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Higher Functions I

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Title: Higher Functions I


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Photographic Memory
  • Also known as eidetic memory
  • 5 of preschool children show evidence of eidetic
    memory
  • Images persist

4
Savant Syndrome (previously Idiot Savant)
  • Autistic Savants account for half of Savants
  • Other developmental disorder brain injury
    account for remainder
  • About 10 of autistics exhibit savant skills
  • Can normal people exhibit savant skills?

Kim Peek, Mega-Savant, Rainman
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Savant Syndrome
  • Right hemisphere skills, very narrow range
  • Calendar calculation
  • Music performance
  • Mathematical (primes, multiplication)
  • Artistic creation
  • Spatial skills, map memorization
  • PHENOMENAL MEMORY BUT NARROW

6
Causes of Savant Syndrome
  • Social deprivation or isolation Kim Peek story
  • Compensation
  • Undistractibility
  • Concrete reasoning
  • Right hemisphere dominance
  • Pre-verbal coding scheme survives

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
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To test Adult Eidetics
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Infant Amnesia
  • Little to no recall first few years of life
  • Girls generally show earlier recall than boys
  • Why?

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Temporal Lobe
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TLMAROON
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SAF 1402- Dont Forget (2003)
  • Dont Forget - Meet "E.P.," a spry, affable
    82-year-old retiree. Don't be surprised, though,
    if E.P. doesn't remember your name, or if he
    tells you the same story six times in 10 minutes.
    About 10 years ago an acute virus infection
    destroyed E.P.'s hippocampus, a part of the brain
    that is critical to memory. Today, Larry Squire
    and Jen Frascino of the University of California,
    San Diego work with E.P. to learn more about why
    he cannot form new memories.
  • E.P. lives in a state of "permanent present."
    Because his hippocampus is effectively "dead,"
    anything new that happens to him simply doesn't
    get recorded. But, although he can't record new
    memories, old ones from before his hippocampus
    was destroyed -- some going back decades --
    remain remarkably intact. As Alan sees firsthand,
    E.P. can mentally map a route from his boyhood
    home to the town library but cannot name any of
    the streets in his current neighborhood.
  • Mieke Verfaellie works with victims of memory
    loss to learn more about the role of the
    hippocampus in processing and recalling memories.
     
  • At the VA Hospital in Boston, Mieke Verfaellie
    conducts similar research with "Mr. O," an
    amnesiac whose hippocampus was badly injured as a
    result of a heart attack five years ago.
    Verfaellie asks Mr. O to look at photos from the
    September 11 terrorist attacks and tell her what
    happened that day. Though he knows that something
    bad happened to the towers in New York City, he
    can't remember where he was that day and
    mistakenly believes that his son lived in New
    York at the time. Later on, when asked about the
    photos, Mr. O cannot recall what he saw.
  • The effects of E.P.'s and Mr. O's hippocampus
    injuries provide valuable insight into the role
    of the hippocampus in processing and recalling
    memories. Researchers believe that the
    hippocampus works not to store memories but to
    organize details of an experience -- sights,
    sounds, smells and feelings -- so when recalled,
    an event can be remembered as a complete memory.
  • http//www.pbs.org/saf/1402/index.html

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Memory and Forgetting
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STM DEMO
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Primacy Recency Effects
  • Candle
  • Maple
  • Subway
  • Tiger
  • Ceiling
  • Ocean
  • Paper
  • Thunder
  • Sofa
  • Dollar
  • Wagon
  • Doorbell

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Retrieval Types
  • Free recall _______
  • Cued recall M _ _ _ _ or ____ LEAF
  • Recognition CHAIR TABLE SOFA
  • Implicit Asked to name a piece of
    furniture after having seen one in
    unrelated task or test

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Animal Research in Memory
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Delayed nonmatch to sample test
  • 1. Perirhinal cortex lesion
  • a. severe memory deficit
  • 2. Hippocampal lesion
  • a. mild amnesia
  • 3. Amygdala lesion
  • a. no effect
  • 4. Medial temporal lobe (bilateral) lesion
  • a. normal test with short delay
  • b. increasing errors with increasing delay

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Hippocampi
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Patient H.M.
  • Bilateral temporal lobe resection for treatment
    of epilepsy.
  • Included removal of hippocampus and amygdala from
    both sides.
  • Various etiologies lead to symptoms like H.M.'S,
    including stroke and herpes

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Case of Patient H. M.
  • Age 9, knocked over by a bicycle rider, sustained
    brain damage
  • Age 16, suffered bilateral temporal lobe seizures
    which became uncontrollable
  • Unable to work and lead a normal life
  • Age 27, underwent bilateral removal of
    hippocampal formation, amygdala, parts of
    multimodal association areas of temporal cortex
    (1953)

30
Consequences of Psychosurgery for H.M.
  • Positive
  • - seizures better controlled
  • - IQ unaffected bright
  • - good long term memory for events before the
    surgery
  • - good command of language including vocabulary
  • - remembered his name and job he held
  • Negative
  • suffered anterograde amnesia - unable to transfer
    new short-term memory into long term memory
  • unable to retain for more than a minute new
    people, places or objects
  • unable to recognize people he met during surgery
    including his neurosurgeons
  • took a year to learn his way around a new house
  • - suffered retrograde amnesia for information
    acquired a few years before surgery

