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Committee

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Senators Alexander and Bingaman with endorsement of House Science committee ... high level group, possibly under the auspices of the Governor, to identify areas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Committee


1
(No Transcript)
2
Committee
  • Norman Augustine (chair)
  • Craig Barrett
  • Gail Cassell
  • Steven Chu
  • Robert Gates
  • Nancy Grasmick
  • Charles Holliday
  • Shirley Ann Jackson
  • Anita Jones
  • Joshua Lederberg
  • Richard Levin
  • Dan Mote
  • Cherry Murray
  • Peter ODonnell
  • Lee Raymond
  • Robert Richardson
  • Roy Vagelos
  • Charles Vest
  • George Whitesides
  • Richard Zare

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
3
Charge to the Committee
  • Senators Alexander and Bingaman with endorsement
    of House Science committee requested National
    Academies to
  • Identify top actions federal policy makers could
    take so US can successfully compete, prosper, and
    be secure in the 21st Century
  • Determine an implementation strategy with several
    concrete steps

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
4
Some Context
  • Growing national concern about economy
  • Globalization
  • Out-sourcing off-shoring
  • Rise of other nations
  • Thomas Friedman The World is Flat
  • Over 1 year on NY Times best seller list
  • Communicated the message

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
5
Method
  • Review of literature, past reports, and
    suggestions led to 150 ideas
  • Focus groups of experts discussed ideas and
    identified top 3-4 ideas in K-12 education,
    higher education, research, innovation and
    workforce, and homeland/national security
  • Committee meeting and conference calls
  • Additional expert consultations
  • More than 40 anonymous reviewers
  • 10 weeks from meeting to study release

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
6
Some Competitiveness Indicators
  • The United States is today a net importer of
    high-technology products. Its trade balance in
    high-technology manufactured goods shifted from
    plus 54 billion in 1990 to negative 50 billion
    in 2001.
  • Chemical companies closed 70 facilities in the
    United States in 2004 and tagged 40 more for
    shutdown. Of 120 chemical plants being built
    around the world with price tags of 1 billion or
    more, one is in the United States and 50 are in
    China.
  • In 2005, only four American companies ranked
    among the top 10 corporate recipients of patents
    granted by the United States Patent and Trademark
    Office.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
7
More Competitiveness Indicators
  • Fewer than one-third of US 4th grade and 8th
    grade students performed at or above a level
    called proficient in mathematics proficiency
    was considered the ability to exhibit competence
    with challenging subject matter. Alarmingly,
    about one-third of the 4th graders and one-fifth
    of the 8th graders lacked the competence to
    perform even basic mathematical computations.
  • US 15-year-olds ranked 24th out of 40 countries
    that participated in a 2003 administration of the
    Program for International Student Assessment
    (PISA) examination, which assessed students
    ability to apply mathematical concepts to
    real-world problems.
  • In 1995 (the most recent data available), US 12th
    graders performed below the international average
    for 21 countries on a test of general knowledge
    in mathematics and science.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
8
Yet More Competitiveness Indicators
  • In South Korea, 38 of all undergraduates receive
    their degrees in natural science or engineering.
    In France, the figure is 47, in China, 50, and
    in Singapore 67. In the United States, the
    corresponding figure is 15.
  • Some 34 percent of doctoral degrees in natural
    sciences and 56 of engineering PhDs in the
    United States are awarded to foreign-born
    students.
  • In the U.S. science and technology workforce in
    2000, 38 of PhDs were foreign-born
  • Federal funding of research in the physical
    sciences, as a percentage of GDP, was 45 less in
    FY 2004 than in FY 1976.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
9
Findings
  • Concern that the ST building blocks critical to
    economic leadership are eroding when many other
    nations are gathering strength.
  • Death of Distance means that skilled labor with
    strong drive to succeed is just a mouse-click
    away in growing economies and does not have to be
    in close proximity.
  • Worldwide strengthening is good, but will the
    United States be able to compete when great
    minds and ideas exist throughout the worldat a
    lower costso greater return to investor.
  • If do not have high-quality jobs, then do not
    have means for a high standard of living.
  • Fear abruptness with which lead can be lost and
    challenging of recovering if lost.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
10
Two Key Challenges
  • Creation of High-Quality Jobs for All
    Americansnot just scientists and engineers
  • Respond to Nations Need for Clean, Affordable,
    and Reliable Energy

