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Beyond Merely Surviving Keeping Libraries Relevant in the Digital Age

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Title: Beyond Merely Surviving Keeping Libraries Relevant in the Digital Age


1
Beyond Merely SurvivingKeeping Libraries
Relevantin the Digital Age
  • Rush G. Miller, Ph.D.Hillman University
    Librarian and Director, ULSrgmiller_at_pitt.edu

2
Sessions
  • The Changing Role of Libraries
  • Leadership for Change
  • Impact of Organizational Culture and Structures
  • Organizational Change at the University of
    Pittsburgh
  • Organizational Culture Space
  • Strategic planning Technology
  • Re-engineering Communication

3
Session 1 The Changing Role of Libraries
  • How is use of libraries changing?
  • What is changing?
  • Are our roles affected?
  • Are we as relevant as we once were?
  • What are we doing about it?

4
Captive Audience Era
  • We were only information game on campus!
  • Faculty assigned term papers, book reports, etc.
    requiring use of library
  • Librarians determined what services were
    appropriate to offer based on professional
    standards, tradition, etc.

5
Success Declared!
  • Easy to measure use and size of collection, etc.
    as indicators of worth
  • Use generally rose for many years as enrollments
    grew
  • We were not very concerned about what users
    thought of our services

6
Success!
  • Generally, we used input and output measures as
    if they were outcomes measures!!
  • I.E., added books checked out books
    answered ref questions, etc.

7
Shooting the Feet!
  • Ways we defined relevance of libraries was
    flawed? (Usage that always increased for ex)
  • Are we now shot in the foot?

8
Traditional Library Use Declining
  • ARL Data (1991-2005)
  • Lending -7
  • Reference -48
  • All Academic (NCES)
  • Lending -14
  • Reference -84
  • Gate Counts -71

9
Pitt/ARL Circulation Trends
10
Frequency of circulation of items in collections,
1987 - 2007
11
Pitt/ARL Reference Query Trends
12
Visits to the ULS Web Site
13
Changing Roles
  • Clearly, our roles are changing because of the
    pace of change in information technology
  • How we respond, even lead, this changing
    environment will determine our role in the future

14
Changing Roles
  • It is hard to predict what our roles in the
    future might entail, but one thing is clear to
    me it will be very different in many
    fundamental ways, and without a culture of change
    as well as agility, we will be hard pressed to
    play a meaningful role at all.

15
Famous last words
  • Books themselves are very efficient machines,
    and the experience of holding a book is part of
    the book culture," says Farrar, Straus Giroux
    publisher Jonathan Galassi, who called the Kindle
    "flimsy" and said it reminded him of an
    Etch-a-Sketch toy.

16
More Famous Last Words!
  • "E-books are a growing niche for now," Smith
    says, "but I certainly don't see a time when
    everybody will be reading them. People just love
    what the traditional book represents to them."

17
Kind of reminds me of other famous
"predictions"
  • "Everything that can be invented has been
    invented." -- Charles H. Duell, Commissioner,
    U.S. Office of Patents, 1899.
  • "640K ought to be enough for anybody." -- Bill
    Gates, 1981

18
And
  • "I think there is a world market for maybe five
    computers." -- Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM,
    1943
  • "There is no reason anyone would want a computer
    in their home." -- Ken Olson, president,
    chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp.,
    1977

19
And Still
  • "This 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to
    be seriously considered as a means of
    communication. The device is inherently of no
    value to us."
  • -- Western Union internal memo, 1876.

20
What is the Value of a Library??
  • How is our value determined?
  • Who decides what our value is?
  • On what basis is this decided?

21
What is so Different now?
  • Students have alternatives
  • Google vs Library http//www.youtube.com/watch?vt
    KvR0OC4nYc http//www.libraries.psu.edu/instruct
    ion/time.mov
  • Administration questioning costs of libraries
    today
  • Boards wonder why we need libraries and
    librarians since all is on Web!

22
OCLC Study of User Perceptions
  • Peoples search for information is facilitated
    by
  • Friends (61)
  • Libraries (15)

23
OCLC (cont)
  • More people are very familiar with search engines
    than with libraries
  • People are not as familiar with online databases
    we subscribe to as they are with search engines
    such as Google
  • More students are familiar with the online
    bookstore than the online library!

24
OCLC (cont)
  • Twice as many students use search engines as use
    the library website for information
  • Online reference services are used by fewer
    students than any other identified information
    resource!

