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African

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Triangular=Trans-Atlantic= Middle Passage. European Imperialism. By the 1800s, most European nations ended their participation in the slave trade. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: African


1
African
  • History

2
European Involvement in Africa
  • Trade
  • Christianity
  • Slave Trade
  • Natural resources
  • Modern Technology
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Partitioning of Africa
  • These decisions affect Africa today.

3
TriangularTrans-AtlanticMiddle Passage
4
European Imperialism
  • By the 1800s, most European nations ended their
    participation in the slave trade. The slave trade
    was also referred to as the Middle Passage,
    Transatlantic Trade and Triangular Trade.
    Instead they focused on acquiring natural
    resources like gold, ivory, and rubber. These raw
    materials and new markets were needed because of
    the Industrial Revolution in Europe. Many
    European countries tried to control much of
    Africa, using a practice called imperialism. This
    is the process of building an empire by creating
    colonies abroad and controlling their government,
    trade and culture. The African people living in
    the colonies did not have any say in how they
    were governed.

5
African European
6
Partitioning
  • One of the biggest stories of the NEW
    IMPERIALISM was "THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA", which
    was a sensational issue and well covered in the
    press. In Europe, people followed news of
    colonial conquests and disputes with other
    nations on a daily basis. Governments were under
    constant pressure to acquire more colonies and
    assert their domination over their European
    rivals.Before 1880 only 10 of Africa was
    controlled by European Powers. Colonies dotted
    along the coast of West Africa from the defunct
    slave trade, settlements in southern Africa by
    Dutch, English Portuguese, and Algeria in the
    north, conquered by the French.By 1900 only
    Ethiopia and Liberia remained free of European
    control. By this point in history, even the Dutch
    Afrikaaner Republics in South Africa were
    conquered by the English in the infamous Boer
    War.

7
Partitioning of Africa
  • From 1850s to 1914 the continent of Africa was
    constantly being divided among the European
    powers. Steps were taken to lessen the
    competition for land control in Africa.
  • There had to be settlers living in European
    colonies. If the colony did not have settlers, it
    could not exist.
  • A nation had to get approval from other nations
    to claim new territory
  • Nations had to end slavery in their colonies
  • 1884-85 BERLIN CONFERENCE
  • This was series of meetings between the major
    powers of Europe. At these meetings they lay down
    the rules for dividing up Africa, mainly
    establishing the principle of "effective
    occupation" to claim territory.
  • Simply put, they agree to recognize any areas
    that are already occupied or being developed by
    other European nations. This leads to the GREAT
    PUSH into the interior reaches of the continent
    by competing European armies, as the European
    powers rush to establish legitimate claims to
    areas unoccupied by other European powers.

8
Scramble for Africa
  • 1. According to the cartoon, which European
    countries were fighting for a position in Africa?
  • 2. Based on the reading you just did, is the
    cartoon accurate? Does it really show what was
    going on at the time? Why or why not?
  • 3. How did the Berlin Conference lead to the
    situation shown in this cartoon?

9
Percentage of Africa Controlled by European
Countries in 1913
10
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11
(No Transcript)
12
Partitioning of Africa
  • Use the packet of maps to answer the following
    questions
  • Describe the geographic location of the colonies
    in 1880?
  • How did these boundaries change by 1885? By 1914?
  • What happened to the German colonies after WWI?
    (1918)
  • Which colonizers seemed to have had the most
    possessions?
  • Is there a geographic relationship between the
    colonies and their colonizing country?

13
Partitioning Led to Conflict
  • In drawing boundaries throughout Africa,
    Europeans did not consider the African people
    living there. The African people already had
    their own political and cultural boundaries. Many
    kingdoms and states that had already been
    established were divided. Some divisions split
    families while other divisions placed enemies in
    the same boundaries.
  • For example, in 1946 the British authorities
    merged southern and northern Sudan into a single
    region. Southern Sudanese practice Christianity
    and Traditional African religions, while northern
    Sudan is inhabited by Arab Muslims. Merging these
    two different ethnic and religious groups led to
    continued political and ethnic conflict and civil
    war.

14
The Rise of Nationalism
  • Nationalism is having strong pride in your
    country and a desire for self-government.
  • Nationalist movements are movements that seek
    independence for the people living in a country.