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
11
Conclusion
  • Actions needed not only by federal government,
    but state and local levels, and each American
    family
  • Need to avoid complacency by assuming US will
    remain competitive and preeminent in science and
    technology
  • World is changing and need to take action to
    renew nations commitment in education, research,
    and innovation policies so nations children have
    jobs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
12
How to Compete?
  • Optimize knowledge-based resources, particularly
    in science and technology.
  • Sustain most fertile environments for new and
    revitalized industries and the well-paying jobs
    they bring.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
13
Four Recommendations
  • 20 Implementation Actions

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
14
Capital
  • Sustain and strengthen the nations traditional
    commitment to long-term basic research that has
    the potential to be transformational to maintain
    the flow of new ideas that fuel the economy,
    provide security, and enhance the quality of
    life.
  • Ensure that the United States is the premier
    place in the world to innovate invest in
    downstream activities such as manufacturing and
    marketing and create high-paying jobs for all
    Americans that are based on innovation by
    modernizing the patent system, realigning tax
    policies to encourage innovation, and ensuring
    affordable broadband access.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
15
Labor
  • Increase Americas talent pool by vastly
    improving K-12 science and mathematics education.
  • Make the United States the most attractive
    setting in which to study and perform research so
    that we can develop, recruit, and retain the best
    and brightest students, scientists, and engineers
    from within the United States and throughout the
    world.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
16
Energy
  • Create in the Department of Energy an
    organization like the Defense Advanced Research
    Projects Agency called the Advanced Research
    Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E).

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
17
Recommendations
  • 10,000 Teachers, 10 Million Minds and
  • K-12 Science and Mathematics Education
  • Sowing the Seeds Through Science and Engineering
    Research
  • Best and Brightest in Science and Engineering
    Higher Education
  • Incentives for Innovation

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
18
Ten Thousand Teachers, Ten Million Minds
  • Recruit 10,000 teachers, Educate 10 million
    minds Attract bright students through
    competitive 4-yr. merit-based scholarships for BS
    in sciences, engineering, or math with concurrent
    K-12 science math teacher certification in
    exchange for 5 years public service teaching in
    K-12 public schools
  • Strengthen 250,000 current teachers skills
    Summer institutes, Masters program, AP/IB
    (Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate)
    training
  • Enlarge the Pipeline Create opportunities and
    financial incentives for pre-AP/IB and AP/IB
    science math courses

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
19
Sowing the Seeds
  • Increase federal investment in long-term basic
    research--10/year over next 7 years focusing on
    physical sciences, engineering, mathematics,
    information sciences and DOD basic research
    funding.
  • Provide early-career researcher grants200 grants
    at 100,000/year over 5 years to outstanding
    researchers.
  • Institute National Coordination Office for
    Advanced Research Instrumentation and
    Facilities--500 million/year over 5 years.
  • Catalyze high-risk, high-payoff
    researchTechnical program managers allocated 8
    federal research agency budgets for discretionary
    spending.
  • Institute Presidential Innovation AwardRecognize
    persons who develop unique scientific and
    engineering innovations in the national interest
    when they occur.
  • Advanced Research Projects Agency-EnergyModeled
    on DARPA, this agency would focus on creative
    out-of-the-box transformational energy research
    that industry by itself cannot or will not
    support

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
20
Best and Brightest
  • Increase US citizens earning science,
    engineering, and math degrees
  • 25,000 new 4-year undergraduate scholarships per
    year
  • 5,000 new portable graduate fellowships per year
  • Encourage continuing education of current
    scientists and engineers Federal tax credits to
    employers
  • International students and scholars
  • Less complex visa processing and extensions
  • New PhDs in SE 1-year automatic extension and
    (if find job) automatic work permit and expedited
    residency status
  • Skills-based, preferential immigration points
    system to prioritize US citizenship
  • Reform "deemed exports" policy Allow access to
    information and research equipment except those
    under national security regulations

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
21
Incentives for Innovation
  • Enhance IP protection for global economy, while
    allowing research
  • Sufficient resources for Patent and Trademark
    Office
  • Institute first-inventor-to-file" system and
    administrative review after patent granted
  • Shield research uses of patented inventions from
    infringement liability
  • Change IP laws that impact industries differently
  • Increase Research Experimentation tax credit
    from 20 to 40 of qualifying increase
  • Provide financial incentives so US is competitive
    for long-term innovation-related investment
  • Affordable broadband access

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
22
White House
  • President's State of The Union and FY2007 Budget
  • American Competitiveness Initiative
  • AP/IB
  • Research Funding for NSF, NIST, and DOE Office
    of Science
  • RD Tax Credit
  • Advanced Energy Initiative
  • Research Funding portion of ACI passed House and
    Senate Appropriations
  • Some Education Program Funding approved by House
    Appropriations (AP/IB, teacher training)
  • Administration actions on Deemed Exports
    International Students