25
OCLC (cont)
  • Google gets higher ratings as a source of
    worthwhile information than does the library Web
    site!
  • People believe that search engines are more
    satisfactory in providing information than
    librarians.

26
OCLC (cont)
  • We are branded as books not IT by 70 of people
    in U.S.
  • Users trust search engines as much or more than
    libraries
  • Bookstore and libraries both trail search engines
    in terms of lifestyle fit by wide margins

27
OCLC (cont)
  • Some typical (and disturbing comments about first
    thing you think of with word library.)
  • Last place I want to go for info
  • A large building with books on all subjects
  • Need to be quiet, need to hunt around for what
    you want, lots of leg work.

28
Clearly, to me, claiming value is NOT ENOUGH
  • Value of libraries and librarians cannot be
    maintained by simply stating it, no matter how
    eloquent we are, but only by demonstrating value
    to the students and faculty of our schools,
    colleges and universities and our communities.

29
  • the days of the librarys ability to control
    what is important are gone. Serving a public good
    is no longer enough to ensure funding and
    administrative support. To secure support, the
    library must now demonstrate how it serves the
    university mission.
  • Beverly P. Lynch, UCLA
  • College Research Libraries, 2007

30
  • Although academic libraries will not disappear
    overnight, if they refuse to change and to
    continuously monitor their respective
    environments, they will condemn themselves to
    marginalization.
  • Wood, Miller, Knapp. Beyond Survival Managing
    Academic Libraries in Transition, (2007
    Libraries Unlimited), p. 6.

31
Library as Business
  • We have fought against this notion, rather
    successfully
  • We resist accountability still
  • We are not prepared for the future!

32
What I know for sure
  • We will be held accountable in a business fashion
    for cost/benefits
  • We will be forced to create outcomes assessment
    systems (driven by accreditation and general
    public)

33
What Else I know?
  • We will continue to see competition growing
  • We are no longer the center of the campus (if we
    ever were)
  • We will find it increasingly difficult to obtain
    incremental increases in support based on
    assumptions and arguments

34
Who gets the grease?
  • Not the squeaking wheel!!!
  • It goes to those who can reinvent themselves and
    create success with what they are given or can
    reallocate.
  • In higher education, as in life, the rich get
    richer and the unsuccessful get marginalized!!!

35
Where will support come from for our future?
  • Must re-invent/reallocate resources
  • Prioritize and fund accordingly
  • Demonstrate stewardship

36
How do we Survive?
  • Question is not really surviving, but an issue of
    how do we maintain our central role in the
    educational and research missions of our academic
    institutions and in the life of our communities
    and schools!!
  • I believe the key is organizational agility!

37
Change in Libraries
  • Imperative
  • Must be transformative, not incremental
  • Requires new leadership at all levels
  • Organizational AGILITY
  • Change management is the new management!
  • Good Leadership is essential

38
Session 1 Group Exercise
  • In your groups, please answer the following
    questions
  • How have my users changed during the past 5-8
    years?
  • What is the best thing my library has done to
    cope with this change?
  • How do I know if my library is relevant to my
    institution?

39
Session 2 Leadership
  • A major factor in a successful future for
    libraries is LEADERSHIP
  • Within Libraries
  • Within the community/campus
  • Within Society
  • (Not speaking of just directors!!!)

40
My View of Good Leaders
  • Leaders dont rule, they develop!
  • Leaders share authority and credit for results
  • Leaders must have vision for future and
    confidence to move toward it
  • Leaders must be risk-takers, not risk-averters

41
Leaders
  • Leaders communicate internally and externally a
    consistent message
  • Leaders empower staff
  • Leaders support growth and learning in staff
  • Leaders dont know everything going on in their
    libraries! (i.e., Micromanage)

42
Leaders
  • Leaders are Change Agents
  • Leaders question assumptions and status quo (not
    How, but WHY)
  • Leaders dont lose sight of purpose and mission
    (in context)
  • Leaders focus on the future and the big picture
    they plan!

43
Leaders
  • Leaders are consistent, ethical and honest (model
    behavior)
  • Leaders exercise sound, mature judgment
  • Leaders listen and learn
  • Leaders inspire others

44
Leaders
  • Are creative and innovative
  • Ask the right questions
  • Do not allow tradition to trump needs
  • Understand ambition of the institution and how to
    position the library to help achieve it

45
Relationship between Leading and Following
  • Followship is just as important as leadership
    to the library, and is its own kind of leadership
  • What is it??