15
  • Africans began to express resentment over
    European control. Many Africans stopped working
    for low wages on land owned by European colonist.
    Many moved to cities to find better work, They
    organized workers associations and protested
    unfair treatment by colonial governments. They
    developed more pride in their own cultures and
    national identities. These feelings of
    nationalism led to demands for self-rule. By the
    early 20th century many colonies in Africa were
    calling for independence, and by the second part
    of the 20th century African nations worked to
    free themselves from European control. A
    Nationalist movement grew.

16
CASE STUDY COUNTRIES
  • South Africa
  • Kenya
  • Nigeria

17
Kenya
  • From 1952 to 1960 a violent uprising led to
    independence from the British.
  • After the death of thousands, Kenyans elected
    Jomo Kenyatta the first African president in
    1963.
  • He only allowed those who agreed with him to
    participate in the government.
  • Drought and border disputes led to conflict over
    land.
  • The next president was elected in the 1990s but
    was accused of fixing the election.
  • The last election took place in 2008- similar
    complaints have led to continued violence in the
    country.

18
Nigeria
  • When the British colonized this region, economic
    development was unequally distributed leading
    some ethnic groups to have greater wealth than
    others.
  • Islam is dominant in northern Nigeria and
    Christianity is dominant in southern Nigeria.
  • After achieving independence in 1960, these and
    other conflicts led to coups.
  • The Nigerian military took over the country in
    1966 in a violent move that resulted in many
    deaths.
  • The military was unable to end the violence and
    civil wars led to more deaths.
  • Nigerian oil money has benefited government
    officials more than the average person.
  • The situation is improving.

19
South Africa
  • Much of the colonial conflict in South Africa
    occurred between white settlers (the British and
    the settlers of Dutch, German, and French origin
    who preceded the British.)
  • Eventually, the British Empire was able to
    consolidate power over this group and established
    the Union of South Africa in 1910.
  • In 1912, the African National Congress was
    established. This group fought for the rights of
    black and colored people in South Africa from
    1912 through the end of Apartheid and the
    election of Nelson Mandela in 1994.
  • South Africa became independent of colonial rule
    in 1961 but the black South Africans did not have
    rights equal to those of the white minority.
  • The nationalist movement in South Africa did not
    achieve independence from a colonial power
    rather, it defeated the Apartheid system and
    established equal rights for black and colored
    South Africans.

20
Independence
  • Most of Africa was free from colonial control by
    1980.
  • What challenges might they now face?

21
Apartheid in South Africa
  • More Europeans came to South Africa than any
    other country.
  • The Dutch were the first to settle here (17th
    century).
  • The climate is most similar to Europe here due to
    the latitude so it was ideal for farming. Later,
    gold and diamonds were found to be prevalent in
    the region.
  • By the early 20th century, the British military
    took over the region.
  • Black South Africans were unable to vote.
  • This was the beginning of Apartheid.

22
African National Congress
  • Founded in 1912 to bring people of all races
    together and fight for rights and freedoms.
  • In 1973 the UN declared Apartheid a crime against
    humanity.
  • Nelson Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist who
    spent 28 years of his life in prison for opposing
    apartheid. (1962-1990).
  • F.W. De Klerk, the whites South African president
    in 1990 freed Mandela and abolished the apartheid
    laws.
  • Mandela became the first president of
    post-apartheid South Africa.

23
Leaders Who worked to End Apartheid
  • Nelson Mandela
  • The leader of the movement to end Apartheid.
  • Spent 28 years of his life in prison for opposing
    the system.
  • Became the first black president of South Africa.
  • F.W. De Klerk
  • Lifted the ban on the African National Congress
    (ANC).
  • Released Mandela from prison.
  • The white president who agreed to abolish
    Apartheid.

24
Pan-Africanism
  • The Pan-African movement began in the late 1800s
    as a philosophy emphasizing the common bond
    shared by people of African descent and
    advocating unity among African people. It is
    sometimes applied to black Africans, to all black
    people throughout the world, and/or to all people
    living on the African continent.

25
  • From 1900 to 1945, most Pan-Africanists, with the
    notable exception of Marcus Garvey, were black
    intellectuals from the United States, the
    Caribbean, and Europe or affluent black Africans
    studying abroad in Europe and the Americas. After
    WWII, these young black leaders began to organize
    influential groups of black Africans. Some of the
    groups attending Pan-African conferences in
    Europe developed nationalist movements in their
    colonies and fought for independence.

26
  • Some of the most influential Pan-Africanists rose
    to become president of newly independent African
    countries. This is true for Kenyatta in Kenya and
    Nkrumah in Ghana. The Pan-African movement led to
    the development of a loose organization of
    African states known as the African Union.
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