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Title: Creating a Cultural Shift: Professional Learning Community Implementation and Differentiated Instruc

Creating a Cultural Shift Professional Learning
Community Implementation and Differentiated
Instruction at Salina Intermediate
  • Presented by Glenn Maleyko, Former Principal at
    Salina Intermediate,
  • Ph.D Candidate Wayne State University
  • Robert Attee, Science Teacher
  • Mohammed Abdelfattah, Bilingual Teacher
  • MI-ASCD Conference, August 13, 2009

Salina Intermediate, Dearborn, Michigan
Salina Intermediate - By The Numbers
  • Located in Dearborn, MI A suburb of Detroit
  • 520 students in grades 4 8
  • 100 ethnically diverse (Arabic primary
    ethnicity) These students qualify as Caucasian
    under federal guidelines

  • 23 annual mobility rate
  • Less than 9 students with disabilities
  • 60 English Language Learners
  • 97.5 Free and reduced lunch

Salina Int. Model School Major Achievements
  • Award winner of Several Technology Grants over
    the past 8 years
  • Ameritech Technology Academy Recognition as one
    of the top 8 schools in Michigan that are
    integrating technology into the curriculum

Achievements Continued
  • -We have Provided Training in Technology,
    Co-teaching, Literacy, Interventions and Foreign
    Language to over 1300 educators in Michigan
    during the past 7 years.

Provide Frequent Presentations at State and
National Conferences
  • ICLE Model Schools Conference 2009
  • ICLE Hawaii Symposium 2009
  • ASCD National Conference 2009
  • MACUL State Conference 2001-2009
  • ACTFL National Conference 2008
  • MABE State Conference 2008
  • Arkansas Literacy Conference 2007

  • Michigan ASCD Middle School Summit 2007
  • ATA Academy 2007 and 2008
  • NMSA National Conference 2005
  • Michigan ASCD Conference 2003

  • 2 TAPS Award winners for 2004 MACUL.
  • 2004 COATT Award - Nadra Shami
  • 2005 WCRESA Middle school Technology Award - Bob
  • Nomination for MACUL outstanding Technology
    Educator Award -Glenn Maleyko
  • MI-Champions Grant -Mohammed Abdelfattah

Salina Intermediate Model
  • Professional learning communities
  • Special education co-teaching
  • Comprehensive interventions
  • Technology integration
  • Literacy across the curriculum
  • Capacity building Shared leadership
  • Data-driven instruction


Strategy 4Technology Integration and Critical
  • Rigor and Relevance

Original Terms New Terms
  • Evaluation
  • Synthesis
  • Analysis
  • Application
  • Comprehension
  • Knowledge
  • Creating
  • Evaluating
  • Analysing
  • Applying
  • Understanding
  • Remembering

(Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking
to Learn, p. 8)
W. M. Glasser
Student Technology Trainers
Salina Students Present at the Capitol Building
in Lansing, MINovember 2008 and at the MACUL
conference in Detroit, MI, March 2009
Student Work Samples
  • Survival Skills
  • Animals by Kahten
  • Organisms PowerPoint
  • Podcasts

Activity 1Poll everywhere surveyhttp//www.pol
All of us can consciously decide to leave behind
a life of mediocrity and to live a life of
greatness---at home, at work and in the
community. No matter what our circumstances may
be, such a decision can be made by everyone of
us. Stephen Covey
Pg. 29
Visionary leaders
  • Effective visions help individuals understand
    that they are part of a larger world and also
    reassure them of their individual importance to
    the organization.
  • Reeves, Douglas (2006). The learning Leader.

People want to be part of something larger than
themselves. They want to be part of something
theyre really proud of, that theyll fight for,
sacrifice for , trust. Howard Schultz
Activity 2
  • Turn to a partner and discuss the following
  • What is your reaction to the quotations from
    Stephen Covey, Doug Reeves, and/or Howard
  • What implications does this have on your
    perception of leadership?