46
  • What do you think followship is?

47
Session 2 Group Exercise
  • Answer the following questions
  • What are the 3 most important traits of a good
    library director? Why?
  • What are the effects of a poor library leader to
    the staff? Users?
  • What can we do as a profession to prepare the
    next generation of leaders?

48
Session 3 Organizational Cultures
  • Organizations have personalities drawn from
    shared tradition, practices, beliefs, etc.
  • Organizations can be very dysfunctional and still
    operate (as with people)

49
  • Organizational culture can easily thwart
    innovation and effectiveness
  • Changing management or organizational structures
    may not result in changes to organizational
    culture, and an unhealthy culture can undermine
    any model
  • For an organization to be effective, it must have
    a healthy culture

50
A Healthy Organizational Culture
  • Promotes change as constant and lasting
  • Promotes and rewards innovation
  • Supports growth and learning
  • Embodies a Culture of Assessment
  • Focuses on implementing a shared vision of the
    future, not basking in past glories!

51
A Healthy Organizational Culture
  • Values people/diversity
  • Allows for risks, supports new ideas
  • Empowers individuals to express, develop and
    implement new ideas even at the risk of honored
    tradition
  • Focuses on the Users needs and expectations
    first
  • Puts emphasis on LEARNING

52
Agility Also A Major Outcome
  • Application of business principles to libraries
    (meet needs of our customers in most efficient
    and effective manner).
  • Must be able to adapt quickly to changing
    environments and opportunities
  • Must align our priorities with those of our
    institutions and constituents
  • Must reallocate to create resources for future

53
Organizational Culture at Pitt
  • In 1994
  • Feudal Society
  • Focus on Library, not users
  • Quality defined internally
  • Communication across administrative lines
    discouraged informal workarounds abundant

54
Organizational Culture Now
  • Focus on planning, users and assessment
  • Communication deliberate
  • Agile, change oriented culture and organization
  • Increased expertise and user satisfaction

55
Learning Organization
  • We have adapted the Learning Organization Theory
  • Libraries must create a learning environment in
    every sense
  • Includes infrastructure support for individual
    learning, group learning, active listening to
    users, etc.

56
Role of Organizational Structure
  • Wide variety from Hierarchical to Flat,
    Autocratic to Democratic exists in libraries
  • After study for a long time, I conclude that the
    organizational model is NOT the panacea in
    building our future (no ideal model)
  • Any model can be circumvented

57
Structure
  • Star performers will be productive in any
    environment
  • No organizational structure will change negative
    attitude, behavior or work habits
  • Each library is different and must implement the
    structure best for its context and culture

58
Structure
  • Negative behavior can be changed, but generally
    not through restructuring, but by rewarding
    positive accomplishment and NOT rewarding
    negative behaviors

59
Structure
  • The train has left the station, and we as an
    organization have to concentrate on the people
    on the train.
  • Carla Stoffle et al, Team-Based Management in
    the Research Environment. Infomanage 5 (11), p.
    10

60
To Team or Not to Team
  • Team management can be effective, but has a high
    overhead
  • Non-team structures can also be effective in
    implementing change and creating a healthy culture

61
Myths of Teams
  • Teams are a panacea and good for every
    environment
  • Building Teams is an end in itself
  • Operational Expertise should be the primary
    criterion for selecting team members

62
Myths of Teams
  • One strong leader is all that is necessary for a
    successful team
  • Teams lead the organization
  • The more members, the stronger the team
  • Sports teams are a model for work teams

63
Myths of Teams
  • Teams do the work of the organization
  • Teams are more productive than individuals
  • Consensus is the only acceptable decision-making
    mode for teams

64
Myths of Teams
  • Relationships are paramount and maintaining
    harmony most important
  • All right-thinking people enjoy working closely
    with others
  • Individuals are completely subsumed by the team

65
Myths of Teams
  • The team has primary responsibility for its own
    success
  • Teamwork means more meetings!
  • Team-building exercises carry over to the
    workplace
  • Personality type is the key to team dynamics and
    results

66
Library as Business?
  • We have always adapted business management
    systems libraries
  • Now are applying business principles to managing
    things like serials budgets, internal operations,
    etc.
  • User (aka customer) designed services a product
    of business world as well
  • Re-engineering and reallocation is also becoming
    prevalent in libraries

67
Session 3 Group Exercise
  • In your group, answer the following
  • Name 3 ways you know if a library is a healthy
    organization?
  • Name 3 ways a library with a negative culture
    affects its success.
  • Name 3 ways each of us can contribute to a
    healthy organizational culture.