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  • Retrograde amnesia
  • loss of memory prior to trauma
  • Anterograde amnesia
  • loss of ability to form new memories after trauma

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Retrograde Amnesia Test Famous Faces of the Past
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Patient HM
  • Revealed declarative/ nondeclarative distinction
  • Declarative memories (explicit memories) involve
    conscious recollection of events and information.
  • H.M. Lost this ability.
  • Nondeclarative memories (implicit memories)
    involve ability to acquire and perform new
    behaviors or associations.
  • H.M. Retained this ability.
  • could perform mirror-tracing after training but
    could not remember doing the task before

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Memory by Content
  • (23.1)

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Brain regions in Learning and Memory
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Explicit Implicit
  • Declarative
  • Recalled consciously
  • Requires deliberate effort
  • Factual knowledge of people, places and things
  • Concerned with what these facts mean
  • Highly flexible, involving association of bits
    and pieces of information
  • Non declarative procedural
  • Recalled unconsciously
  • Training reflexive and perceptual
    skillsprocedures and rules
  • builds up slowly over time
  • Concerned with how to perform something
  • Rigid and tightly connected to the original
    stimulus condition

37
Forms of Nonassociative implicit memory
  • Habituation decreased response to a stimulus
    presented repeatedly
  • Sensitization enhanced response to a variety of
    stimuli after an intense or noxious stimulus
  • Skill training performing a task
  • sensorimotor, perceptual, and/or cognitive
    skills
  • Priming change in the processing of information
    as a result of prior exposure to such, word or
    picture
  • perceptual form of stimulus
  • conceptual meaning of stimulus

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Case of H. M. contd.
  • Now
  • - isolated from the past
  • - doesnt know his age or current date
  • - doesnt know his parents (with whom he lived)
    died years ago
  • - sometimes guesses where he is (MIT) where he
    had been tested interviewed for 40 years
  • - recognized something is wrong with him but has
    no memory of what he did earlier in the day
  • Corkin, S. (2002) What's new with the amnesic
    patient H.M.? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3,
    153-160.

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Evidence of episodic memory
  • Wilder Penfield found that stimulation of the
    temporal lobe produced experiential response
    recall of earlier experience

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Hippocampus
  • Important in spatial representation (rat
    research)
  • Mediates initial steps of long-term memory
    storage
  • Neuroimaging shows intense activity in RH for
    spatial memories, in LH for memories of words,
    objects, people

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  • Active avoidance
  • Directed escape
  • Undirected escape
  • Passive avoidance
  • Discriminated avoidance
  • Depression

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Amygdala circuit breaker to cognition, when
quick response needed
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Famous people with TLE
  • Alexander the Great
  • Aristotle
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Buddha
  • Julius Caesar
  • Lewis Carroll
  • Agatha Christie
  • Dante
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Charles Dickens
  • Fyodor Dostoyevsky
  • Moses
  • Hannibal of Carthage
  • Margaux Hemingway
  • Joan of Arc
  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Michelangelo
  • Mohammed
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Alfred Nobel
  • Saint Paul
  • Edgar Allan Poe
  • Pythagoras
  • Socrates
  • P. Tchaikovsky
  • Harriet Tubman
  • Vincent van Gogh

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TLE and Psychopathology
  • William James arguing against what he called
    medical materialism
  • whatever be our organisms peculiarities, our
    mental states have their substantive value as
    revelations of the living truth.
  • R.D. Laing
  • the mystic swims in the same water in which the
    schizophrenic drowns
  • Mystical experience linked to temporal lobe
    structures, including subcortical ones (amygdala
    hippocampus).

46
Temporal Lobe Personality
  • hyperreligiosity
  • excessive concern with details
  • hypergraphia
  • altered sexuality
  • altered mood (particularly aggressive)
  • hypersociability or stickiness, clinginess

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Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Hyperreligiosity
  • On the road to Damascus Saul/St.Paul saw a bright
    light, fell to ground, temporarily blinded and
    unable to eat or drink. Resembles an ecstatic
    seizure some NT evidence of tonic-clonic
    attacks.
  • Mohammed had seizures since 3y, said, "This is a
    common affliction of prophets, of whom I wish to
    be counted as one.
  • Joan of Arc, a farmer's daughter, drove England
    out of France through her military victories as a
    teenager. She reported ecstatic moments --
    flashes of light, voices of saints visions of
    angels, often triggered by ringing of church
    bells (musicogenic epilepsy trigger is emotional
    significant music). Burned at stake as a heretic
    at 19 years of age in 1431 canonized 1920s.
  • Soren Kierkegaard, father of existentialism and
    religious philosopher, suffered from epilepsy.