What is our frame of mind?
  • Is the Glass half full or half empty?
  • At Salina Intermediate we always view the glass
    half full. An optimistic viewpoint.

Salina VisionWe envision an innovative,
successful school where diversity is respected
and celebrated, where all students use higher
order thinking skills to meet high standards
developed collaboratively by a motivated,
compassionate, and highly skilled staff, working
in partnership with parents and the community.
Salina Intermediate Mission
  • The mission of Salina Intermediate School is to
    increase academic achievement by implementing and
    evaluating a technology integrated comprehensive
    curriculum which enables students to become
    literate problem-solving critical thinkers. We
    have high expectations for all students, and
    provide a safe and nurturing environment
    collaboratively with parents and community to
    ensure that all students become responsible,
    productive citizens.

Activity 3
  • Discuss with a partner the following question
  • Why is it essential to have clear mission and
    vision statements?
  • What does a mission or vision statement tell us
    about an organization?

Salina Intermediate 2008-2009 Mobility Data
Salina Intermediate Limited English Proficient
Economically Disadvantaged Studentsat Salina
Intermediate 2008-09
Schools Do Make a Difference
  • An analysis of research conducted over a
    thirty-five year period demonstrates that schools
    that are highly effective produce results that
    almost entirely overcome the effects of student
  • Robert Marzano, What works in schools, 2003.

Dr. Bob Marzano with Salina Staff at the ASCD
Conference in Orlando, March 2009
We face many barriers at Salina, but
  • We have been effective at improving student
    achievement levels through the use of technology,
    literacy, and differentiated instruction under
    Professional Learning Communities model!

Salina Intermediate ELA AYP Proficiency Growth
Salina Intermediate ELA AYP Proficiency Growth
Salina AYP proficiency Growth
Salina AYP ELA Objective proficiency Growth
There must Be a Cultural Shift in how we do
business on a day to day basis.
Cultural Shifts Becoming a Professional Learning
  • To put it as succinctly as possible, if you want
    to change and improve the climate and outcomes of
    schooling both for students and teachers, there
    are features of the school culture that have to
    be changed, and if they are not changed your
    well-intentioned efforts will be defeated

Seymour Sarason Taken From Robert Eaker PLC
Dr. Daggett at the Model Schools Conference in
Atlanta, Georgia, June 2009 He advocates for
change with stimulus funding
Activity 4 Word Splash Sharing
  • We will gather in assigned groups for this

Strategy I Professional Learning Communities
at Salina Intermediate
The Power of Professional Learning Communities
  • The most promising strategy for sustained,
    substantive school improvement is building the
    capacity of school personnel to function as a
    professional learning community. The path to
    change in the classroom lies within and through
    professional learning communities.

Dufour Eaker
At Salina Intermediate School, professional
learning communities are embedded in the culture
of our school. Teamwork and collaboration at
Salina is not an option, it is who we are and
what we do as a part of our daily routine. Glenn
Maleyko and Bob Attee (2009)
Team Collaboration
  • Effective collaborative teams share knowledge,
    define learning standards, agree on pacing, build
    knowledge of best practice, and focus on issues
    that MOST impact student achievement.

The Salina Intermediate Learning Community is
Characterized by
  • 1. Shared Mission, Vision,
  • and Values
  • 2. School Improvement Plan

The Salina Intermediate Learning Community Contd
  • 3. Collaborative Teams
  • 4. Structured Time for PLCs
  • 5. Intensive Data Collection and Analysis
  • 6. On-going collaborative professional development

Salina Leadership Teams Meetings
  • Grade level teams
  • Literacy/SIP team
  • Special Education team
  • Intervention teams for middle school and
    elementary grades
  • School Support team
  • DFLAP team

It is critical to develop a PLC calendar for the
Several Leadership teams meet on a regular basis.
Add PLC calendar
A Traditional School Focuses on Teaching and a
Professional Learning Community Focuses on
Student Learning.
(No Transcript)
Group Movement Activity 6
  • North (Leadership Experts)
  • Strength implementing a Clear Vision and getting
    people to follow and believe in the Mission.
  • South (Curriculum and Instruction Experts)
  • Strength in implementing effective Instructional
    Strategies including Differentiated instruction

Group Movement Activity 3 Contd
  • East (Relationships)
  • Developing With staff, parents and students.
  • West (Assessment)
  • Working and Analyzing Data, and implementing
    Data Driven Instructional Strategies.