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
23
Appropriations(As of Oct 2006)
24
Senate
  • Protecting Americas Competitive Edge (Senators
    Domenici, Alexander, Bingaman, Mikulski)
    PACE-Energy (S.2197) PACE-Education (S.2198)
    PACE-Finance (S.2199)
  • 70 cosponsors (35 Democrats/35 Republicans)
  • National Innovation Act (S.2109)
    (Ensign/Liberman Based on Council on
    Competitiveness Innovate America report)
  • Advanced Research Projects Energy (ARPA-E) Act
    (S.2196)
  • Right "TRACK" Act (S.2357)
  • Energy Competitiveness Act (S.2398)
  • Research Competitiveness Act (S.2720) (Baucus)
  • American Innovation and Competitiveness Act of
    2006 (S.2802 chairmans markup of S. 2109 S.
    2390)
  • National Competitiveness Investment Act (S. 3936)
  • (Senators Frist, Reid, Domenici, Bingaman,
    Stevens, Inouye, Enzi Kenned, Ensign, Liberman,
    Alexander, Mikulski, Hutchinson)
  • --Merger of PACE and National Innovation
    Act/American Innovation and Competitiveness Act
  • --39 cosponsors (20 Republicans/19 Democrats)

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
25
House
  • 10,000 Teachers, 10 Million Minds Science and
    Math Scholarship Act ( H.R. 4434)
  • Advanced Research Projects Agency Energy
    (ARPA-E) Act (H.R. 4435)
  • Sowing the Seeds Through Science and Engineering
    Research Act. (H.R. 4596)
  • Innovation and Competitiveness Act (H.R. 4845)
  • Accelerating the Creation of Teachers of
    Influence for Our Nation Act (H.R. 5141)
  • National Science Foundation Scholars Program Act.
    (H.R. 5152)
  • Science and Mathematics Education for
    Competitiveness Act (H.R. 5358)
  • Research for Competitiveness Act (H.R. 5356)

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
26
Convocation on Rising Above the Gathering Storm
Energizing and Employing Regions, States, and
Cities for a Brighter Economic Future
  • Convene leadership of industry, government,
    research, and education community from all 50
    states and the federal government.
  • Share knowledge and encourage leadership of
    initiatives at the state and local level to
    strengthen US competitiveness.
  • Discuss current national proposals to respond to
    the nations competitiveness challenge and their
    implications for states, localities, and regions.
  • September 28th in Washington, DC

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
27
Immediate Convocation Impact
  • Representatives from all 50 states.
  • Almost 850 participants in person in Washington
    plus another 500 via video webcast particularly
    at the Beckman Center in California, Sigma Xi in
    North Carolina, and 5 sites in Pennsylvania.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
28
State Action Items in K-12 STEM
EducationIdentified by Convocation Participants
  • Educate the American public about the need to
    improve STEM education in Americas schools
  • Coordinate science, technology, engineering, and
    mathematics (STEM) education reform efforts
    working with State Legislatures and Departments
    of Education to get real changes in STEM
    curriculum.
  • Attach to the Senate Bill a statement encouraging
    states to form coalitions to improve STEM
    education.
  • Use a systems approach to improve STEM for Pre-K
    to 25. This means addressing all interacting
    variables, including, but not limited to Teacher
    Professional Development, Teacher education,
    Salaries, Support in the classroom, Afterschool
    programs, Distance learning, Preschool, and
    Parent/community education.

NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY
OF ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY
OF ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
29
More STEM K-12 State and Local Actions
  • Prepare more and better math and science teachers
    as well as specialists (elementary school) and
    work with school counselors.
  • Encourage underrepresented groups to go into
    teaching,
  • Create systematic and persistent collaborations
    between universities and K-12 schools in their
    regions on curriculum develop and teacher
    preparation.
  • Establish a state mechanism/clearinghouse to
    facilitate the involvement of the enormous pool
    of the states scientists and engineers in K-12
    education, with special focus on those scientists
    who have retired or will be retiring in the next
    few years.
  • Develop a streamlined accreditation process that
    would enable these retirees to become middle and
    high school teachers.

30
Yet More K-12 STEM Activities
  • Meet with science centers and museums, and
    coordinate with state curriculum.
  • Encourage partnerships with companies to
    encourage technical staff scientists and
    engineers to become actively involved as
    volunteers in local schools to promote STEM
    education.
  • Establish a Teacher Advisory Council of Math
    Science teachers, collaborating with a
    stakeholder organization to develop goals and
    actions.
  • Organize a K-12 state-wide symposium and use role
    models to excite elementary and middle school
    students to engage women/minorities
  • Discuss what science, engineering, and
    mathematics courses should look like.