68
Session 4 Change Process at Pitt
  • What was changed
  • Focus
  • Processes and services
  • Allocation of effort to create agility
  • Our IT Environment
  • Our communication system
  • Our Organizational Culture

69
FOCUS
  • Changing the focus from the library perspective
    and orientation to a customer focus is the key to
    change needed for the future
  • Must move from User Oriented directly to USER
    DESIGNED services and operations

70
To do so, it is time to
  • Get over our Google Envy
  • Stop judging user behavior and tune in!
  • Re-think our services
  • Re-think our processes
  • Assess, assess, assess

71
Focus on Users at Pitt ULS
  • Culture of Listening to Users
  • LibQual every year since firstyear of pilot
  • Track trends over time
  • Look for areas of weakness to explore further
  • Focus Groups of faculty and students
  • Issues from LibQual data
  • Led by outside experts
  • Incentives to participate

72
  • Feedback on website and on specific digital
    projects, etc.
  • Usability studies of web sites
  • Analyze web use data (led us to eliminate subject
    pages)
  • Surveys of users on web related to digital
    content
  • Ex., Old Schoolbooks discovered unexpected user
    base
  • Digital library users are a new constituency,
    often a demanding one!

73
New Web Design w/o Jargon!
74
The Way we Operate Changed
  • At Pitt, we have
  • Implemented strategic planning, a culture of
    assessment, and re-engineering efforts in
    technical and public services
  • Result is a reallocation of resources toward
    priorities of the future from more traditional
    functions
  • AND a different organizational culture

75
Our Strategic Plan
  • Absence of planning before 1994
  • First plan was developed with involvement of
    entire staff, managed by a steering committee
  • Resulted in re-thinking mission

76
Our Mission
  • Is not about books! Never was!
  • Also not about information!
  • But it IS about people connecting people to
    resources of all kinds needed for learning and
    critical thinking and (hopefully) knowledge.
  • No longer just organizing knowledge containers,
    but helping to create them and mold them, host
    them, etc.

77
ULS Mission
  • Strategic Planning first one ever in 1995
  • Had no plan or mission
  • Wide disagreement at start of what is the core
    mission, even core values and who are our users
  • Need to focus on a vision for future
  • Current plan has only 9 goals and is communicated
    in a trifold brochure and all unit goals are
    based on it

78
Mission of ULS is to
  • provide and promote access to information
    resources necessary for the achievement of the
    Universitys leadership objectives in teaching,
    learning, research, creativity and community
    service, and to collaborate in the development of
    effective information, teaching and learning
    systems.

79
This means
  • Question assumptions on which processes based
  • Example How do we define quality?
  • Scrutinize outmoded and outdated functions and
    services
  • Re-allocate resources from low priority to higher
    priority activities more bang for the buck!
  • Reconfigure space, personnel, budget to match new
    roles and mission
  • Use business principles to manage operations

80
Re-engineering at Pitt (1995-6)
  • Bottom Line
  • contracted with book vendors to provide OCLC
    cataloging for all new books
  • contracted with OCLC TechPro for backlog
    cataloging (huge!)
  • Mapped all processes, redefined positions and
    priorities

81
  • Eliminated 60 of positions
  • Moved affected staff over 2 years to other
    positions
  • Saved 1.1 million
  • Absorbed two personnel budget cuts without
    affecting staff
  • Jump started information technology developments
    at the ULS
  • Eliminated all cataloging backlogs

82
  • Applied same functions to Public Services
  • New Initiatives in PS include
  • ZOOM!
  • Libraries to Go!
  • Digital reference service
  • Help Hub
  • Undergraduate initiatives
  • Peer-to-peer library consultants
  • Wireless laptop project
  • Implementing IR and NextGen
  • OPAC now

83
Now rethinking SPACE (final frontier)
  • Where to put legacy collections
  • How do we justify library space in the future?
  • What kinds of activities should the library
    support for students
  • Policies about Space Use Need to be modified
  • Must be appealing to students
  • Audiences no longer captive!

84
Old Space Plan at Pitt
  • 20 libraries all crowded, many in need of major
    renovation
  • Plan to add 100,000 sq. ft. to main library and
    an old Masonic Temple for specialized collections
  • Would not accommodate storage needs
  • Cost was 110 million!

