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China: Internal Crises and Western Intrusion


The Opium War (1839-1841) and Its Causes. Incompatibility of Chinese and Western Worldview ... to to cooperate with secret societies, other rebellions, and Westerners ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: China: Internal Crises and Western Intrusion

China Internal Crises and Western Intrusion
I. The Opium War and the Taiping Rebellion
The Opium War (1839-1841) and Its Causes
  • Incompatibility of Chinese and Western Worldview
  • Failure of Macartney (1793) Amherst (1816)
  • British demand for Chinese Tea
  • East India Company (Arm of British Imperialism)
  • Tax on tea provides 1/10th British govt revenue

How to Pay for Tea?
  • Imbalance of Trade favored China
  • Silver flows into China to pay for Tea
  • Country Trade between India and China did not
    produce balance of trade
  • British finally discovered a product that Chinese
    bought in sufficient quantities to balance trade

Opium Trade
  • Reverses balance of trade
  • Silver flows out of China
  • 1834 East India Co. monopoly abolished
  • Attempt to bypass Canton System
  • Lord Napier represented British Crown violates
    Canton System regulations
  • Chinese withdrawn food cut off trade stopped
  • Napier finally backs down dies in Macao

Lin Zexu (1785-1850)
  • Lin Xexu appointed imperial commissioner to stamp
    out drug trade
  • Appealed to Queen Victoria
  • Demanded foreigners surrender all opium and sign
    a pledge to refrain from selling opium
  • Elliot ordered British merchants to comply
    British government responsible for compensation

Opium War
  • British firms exerted pressure for a military
  • British fired on a merchant ship that had signed
    the pledge Chinese responded with 21 war junks
  • Jan 31, 1840 Governor General of India declares
    war on China
  • August 29, 1842 Treaty of Nanjing ends the war
    over vanquished Chinese

Treaty of Nanjing and the Treaty System
  • Set pattern for later treaties unequal treaties
  • Canton System and Cohong monopoly abolished five
    ports opened up to British trade Hong Kong ceded
    to British
  • Established a Chinese tariff (ave. 5)
  • Extraterritoriality
  • Most-favored-nation

The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
  • Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864)
  • Hakka ethnicity
  • Failed examination candidate
  • Visions
  • Association of God Worshippers and the Heavenly
    Kingdom of Great Peace (Taiping tianguo)

Taiping Ideology
  • Strict, puritanical morality
  • Opium, tobacco, gambling, prostitution, sexual
    misconduct, foot binding prohibited
  • Economic and social egalitarianism
  • Land redistribution equal allotment based on
    soil productivity no private property
  • Political units of 25 families leaders combine
    civil and military duties

The Rebellion
  • Rapid military advance captured Nanjing by 1853
  • Well organized picked up strength as they went
  • Incompetence of government forces
  • Pause in Nanjing interrupted their momentum
  • British adopts policy of neutrality
  • Internal leadership disputes

Rebellion Fails
  • Failure of Taiping Leadership internal strife,
    20,000 killed
  • Inadequate implementation of stated policies
  • Practice did not fit theory e.g., Kings kept
    concubines restricted to others.
  • Missed Opportunities
  • Halted at Nanjing Momentum stalls
  • Religious fanaticism makes it difficult to to
    cooperate with secret societies, other
    rebellions, and Westerners
  • Anti-Confucian rhetoric repelled Confucian
    scholars who otherwise would have supported
    anti-Manchu stance
  • Rule by civilized Manchu preferable to rule by
    barabarized Chinese

Regional Forces
  • Zeng Guofan (1811-1872) Scholar-Official
  • Organized a regional force Hunan Army
  • Paternalistic attitude
  • Generous pay scale
  • Moral indoctrination
  • Use of regional forces
  • Li Hongzhang Anhu Army
  • Ever Victorious Army
  • Ultimately dangerous to the dynasty