31
State Action Items in Higher EducationIdentified
by Convocation Participants
  • Establish an in-state scholarship program for
    high school graduates.
  • Increase state support need-based scholarship
  • Address issue of amount of undergraduate debt (it
    can be a factor for underrepresented groups in
    STEM on whether or not they continue with their
    graduate studies).
  • Discuss what science, engineering, and
    mathematics courses should be like.
  • Work in partnership with K-12 school systems on
    K-12 STEM topics described in previous slides.

32
State Action Items in ResearchIdentified by
Convocation Participants
  • Initiate a major, state-wide program, equivalent
    to the Academy Awards, to reward success in
    scientific research and in science education, so
    as to create desirable role models of scientists.
    Awards should be for research accomplishment at
    all levels from undergraduate student, graduate
    student, postdoctoral fellow, junior
    faculty/researcher, senior faculty/researcher.
  • Develop strategies and a structure that will
    insure greater collaboration and synergy among
    research universities, government labs, and the
    tech business sector.

33
State Action Items in InnovationIdentified by
Convocation Participants
  • Establish a statewide ST authority.
  • Conduct an assessment of states strengths and
    weaknesses in the development and
    commercialization of intellectual property,
    benchmarked against the best performing states.
  • Appoint a high level group, possibly under the
    auspices of the Governor, to identify areas where
    states have the potential to build world
    leadership in the commercialization of
    intellectual property.
  • Set up state funded competitively funded pre- and
    early-seed monies for universities to support
    transfer of technology to early stage start ups.

34
State Action Items in CommunicationIdentified by
Convocation Participants
  • Involve governors and legislators Ask the
    governor to convene a meeting of leaders
  • Go back to State/Region and learn what is already
    happening. Ask governors, mayors, etc. Have you
    read the Rising Above Gathering Storm executive
    summary?
  • Organize best practices to educate state
    legislators about the value of graduate
    education. Elevate the awareness of the
    importance of grad education (talk to other grad
    deans).
  • Educate the public and measure public opinion via
    literature, campaigns, town hall meetings
  • Create awareness/urgency in the public including
    parents via media and net campaigns.
  • Fund permanent science exhibits at local shopping
    malls.

35
Other State Action Items Identified by
Convocation Participants
  • Work with the National Governors Association on
    their innovation initiative and inform and work
    with regional governors associations (such as
    the Western Governors Association).
  • States should work together to establish joint
    funding, best practices, and joint projects that
    would benefit all states.
  • Post best practices, but also remember that one
    size does not fit all.
  • Mobilize association members as well as use
    association alerts and establish alert networks
  • Hold state specific meetings on Gathering Storm
    report.

36
Planned National Academies Activities
  • Video of meeting presentations at
    www.nationalacademies.org/gatheringstorm
  • Brief summary of convocation discussions.
  • Follow-up in 6 months and 1 year later to
    determine impact on state and local actions.

NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY
OF ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY
OF ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
37
For more informationwww.nationalacademies.org/g
atheringstorm PDF of executive summary and
full report are available at no cost
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY
OF ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE
NATIONAL ACADEMIES
38
Questions to Ponder for Engineering Community
  • These are illustrations of comments and
    questions asked of the committee since the report
    was released
  • There are plenty of engineers already in USsee
    this headline of some being laid off? The
    unemployment rate? Are there really jobs
    available? Wheres the proof?
  • If corporations paid engineers more they wouldnt
    have problems getting US students to get degrees
    in the field.
  • The problem is not recruiting students into
    engineering higher education programs but
    increase the retention rate so that a higher
    percentage of those who enter graduate.

39
Actions to Consider
  • Increase parent and student understanding of
    engineering through long-term middle and high
    school activities such as Project Lead the Way.
  • Think about the potential of AP Engineering to
    encourage high school courses in engineering.
  • Provide option for engineering students to get
    teacher certification at the same time as
    engineering degree.
  • Increase engineering student retention rate at
    all higher education program levels
  • Encourage and support involvement of engineering
    students and engineers from industry in K-12
    programs particularly at disadvantaged schools
    and with underrepresented groups.
  • Provide more information on job market to parents
    and student at all levels. Encourage internships
    at high school and college level.
  • Encourage continuing education for engineers so
    current engineers have more flexibility to change
    specialties.
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