Activity 6 Contd
  • Why is it important to implement a Learning
    Community if we want to implement a
    differentiated instructional model that meets the
    needs of all students?
  • Why is it important to focus on student learning
    rather than teaching?

The most effective collaborative teams
  • Focus on learning rather than teaching.
  • If teams do not focus on issues and questions
    that most impact student achievement, they become
    coblaboration teams.
  • Dufour Eaker 2002

Salina Team Meeting components
  • Three important components keep the team focus
    and help to subdue the resistors
  • 1. The development of Team Norms
  • 2. The development of Team Goals
  • 3. Sustaining Good team leadership (This could be
    one or two individuals.

Team Norms video on D-Tube
  • Dearborn Public Schools
  • http//

(No Transcript)
6th Grade Team Weekly Agenda
  • Monday-- Co-teaching Planning
  • Tuesday-- Writing Analysis
  • Wednesday--Student Concerns
  • Thursday-- Technology Integration
  • Friday--Co-teaching Planning

Activity 7
  • Based on this example why is it important to have
    team norms and goals?

Strategy 7Data-Driven Instruction
Salina Standard Based Report Card
  • Marzano found that when you increase teacher
    effectiveness with assessment there are
    statistically significant gains with student
    achievement as it is measured by high stakes
  • We have seen this in action at our school as we
    implement multiple forms of assessment

Data-Driven Decisions Instruction
  • The implementation of student portfolios that
    will include writing samples, DRA tests, common
    assessments, performance assessment samples and
    other pertinent data.

Data-Driven Decisions Instruction Contd
  • An assessment wall is used in all team rooms for
    writing prompts and DRA results. This wall
    assists us with the identification of children in
    need of interventions.

Salina Assessment Wall
(No Transcript)
Strategy 6Salina IntermediateCapacity Building
At Salina Intermediate we really focus on secret
three and four from The Six Secrets of Change,
Fullan (2008)
  • Secret One Love your employees
  • Secret Two Connect peers with purpose
  • Secret Three Capacity Building Prevails
  • Secret Four Learning is the work
  • Secret Five Transparency
  • Secret Six Systems Learn

Salina Intermediate Capacity Building
  • Our own faculty develops, implements, and
    evaluates our own professional development
    programs on a regular basis
  • We spotlight and showcase our programs at the
    district, state, and national level.

Salina Intermediate Professional Learning and
  • We have established our own experts in the school
    in several areas including
  • Technology, literacy, co-teaching, differentiated
    instruction, writing, leadership, etc.

Salina Professional Learning and Expertise Contd
  • Our faculty supports each other through job-
    embedded on going training and support.
  • Faculty support each other through the
    development of our PLCs
  • We provide our faculty with our own training
    during meetings, pd, and school release time,

Salina Intermediate Monitoring and Evaluating
  • Classroom Walkthroughs are a critical component
    within the School Improvement Process at Salina
  • I looked at articles published by ASCD.
  • The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through by
    Carolyn Downey.
  • SIP goals and team SMART goals

Salina Intermediate Administrative Walkthroughs
and team Learning Walks. (based on the Downey
Model (2004)
  • The most important thing is conversations and
    building relationships with faculty. At Salina
    Intermediate we complete a minimum of one walk
    through per month with all teams in the building.

