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The main stream of Cau river has length of 288 km and basin area of 6030 km2. ... Many villages are damaged by natural calamity related to upstream deforestation. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Environment and poverty linkages in the Cau river

Agenda 21 Office, Ministry of Planning and
Sites of case study
  • The main stream of Cau river has length of 288 km
    and basin area of 6030 km2. Total water flow of
    the river reaches 4200 km3 in a year.
  • The river is water source for 3,5 mil. People in
    the basin and 5 mil. in the affected region.
  • The river basin comprises 23 districts and 5
    cities and provincial towns belonging to six
    provinces Bac Can,Vinh Phuc,Bac Giang,Bac
    Ninh,Ha Noi and Hai Duong (province belongs to
    the Thai Binh river basin, but is affected
    directly by the Cau river water).

Research methodology
  • Literature and data review.
  • Quantitative study interview with
    semi-structured questionnaire to 600 households
    in upstream and downstream areas (100 hhs x 6
    communes), including
  • 1 commune in Cho Don district,
  • 2 communes in Cho Moi district,
  • 1 commune in Que Vo district,
  • 2 communes in Yen Phong district.
  • Qualitative study in-dept interview of district,
    commune officials, 40 hhs in 4 communes group
    discussions of the poor, poor women, etc.

Economic growth in the Cau river basin
  • Economic profiles of provinces in the Cau
    river basin are diversified
  • Mineral exploitation and forestry concentrate
    in Bac Can and Thai Nguyen provinces
  • Thai Nguyen is also a centre of metallurgy
    and mechanical industries.
  • A big number of craft villages is available
    in Bac Ninh and Bac Giang provinces.
  • Hai Duong has cement factories,
    thermoelectric power plants, food and foodstuff
    processing industry. Ceramics, garment, etc.
  • Agricultural production has high level of
    intensification in the whole basin, especially in
    downstream area.

GDP per capita
  • Ranking provinces by per capita GDP, there
    are 3 groups
  • (1) Ha Noi (with 3rd rank among 64 provinces) has
    the highest income level (8,8 mill. VND/year)
  • (2) Hai Duong, Vinh Phuc Bac Ninh have a middle
    level of income (3,8-4 mill. VND/year)
  • (3) Thai Nguyen, Bac Giang, Bac Can are poor
    provinces (2-3 mill. VND/year).

Poverty in provinces of the Cau river basin
  • Bac Can is the poorest province.
  • Thai Nguyen and Bac Giang ranked at 36 and 43
    among 64 provinces by the increasing poverty.
  • Bac Ninh, Hai Duong and Vinh Phuc ranked at 14,
    23 and 28 (In accordance with MOLISA data, 2004).

Poverty in upstream and downsteam areas
  • Poverty is different in downstream and
    upstream areas
  • Upstream is much poorer than downstream.
  • Poverty in upstream is absolute poverty
    population lacks of basic living necessities.
  • Poverty in downstream is caused by lack of
    agricultural land, lack of jobs, low income,
    shortage of sanitary living conditions. High
    population density and environment pollution
    are the main reasons.

Poverty in upstream areas (1)
  • A part of households and small communities need
    to be supported for self-installation of
  • Most of water sources are not polluted, but
    there is water shortage in dry season and many
    households have to carry water home at a long
  • High percentage of temporary housing.
  • Most of households doesnt have sanitary
    facilities (toilet, bathroom, animal stall coled
    to living area).

Poverty in upstream areas (2)
  • Poor communal infrastructure
  • Only 60 of communes in Cho Moi district has a
    lower secondary school.
  • 22 class rooms are temporary 56 permanent
    (one-storey brick house) and 22 permanent
    (multi-storey house).
  • 1 medical doctor / doctor assistant is
    servicing 1000 person in a area of 1680 hectares.