Defeat of Taipings
  • Loyalist armies laid siege to Nanjing
  • July 19, 1864 Nanjing falls
  • Bloodbath 100,000 Taipings slaughtered by
    Loyalist armies
  • Official line is they refused to surrender
  • Loyalist armies quell other rebellions

Significance of Taiping Rebellion
  • Scale of Rebellion
  • Geography
  • Loss of Life
  • Rise of Regional Authority
  • Transfer of power from center to provinces
  • Rise of Warlordism
  • Transfer of real power back to Han Chinese
  • Nationalist and Communist Revolutionaries claim
    heritage from Taipings

Taiping Map
II. 1870-1894
The Post-Taiping Revival
  • Xianfeng Emperor dies in 1861
  • His son ascends the throne at young age as the
    Tongzhi Emperor
  • His mother Cixi shares power with Prince Gong as
  • Period known as the Tongzhi Restoration

Tongzhi Restoration
  • For the time being, we have to make use of
    foreigners to train our soldiers, as a scheme for

Self-Strengthening The First Phase
  • Fortify the Qing through selective borrowing from
    the West
  • Military, economic, diplomatic

Zongli Yamen
  • Special office to deal with foreign powers and
    related matters.
  • Appeal to international law, using Henry
    Wheatons Elements of International Law
  • Sponsored foreign language and other
    nontraditional subjects in 1862

Maritime Customs Service
  • Horatio Nelson Lay
  • Robert Hart

Diplomatic Mission to West
  • Anson Burlingame
  • Traveled with a Manchu and Chinese official in
  • Toured Washington and European Capitals

Tianjin Massacre, 1870
  • Rumors spread regarding Catholic orphanage
  • Erupted into mob violence
  • French Consul killed along with 20 foreigners,
    including 10 nuns
  • Mobilized gunboats, Qing investigates
  • Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
    deprived France of Military power
  • Fatal blow to policy of cooperation

The Empress Dowager and the Government
  • Cixi, educated daughter of minor Manchu Official
  • Brought into imperial harem as low ranking
  • Delivered the Xianfeng emperors only son
  • Became co-regent with Prince Gong when her son
    ascended the throne as the Tongzhi Emperor

  • Overseas Education
  • Between 1872-1881 120 young Chinese students sent
    to United States
  • Assimilation to American Culture
  • Abandoned when students denied admission to
  • Focused on domestic education
  • Reform Civil Service Exam

Economic Self-Strengthening
  • Shipping, textile, telegraph, coal mines
  • Government Supervision and Merchant Operation
  • Failed to take off
  • Limited to periphery

Traditional Economic Sector
  • Chinese tea growers unable to compete in world
  • Limited influence of world market on Chinese
    economy cultivation of cotton
  • Agricultural Involution

Missionary Efforts and Christian Influences
  • Protestant Missions established after Treaty
  • Brought secular knowledge, established schools,
    hospitals, orphanages.
  • Limited success

Poor Showing of Christianity
  • Difficulties in translation
  • Christianity associated with Taiping Rebellion
    and unequal treaties
  • Both caused resentment
  • Rice Christians
  • Scurrilous stories and rumors encouraged by elite

III. Foreign Relations
Continued Pressures
  • Western powers begin encroaching on Chinas
    neighbor and/or tributary states

Vietnam and the Sino-French War of 1884-1885
  • China served as model for Nguyen dynasty
  • Early French involvement in Vietnam
  • Assisted Gia-long to seize the throne
  • Catholicism made gains
  • Cochin China
  • 1859 France Seized Saigon
  • Later gains control over three southern provinces
  • Used as base to expand power
  • Established protectorate over Cambodia, Central
    and North Vietnam
  • 1882 France seized Hanoi

Hanoi appeals to China
  • Qing sends troops to protect its Tributary
  • Peace agreement
  • China abandons claim to suzerainty over Vietnam
  • French sovereignty expands to include Vietnam,
    Cambodia, and Laos known as French Indochina
  • British conquered Burma
  • China ceded Macao to Portugal

Korea and the Sino-Japanese War
The Treaty of Shimonoseki