Ray McNulty at the Model Schools Conference in
Atlanta, Georgia, June 2009 He stresses the
importance of relationships
  • 5 Step Downy Approach
  • 1. Student Orientation to the work
  • 2. Curricular Decision Points
  • 3. Instructional Decision Points
  • 4. Walk the Walls---Curricular and
  • Instructional Decision Points
  • 5. Safety and Health Issues

The Implementation of Thinking Maps at Salina
Intermediate as an SIP strategy.
Thinking Maps Continued
Thinking Maps Continued
  • Habitat Comparison Matrix

Learning Walk Discussion and the Co-Teaching
Cultural ShiftWe talk the talk and walk the
Marzano, Waters and McNulty (2005) 1st order
change vs. 2nd order change
  • 1st order change is incremental. It can be
    thought of as the next most obvious step to take.
  • At Salina Intermediate this is done through our
    current structure

2nd order change
  • 2nd order change is anything but incremental. It
    involves dramatic departures from the expected,
    both in defining a given problem and in finding a
  • At Salina Intermediate we are change agents and
    we move on innovative programs that follow
    research based best practices

Strategy 2 The Co-teaching Model
  • This could also be considered as a second order

Implementation of Special Education Co-teaching
  • Co-teaching in 4th through 8th grade has been
    implemented in language arts and mathematics.
  • We have followed the research by Dr. Friend along
    with the work by Larry Gloeckler at ICLE

  • Gone are the days when I teach my
  • students, you teach your students. Now
  • we teach all students and share responsibility
  • no matter what the subject.

Carolyn McMahon, Teacher
Salina Intermediate co-teaching model
  • Through the PLC Model all of the core teachers
  • In the Middle School 6th through 8th grade the
    Language Arts and Mathematics teachers co-teach
  • Elementary 4th 5th Grade teachers co-teach in
    Mathematics Language Arts plus other content

Some small but practical Examples of the
co-teaching cultural shift at Salina
  • Two teacher names on the door
  • Two desks or no desks
  • Both teachers have access to the entire
    electronic grade book and attendance
  • Both teachers present honor roll certificates
  • All teachers in the school take responsibility
    for all students.
  • Teachers must not work in isolation
  • Teaming is key

Salina Intermediate Co-teaching and a 3 phase
  • Phase One Pilot the model with the trailblazers
    -This provides insight and information towards
    full implementation
  • Phase Two Talk about how it is coming, spend a
    lot of time doing this. Start to implement with a
    few other teachers who have learned through the
    phase one piloting

Co-teaching 3 Phase Process Contd
  • Phase Three Full Implementation, all teachers
    will be involved in the process. Implementation
    is no-longer optional
  • It took about 3 years in order to get to full
    implementation at Salina Int.

Efficiency and Effectiveness
  • We have implemented the co-teaching model through
    a reallocation of resources
  • We do not have Teacher Consultants or
    paraprofessionals in Special Education
  • Instead we used this budget to buy more teachers.

Salina Intermediate co-teaching model
  • Through the PLC Model all of the core teachers
  • In the Middle School 6th through 8th grade the
    Language Arts and Mathematics teachers co-teach
  • Elementary 4th 5th Grade teachers co-teach in
    Mathematics Language Arts and other core areas

Co-teaching Affective Benefits
  • Students want to be part of the class
  • They are self-motivated
  • Stigmatism is eliminated
  • Teachers feel that their students act in a more
    appropriate manner
  • Gives students access to the core curriculum and
    standards ie. High expectations for all learners.
  • Salina Teacher Perspectives video go.

Teacher PerspectivesPrice, Abdelfattah(4th
Grade), and Rockey (8th Grade)
Insert Graph on Inclusion statistics
  • Activity 8 What are some of the benefits of
    co-teaching that you have learned from the
    presentation and video thus far?