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Links with TLTs
  • Persinger seizure like activation called
    temporal lobe transients in the temporal lobes
    are related to
  • anomalous beliefs and experiences such as sensed
    presences, time dilation, out of body
    experiences, auditory hallucinations
  • paranormal beliefs
  • hyperreligiosity

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Temporal Lobe Readings
  • Transcendental Meditation session.

Delta frequencies with an aberrant spike and
slow wave profile
emporal
ccipital
Alpha wave activity
rontal
Alpha wave activity
subject reported experience as especially
meaningful -- being very close to the cosmic
whole
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Temporal Lobe Readings
  • EEG during glossolalia (speaking in tongues).
    Subject reported contact with the Spirit
  • Persinger seizure like activation called
    temporal lobe transients in the temporal lobes
    are related to
  • anomalous beliefs and experiences such as sensed
    presences, time dilation, out of body
    experiences, auditory hallucinations
  • paranormal beliefs
  • hyperreligiosity

pike events
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Temporal Lobe Stimulation
  • Induce weak complex magnetic fields over the
    temporal lobes.
  • Right temporal, or bilateral stimulation produced
    sensations of fear and sensed presences.

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Misidentification Reduplication Syndromes
  • Capgras hypoidentification
  • identify people close to them as being imposters,
    replicas.
  • Fregoli hyperidentification
  • Possibly an excess of connections between the
    facial recognition centers and the amygdala
  • BOTH are alteration in relatedness to people,
    objects, events, experiences
  • Possible brain mechanisms
  • Intact ventral route for explicit recognition
  • Disturbed dorsal route for implicit (emotional)
    recognition

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Fregoli Syndrome(Italys Lon Chaney)
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  • Dual-route model of visual recognition
  • prosopagnosia interruption of overt route
  • Capgras delusion interruption of covert route

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GSR
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Nonconscious (Implicit) Recognition
  • Blindsight
  • Agnosia/prosopagnosia/alexia
  • Neglect
  • Proper hand grasp or slot insertion in
    apperceptive
  • Dorsal visual pathway no conscious awareness
  • Conscious awareness may be required for certain
    perceptual processes to be engaged

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Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
  • Bilateral destruction of amygdaloid body and
    inferior temporal cortex -? emotive behavioral
    changes
  • Emotional Blunting flat affect and may not
    respond appropriately to stimuli.
  • Following bilateral amygdala lesions, previously
    fierce monkeys will approach fear-inducing
    stimuli with no display of anger or fear.
  • Visual Agnosia or "psychic blindness," i. e. an
    inability to visually recognize objects. Oral
    compulsions may provide an alternate means of
    object identification.
  • Hyperorality strong tendency to compulsively
    place inedible objects in their mouths (leads to
    hyperphagia and extreme weight gain).
  • Inappropriate Sexual Behavior fail to publicly
    observe social sexual morays with increase in
    sexual activity.
  • Monkeys show atypical sex behaviors, mounting
    inanimate objects, members of the same sex.

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Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
  • As Ramachandran says, "they are not hypersexual,
    just indiscriminate. Monkeys with surgically
    modified temporal lobes have great difficulty in
    knowing what prey is, what a mate is, what food
    is and in general what the significance of any
    object might be."
  •  

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INTERFERENCE
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Proactive Interference Exercise
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List 1
  • Cheetah
  • Falcon
  • Sparrow
  • Caribou
  • Crab
  • Catfish
  • Coyote

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List 2
  • Bison
  • Raccoon
  • Duck
  • Mole
  • Turtle
  • Ferret
  • Trout

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List 3
  • Goose
  • Leopard
  • Shrew
  • Hawk
  • Deer
  • Fox
  • Hammerhead

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List 4
  • Canary
  • Weasel
  • Buffalo
  • Cougae
  • Turkey
  • Lizard
  • Goldfish

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List 5
  • Hedgehog
  • Eagle
  • Elk
  • Lobster
  • Panther
  • Moose
  • Groundhog

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List 6
  • Hummingbird
  • Crocodile
  • Cow
  • Jackal
  • Chicken
  • Squid
  • Eel

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List 7
  • Mink
  • Owl
  • Lion
  • Salmon
  • Wolverine
  • Quail
  • Ox

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List 8
  • Alligator
  • Condor
  • Wolf
  • Antelope
  • Pheasant
  • Tiger
  • Sea horse

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List 9
  • Hyena
  • Vulture
  • Tuna
  • Mongoose
  • Muskrat
  • Yak
  • Gazelle

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T List 1
  • Waterfall
  • Cavern
  • River
  • Lawn
  • Forest
  • Valley
  • Channel

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Medial Temporal Lobe vs. Korsakoffs
  • The role of the diencephelon in memory N.A.
  • 1960, 22yrs old US Air force radar tech.
  • miniature fencing foil through nostril
  • damaged diencephelon
  • Retrograde amnesia
  • Anterograde amnesia
  • MRI study also implicate mammillary bodies

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Other source of amnesia Korsakoff Syndrome
  • mainly in chronic alcoholics
  • damage to diencephalon
  • vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency
  • (but famine induced B1 deficiency does not
    usually lead to Korsakoffs)

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Medial Temporal Lobe vs. Korsakoffs
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