned Operation
  • 20(T)/ 25(O) kph speed
  • 45 km range
  • 1m obstacle clearance
  • Multi-mission payload
  • 4 pax 50kg cargo
  • 2 pax 250kg cargo
  • 450 kg cargo remote operation
  • Self-refuel from Base Power Sources

74
Lunar Shack
  • Temporary habitat, to be used while main habitat
    is under construction
  • Crew 2
  • Mission length 7 days (3 day reserve)
  • Dimensions
  • 3.0 m OD, 2.5 m ID x 4 m long
  • 19.6 m3 habitable volume
  • Mass 2175 kg
  • Life Support based on consumable supplies
  • 7 kW H/O fuel cell for power
  • Support hardware and furnishings contained in
    landing platform and refrigerator at end of
    habitat
  • Can be set up, checked out prior to manned landing

75
Zero-G Concepts
76
Habitat Architecture
  • Inflatable Habitat
  • Weight 2.5 tons
  • 20 m long x 4.5 m (OD)
  • 320 m3 habitable volume
  • 4.0 m ID
  • 1 m elevated floor
  • 1 m allocated for equipment rack on either side
  • Given mass of habitat structure, internal
    furnishings will have to be launch and installed
    later

77
CUV
Display Controls common w/ Jeep
Winch
Crane
Spade
Loader
Idler
Drivemotor/ Sprocket
78
CUV
5 m reach
  • Crane

Emplaced spades stabilization
79
Life Support - Water
  • Permanent system will be implemented to increase
    water recovery for long duration mission
  • Two main options
  • ISS WRS
  • VPCAR
  • In development
  • Hamilton Sundstrand Water Processor Assembly (WPA)

http//www.hsssi.com/Applications/SpaceHabitat/WPA
.html
80
Life Support- Supplies
  • Based on NASAs Advanced Life Support (ALS)
    manned mission rubric
  • After 1st supply trip, resupply will consist
    almost entirely of food

http//advlifesupport.jsc.nasa.gov/docs.html
81
Power System
  • 30 kW
  • Shackleton Crater rim has about 80 sunligh
  • Makes solar/fuel cell good initial combination
  • Expansion of base power accomplished with 100 kW
    SAFE-type reactor
  • Launch Requirements
  • Solar/fuel cell system will require 2-3 launches
  • Nuclear reactor will require 1 launch

82
Nuclear Power for Moon Base
83
Nuclear Power system
84
2015 Requirements
  • Lunar Surface
  • Large Inflatable Habitats (2)
  • Pre-fab Hard Habitat
  • 30 kW Solar Power Generator
  • 2 Pax. Moon Jeep (2)
  • Crew Utility Vehicle CUV
  • Ground Exploration Vehicle GEV
  • Lunar Orbit
  • Moon Taxi (2)
  • GPS/Galileo Satellite
  • Crew Transfer Vehicle
  • Lunar Transfer Orbit
  • GPS/Galileo Satellite (3)
  • 12 Hr Orbit
  • Space Tug (2)

85
General Base Distances
Nuclear Reactor
To Crater Rim
Solar Array
1-1.5 km
Shacks
Vehicle Shed
2-3 km between shacks and base site 1-1.5 km
between each shack
Base
86
Base Layout
87
Base Layout
Airlock
Hardened Habitat
Inflatable Habitat Modules
Solar power
CUV
Ferry
Consumables/ Taxi
Jeep
88
Final Lunar Surface Mass
89
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90
2010 Robotic Scouting of Lunar Base Site, Set
up Navigation
91
2011 Stores for Base, Start Earth Station
Moon Transport
92
2012 Man Earth Station, Complete Equipment for
Lunar Base.
93
2013.0 Complete Earth Station, Stage in Moon
Orbit
94
2014 Two Crew Land on Moon, Two in Moon Orbit,
Three in Station
95
2015.0 Major Base Expansion Exploration, Stage
Mars Vehicles
96
2015.5 Lunar Base Expansion Exploration, First
Supply Flights to Mars
97
Cost vs. Budgets
  • Total Launch Cost Range
  • Minimum 5.4 Billion US
  • Maximum 10.4Billion US

International Cooperation is essential !!
- Does not included cost for vehicle or habitat
development, testing, or maintenance.
98
2015 and Beyond Permanent International Moon Base
99
Graphical Concepts
100
Conclusion
  • Through International collaboration, it would be
    possible to produce a permanent manned habitat on
    the Moons surface using currently existing
    launch technology for a fraction of the cost were
    the U.S. to attempt the project alone.
  • This settlement along with the science gained
    from its development and habitation will serve as
    the primary stepping stone for mankinds voyage
    to Mars.

101
On to Mars
102
  • From the Moon to Mars

103
Mars Exploration of Candor Chasm
104
Lunar and Mars Rover Vehicle
105
Canadian Arctic Mars Base
106
Sunset on Mars or the Taklimakan Desert
107
International CooperationWorking Together to
Get to Mars
Cooperação Internacional Trabalhar junto a
começar a Marte Cooperazione Internazionale
Funzionamento insieme da ottenere a
Marte Cooperación Internacional Trabajo junto a
conseguir a Marte
Internationale Mitarbeit Zusammen arbeiten zum
Gelangen an Mars Coopération Internationale
Travailler ensemble à obtenir à
Mars ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????,
????? ????????? ? ?????
  • Melissa Corley E235A 11 March 2004

108
International Technology
  • available from other space-faring nations
  • Combining worldwide existing technology will
    drastically reduce cost for single nation
  • Rest of the world could join and go together
    without U.S.
  • Will hopefully motivate U.S. to join or fall
    behind
  • Political pressures can hold joint venture
    together

109
Cooperation Precedent Already Exists
  • ISS (formula for intl cooperation)
  • Boeing-Zenit Coventure
  • Stanford-Russian studies
  • Mars subsurface radar mapper
  • Defense conversion
  • Universities

110
Defense Conversion
  • Converting SS-18s and Minuteman ICBMs
  • Cheap and peaceful ?
  • Has carried international satellites to orbit
  • Italy
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Malaysia
  • SSTL
  • Stanford SSDL satellites

111
Anousheh Ansari gives a thumb's up early Monday
for the mission, before the launch in
Kazakhstan.Iranian-born American Anousheh Ansari
begins 10-day journey Ansari founded, then
sold, telecommunications company
TEHRAN, Iran (AP) -- Dozens of space travel
enthusiasts, most of them women, burst into
applause at dawn at an observatory near the
capital as the spacecraft carrying the first
Iranian woman to travel into space appeared in
the sky.
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