Co-teaching Approaches
Co-teaching Approachesfrom Friend, M.,
Bursuck, W. D. (2006)
Stations?Frequent Parallel ?Frequent Teaming,
Alternative, One teach, one observe
? Occasional One teach, One assist ?Seldom
Co-teaching Approaches
  • One TeachingOne Observing- (5-10)
  • One TeachingOne Drifting- (less than 20)
  • Station Teaching- (30-40)
  • Parallel Teaching- (30-40)
  • Alternative Teaching- (20-30)
  • Team Teaching- (20-30)

(No Transcript)
Station Teaching
  • Each professional has separate responsibility for
    delivering instruction
  • Lower teacher/student ratio
  • Students with disabilities can be more easily
    integrated into small groups

Parallel Teaching
  • Lower teacher/student ratio
  • Heterogeneous grouping
  • Allows for more creativity in lesson delivery
  • Teachers must both be comfortable in content and
    confident in teaching the content
  • Should not be used for initial instruction

Alternative Teaching
  • Helps with attention problem students
  • Allows for re-teaching, tutoring, or enrichment
  • Can be stigmatizing to group who is alternatively
  • Special Ed teacher can be viewed as an assistant
    if he/she is always in alternative teaching role

Strategies for K-8 Students and Strategies for
High School Students with Disabilities in the
General Education Curriculum
Preview at Resource Center or visit
Strategy 3Comprehensive Interventions
Instructional Dialogues and Intervention Process
  • Teachers meet in teams with the intervention
    team and the principal to discuss struggling
    students. It is mandated at least three times per
    year. They must bring DRA data, writing data and
    other data to the meeting. Pending the outcome,
    we then decide on an intervention.

Team Collaboration and the 3 Essential Questions
  • Question Three
  • 3. How will we respond when they dont learn?

(No Transcript)
Middle Schooland Elementary Literacy
Intervention Class
  • Students in grades four through eight who are two
    grade levels below the appropriate reading level
    are flagged for this class.
  • Other data can also be used to flag these

Reading Intervention Contd
  • They receive an additional 50 minute period each
    day in lieu of an elective class.
  • 25 minutes is spent in Guided Reading plus or
    Comprehension focus groups based on the Research
    by Dr. Dorn from the University of Arkansas

Reading Intervention Contd
  • There are 3-4 teachers and one paraprofessional
    in this classroom for a 15 ratio teacher to
  • Guided reading and computer software are the
    major resources that are used in this class.

Readers Workshop
  • Read Aloud Above grade level
  • Shared Reading At or above grade level
  • Guided Reading Instructional Level
  • Independent Reading Independent level
  • Literature Discussion Groups
  • Literature Circles

Literacy Centers
  • Siop T.H.I.E.V.E.S
  • Text Mapping
  • Squeepers(SQP2RS)
  • Art Center
  • Writing across the content Area
  • Websites that allow for practice of literacy
    specific skills.
  • I-Learn
  • I-Blog
  • Video
  • Listening
  • Technology such as thinking maps via inspiration,
    PowerPoint, podcasting, creating video clips,
    Comparison matrix, content based websites used to
    enhance information literacy

Salina Intermediate mid-year DRA growth the mean
was approximately 1 grade level. The projection
by the end of the year is 2 grade levels.
The Reading Intervention Treatment produced
statistically significant results.
ELL Newcomer Literacy Center
  • We have developed a newcomer literacy center that
    integrates reading across the curriculum in
    grades 4th through 8th.
  • All students receive at least five hours per day
    of intensive literacy instruction throughout the

Newcomer Literacy Contd
  • They receive two 120 minute blocks per day plus
    60 minutes using ELL software.
  • ELPA, Common Assessments, and DRA results are
    used for appropriate student placement in the
    newcomer literacy center.

Team Collaboration and the 3 Essential Questions
  • A new, fourth question is How will we respond
    when they have learned?