85
New Plan!
  • Consolidation of Departmental Libraries
  • Renovations to Hillman Library
  • Added remote facility housing
  • Archives
  • Preservation Lab
  • Digital Research Library
  • Information Systems
  • Technical Services
  • High Density bookstorage (3 million vols)

86
Facilities in ULS
  • Use of space changing
  • Elimination of individual study carrels
  • Expanded group study space
  • Expansion of computing devices/wireless
  • Comfortable casual seating
  • Cup and Chaucer Café
  • New policies on food/drink

87
Cup Chaucer
88
First Floor, Hillman Library
89
First Floor Grand Opening
90
First Floor Entrance and Desk
91
Thornburgh Room
92
Preservation Lab
93
High DensityStorage
94
ULS Technology Infrastructure
  • Digital Research Library
  • 2 IC2 Digibook scanners
  • 6 flatbed and stack scanners
  • 6 FTE staff dozens of graduate students/interns
    in LIS and History
  • Automated processes for OCR process, etc.
  • License middleware from U. of Michigan
  • Outsource some scanning
  • Emphasis on quality vs quantity
  • Information Systems
  • 70 servers
  • Data storage/robotic backup systems
  • Generator for server room as backup to UPS
  • 12 systems analysts
  • Central management of all systems/devices in ULS

95
Funding for IT Infrastructure
  • Student Computing Fees
  • Generates 500,000 per year for Library IT
  • Additional staffing, hardware/software
    expenditure from budget
  • OPAC expenses centralized as enterprise system
    (purchase, maintenance, management)
  • Digital Research Library
  • Initially with interest from endowments,
    reallocations of staff from TS re-eng project,
    and grants
  • Now fully funded on budget from reallocation from
    lower priority areas
  • Some grants, but only for high priority
    activities (ex. Digitizing photos from IMLS)

96
Newest Digibook Scanners in DRL
97
(No Transcript)
98
Digital Publishing Services at the University
Library System (ULS)
  • The ULS offers a variety of services and programs
    to help faculty mount digital resources on the
    Web.
  • Project idea may call for the digitization of
    physical resources or may begin with
    born-digital material.

99
D-Scribe Publishing Categorieswww.library.pitt.ed
u/articles/digpubtype/index.html
  • Electronic Theses Dissertations (ETD)
  • Electronic Journals
  • Pre-Print andGrey-Literature Archives
  • Image Collections
  • Textual Collections

100
Darlington Digital Library Project
  • 11,000 books donated by Darlington in 1918
  • 500 historic maps
  • Manuscript collections (Washington letters, etc)
  • Broadsides, atlases, etc.
  • Important collection of early Colonial American
    history
  • More than 1,000 books digitized, opening in May,
    2007
  • Completion in 3 years
  • Contributed to OCA Collection on Americana

101
Librarys Role in Open Access Publishing Models
  • Pitt is developing or contributing to OA models
    for
  • Open Access Journals
  • Open Access discipline repositories (grey
    literature)
  • ETDs
  • Mounting content from constituents
  • Government Publications (EU)
  • OAI Harvesting(statewide effort in PA)

102
Latest D-Scribe Project
  • University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions
  • Goal to digitize and mount on open access the
    entire Press backlist, and then open all content
    within 2 years of publication

103
ULS Marketing Program
  • Began with a Marketing Plan developed by a
    Marketing Firm
  • Definition of customers, messages, and styles of
    communication(how, when, what, etc.)
  • Use of Branding(logos, consistency of
    communications, etc)

104
Communicating Effectively
  • Targeted messages (customize format and message
    to audience)
  • Consistency
  • From Product Orientation to Selling Orientation
    (Users NOT the problem)
  • Emphasis on benefit
  • Keep it brief and graphical

105
Logos
106
Logos
107
ULS WEBSITE
  • www.library.pitt.edu

108
Session 4 Group Exercise
  • In your group
  • Name 2 processes in your library that need to be
    re-designed/eliminated.
  • Name 2 areas in your library that should have
    additional resources
  • Name 2 ways in which you can communicate the
    librarys message better

109
Conclusion
  • Although predicting the future is always risky,
    based on the past decade, it will be a time of
    dramatic and accelerating change in the role and
    mission of libraries and the way in which
    libraries operate. New leadership at all levels
    will be essential. But it will be an exciting
    future well worth grasping!
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