Housing and water supply in upstream
2/3 semi-permanent and 1/3 temporary houses
1/3 dug well and 2/3 mountainous well, streams,
Poverty in downstream areas
High population density, few agricultural land ?
under-employment ? low income ? poverty ?
degradation of sanitary environment due to
cottage industry.
(No Transcript)
Comparison of some indicators of upstream (Cho
Moi) and downstream (Yen Phong) districts
District / Province Cho Moi / Bac Kan Yen Phong / Bac Ninh Bac Ninh / Bac Kan
Monthly income 1000 VND (VLSS) 191 326 171
Kinh population 21 100 476
Agricultural land per capita 1347 545 40
crop production in income 42 8 18
agriculture and forestry in income 62 22 35
households with temporary housing 26 1 5
households without safe water 85 20 23
households without sanitation 79 54 68
communes with doctor 44 100 229
Environment in the Cau river basin
  • Four major human activities that caused
    environmental changes in the Cau river basin
  • 1) Excessive exploitation of forests in
    upstream areas
  • 2) Industrial pollution
  • 3) Agricultural production and
  • 4) Waste from daily life.

Forest in upstream areas
  • Forest restores, but at a low speed.
    Restoration based mainly on natural process, with
    few intervention.
  • Forest has low quality.
  • Forest land has been allocated to households,
    but benefits is not strong enough to encourage
    hhs to take proper care and protect forest.
  • No effective policies to ensure forest product
    market for farmers.

Types of forest in upstream areas
Destroyed and restored forests
Natural and planted forests
Mining industries in upstream areas
  • Mining industries continue to pollute water
    sources, soil and destroy landscape
  • There are 35 mining and mineral processing
    enterprises in Bac Can, 100 mining ores in Thai
    Nguyen, many illegal mining groups.
  • Solid waste released from coal mines in the Cau
    river basin is estimated at 1.5 million tones per
    year from iron mines, 2.5 million tones per
    year and from tint mines, 800,000 tones per
  • Polluted water wasted from mining ores.
  • Forest and landscape have been destroyed.

Environment degradation in downstream areas
  • Pollution caused by large and medium enterprises
    is not effectively avoided.
  • Craft villages develop fast and are important
    polluting factor
  • There are more than 200 craft villages in the
    Cau river basin.
  • 3 major characteristics of craft vilages
  • (i) Spontanous development
  • (ii) Low level of technology
  • (iii) High instability due to weak
    competitiveness, small investment, no close links
    with consumption market and unqualified labour.

Phong Khe - paper village and Tam Da - alcohol
Impacts serious pollution of water sources
in craft villages
Negative impacts on health Sickness and sick
days are higher among the poor
Summary of research findings
  • (1) Economic growth and environment The rapid
    economic growth in the context of poor economy,
    huge population and obsolete technology in line
    with highly intensive exploitation of natural
    resources such as forest, water, and minerals has
    consequently resulted in resource depletion,
    serious pollution and erosion in the Cau river
  • (2) Poverty
  • In upstream areas, less developing infrastructure
    and self-sufficient economy are cause for
    poverty. The population cannot access the basic
    needs (electricity, clean water, solid housings,
    healthcare service, and schools for children).
  • In downstream areas, poverty is reflected in the
    shortage of cultivated land, lack of jobs and
    strong social gaps, scarcity of clean water and
    polluted living environment.

Summary of research findings
  • (3) Impacts of poverty on environment High
    demand for poverty reduction has led to intensive
    exploitation of all resources.
  • In upstream areas, forest and minerals have been
  • In mid- and downstream areas, industrial and
    agricultural production, especially production in
    craft villages polluted water sources, soil and
  • (4) Reverse affects of environmental degradation
    to poverty
  • In upstream areas, people are in shortage of
    clean water, farming activities are affected by
    toxic residues in soil and water. Many villages
    are damaged by natural calamity related to
    upstream deforestation.
  • In the middle and downstream areas, environmental
    pollution accelerates the poverty in some
    dimensions, for examples, meeting the needs of
    clean water and air, and sickness of population.

Summary of research findings
  • (5) The poor and the environment
  • The poor involve in the process of environmental
    deterioration as the employees under the pressure
    of existence. Entrepreneurs and decision-makers
    of socio-economic development and environmental
    protection strategies and plans are those who are
    primarily responsible for natural resource and
    environment destruction.
  • On the other hand, the poor are more affected as
    they cannot afford to protect themselves and to
    mitigate the impacts.
  • (6) Insufficient awareness of sustainable
    development and integrated management of regional
  • A common standpoint in the society is that
    the development is prone to economic growth and
    job creation, little attention is given to
    protection of natural resources and environment.
    Actions following this standpoint decrease
    sustainability of development in the Cau river

Thank you