(No Transcript)
Strategy 7Data-Driven Instruction
  • Writing Across the Curriculum Program.
  • Administrative Building Walk-through and First
    things First.
  • Faculty best practices learning walks.
  • Administrative observation and the teacher
    evaluation system.
  • Administrators/teachers need to put First Things
    First and Collect Data and use it in a precise

  • Feedback to teachers enables them to focus their
    instruction feedback to students enables them to
    monitor and improve their learning.
  • -Fullan, Hill, Crevola, 2006

Goal One Writing
  • All students will demonstrate improvement in
    writing across all content areas with 78 of the
    students showing proficiency by meeting the state
    standards based on the 2009 English Language Arts
    AYP Proficiency Index.

Comment Codes 1 Lacks focus on one central
idea 2 Demonstrates limited control over
sentence structure, vocab. and/or conventions 3
Needs details example to adequately develop the
ideas content 4 Lacks coherent organization
/or connections between ideas 5 Needs richer
development of the central idea w/ some
additional, relevant details and examples to
receive higher score 6 Needs tighter control of
organization /or the connections among the ideas
to get a higher score 7 Needs greater
precision and maturity of language use to get a
higher score 8 Earned the highest score of 6
Building Wide Writing Across the Curriculum
  • All teachers including elective teachers submit
    student writing samples that is reviewed by the
    Literacy Team.
  • We implement a common writing rubric in the
    various content areas.
  • The implementation of extensive training on
    inter-rater reliability and feedback to students.
  • The development of appropriate writing prompts
    that are aligned with Blooms higher order
    thinking process for all content areas.

Goal Two Reading
  • All students will demonstrate improvement in
    reading comprehension in all content areas with
    78 of the students showing proficiency by
    meeting the state standards based on the 2009
    English Language Arts AYP Proficiency Index.

The Need to Stop Doing
  • Most of us have an every-expanding to do list,
    trying to build momentum by doing, doing, doing-
    and going more. And it rarely works. Those who
    built good-to-great organizations, however,
    made as much use of stop doing lists as to do
    lists. They had the discipline to stop doing all
    the extraneous junk.
  • Jim Collins.

Case Study Professional Learning Community
  • Rigor, Relevance and Relationships


Case Study ContdBackground
  • The Background
  • You have just been appointed to Kaline Middle
    School in Honolulu, Hawaii. Kaline Middle School
    is over 75 years old. This school is in a rural
    section of the city and is secluded. The former
    principal of Kaline Middle School was not visible
    in the hallways and chose to continue the same
    school improvement strategies that have been
    tried during the past three years.

Case Study Continued
  • Student Population
  • In Kaline Middle School, you have a student
    population of 312 students. 23 of your student
    population are recent immigrants to the United
    States from Asia. Most of your students in
    Kaline Middle School have little or no English
    skills as 72 of the students are English
    Language Learners.

Case Study Student Population Contd
  • 97.5 of Kaline Middle Schools student
    population qualifies for free or reduced lunch
    rates. Nine percent of the student population
    qualifies for special education services.

Case Study School Performance Contd
  • School Performance
  • Your school has been making Adequate Yearly
    Progress (AYP) in Mathematics, but not in
    Language Arts. The special needs population was
    close to meeting the level needed to make AYP in
    Language Arts, but fell short by 3. About 40
    of the student population is below their grade
    level reading level. Students have difficulty
    with responding to district informational writing

Case Study Student Performance Contd
  • About 45 of the students are having difficulty
    with understanding the content in science and
    social studies. Your special needs students are
    in resource rooms for all of their classes with a
    special needs teacher for each grade level.

Case Study Contd School Culture
  • School Culture
  • Each teacher at Kaline Middle School teaches in
    his or her primary certification level. There
    are four core teachers and one special needs
    teacher at each grade level. About 1/3 of the
    teachers at Kaline Middle School have been
    teaching for over 12 years. Three of the
    teachers are new hires.

Case Study School Culture Contd
  • There are three teachers who are considered
    resisters who regularly try to sabotage change
    efforts by the previous principal. Four of the
    newer staff members consider themselves as
    trailblazers because they want to try strategies
    that they believe will help their students.

Case Study School Culture Contd
  • Overall, the school culture is positive, but
    several of the staff have become influenced in
    how they perform based on the resisters. Many of
    the staff members have specialized expertise in
    technology integration, literacy methods, or
    differentiated instruction, but are reluctant to
    share their expertise with others.

Case Study Contd
  • The Initiative
  • The superintendent has asked all of the schools
    in Honolulu to implement the professional
    learning communities model for the upcoming
    school year. Each grade level will have team
    time each day. Schools are expected to make
    progress in areas in which they are not making
    AYP. Each grade level will meet as a team for 45
    minutes each day.

  • In small groups, select your role and describe
    how you would respond to the following
  • As Principal
  • How would you build a professional learning
    community at Kaline Middle School?
  • How would you respond to resisters?
  • How would you help the staff to share their
    expertise with each other?
  • What could be done to improve the school AYP

Case Study Contd
  • As Teacher
  • How would you help the principal to build a
    professional learning community at Kaline Middle
  • How would you respond to resisters on your team?
  • How would you help your teammates to share their
    expertise with each other?
  • What could be done to improve the school AYP

Optional You might want to combine the
administrator and teacher questions if you are
together in this session as a school team.
Closing Slide What we have discussed today
  • Professional learning communities
  • Special education co-teaching
  • Comprehensive interventions
  • Technology integration
  • Literacy across the curriculum
  • Capacity building Shared leadership
  • Data-driven instruction

Presentation References
  • Covey, S. (2004). The 8th habit From
    effectiveness to greatness. New York, NY
    Franklin Covey Co.
  • Downey, Steffy, English, Frase Poston (2004).
    The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through.
  • Dufour, R., Dufour, R., Eaker, R. Many, T.
    (2006). Learning by Doing. Bloomington, IN
    Solution Tree.
  • Dufour, R., Dufour, R., Eaker, R., Karhanek.
    (2004). What ever it takes How professional
    learning communities respond when kids dont
    learn. Bloomington, Indiana Solution Tree
  • Dufour, R., Dufour, R., Eaker, R. (2002).
    Getting started Reculturing schools to become
    professional learning communities. Solution Tree
    Bloomington, Indiana.
  • Dufour, R. Eaker, R. (1998). Professional
    Learning Communities at Work Best Practices for
    Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington,
    Indiana Solution Tree.
  • Education Week,, (2002) Technology in Education,
    October 1st, 2003.
  • Friend, M. (2008). Co-teach A handbook for
    creating and sustaining effective classroom
    partnerships in inclusive schools. Greensboro,
    NC Marilyn Friend Inc. .
  • Fullan. (2008). The Six Secrets of Change.
  • Fullan, Hill, Crevola. (2006). Breakthrough.
  • Gardner () Do Technology Based Lessons Meet the
    Needs of Student Learning Styles
  • Jackson, Anthony W Davis, Gayle (2000).
    Turning Points 2000 Educating Adolescents in the
    21st Century.
  • Marzano, R. (2006). Classroom Assessment and
    Grading that Work. ASCD Publications.

Presentation References
  • Marzano, R., Waters, T., McNulty, B. A. (2005).
    School Leadership that works From Research to
  • National Association of State Boards of Education
  • McLaughlin, M., Talbert, J. (2001).
    Professional learning communities and the work of
    high school teaching. Chicago University of
    Chicago Press.
  • Sarason, S. B. (1996). Revisiting The culture of
    the school and the problem of change. New York
    Teachers College Press.
  • Souden, Mike (2003). Evolution of Standards
    Enhanced Information opportunities that
    technology provides. Taken on October 24, 2003,
  • Stiggins, R. (2004). Student Involved Classroom
    Assessment 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.