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TM 650 - Safety Management. Fire Hazards & Life Safety. Carter J. Kerk, PhD, PE, CSP, CPE ... Sometimes a 4th element, chemical reaction, is added ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TM%20650%20-%20Safety%20Management%20Fire%20Hazards%20

TM 650 - Safety Management Fire Hazards Life
  • Carter J. Kerk, PhD, PE, CSP, CPE
  • Industrial Engineering Department
  • South Dakota School of Mines

  • Read Chapters 11 13
  • HW12
  • Chapter 11, pages 245-6
  • Problems 1-19, divisible by 3
  • Chapter 13, pages 284-5
  • Problems 1-42, divisible by 3

Fire Elements
  • Three elements are required to start and sustain
    fire oxygen, fuel, and heat.
  • Sometimes a 4th element, chemical reaction, is
  • Since oxygen is generally present, fire hazards
    usually involve mishandling of fuel or heat

The Fire Triangle
Elements Of Fire Fire is a chemical reaction
involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel.
It needs four elements to occur Fuel
Oxygen Heat Chemical reaction.
  • Take away any one of these factors, and the fire
    cannot exist!

October Is National Fire Prevention Month
Fire Problem in US Annually
  • 1 million fires involving structures
  • 8000 deaths
  • gt20,000,000,000 total property loss
  • These figures do not include indirect costs
  • Litigation, investigation, etc.

Leading Causes of Industrial Fires
  • Electrical (23)
  • Smoking materials (18)
  • Friction (10)
  • Overheated materials (8)
  • Hot surfaces (7)
  • Burner flames (7)
  • Others (27) Sparks, Spontaneous ignition,
    Cutting, Welding, Arson, Chemical action,
    Lightning, Molten substances

Fire Related Deaths
  • 25 of fire-related deaths are from burns
  • 2/3rds are from inhalation of CO, smoke, toxic
    gases, asphyxiation
  • 10 are from mechanical injuries, relating to
    falls or falling materials
  • Overall death rate is 2.8 per 100,000 population
  • lt5 yrs old higher than average
  • 75-85 ages 12.5 gt85 years 22.2
  • Deaths are often alcohol related (perhaps gt80)
  • Most fatal fires involve 1 or 2 victims
  • Large losses receive most publicity

Infamous Fires http//
  • 12/30/1903 602 Chicagos Iroquois Theater
  • 3/25/1911 145 - Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, NYC
  • 11/28/1942 492 Cocoanut Grove nightclub,
  • 7/6/1944 168 Ringling Brothers and Barnum
    Bailey Circus, Hartford, CT
  • 12/1/1958 95 - Our Lady of Angels Grade School,
  • 5/28/1977 165 Beverly Hills Supper Club,
    Southgate, KY
  • 11/21/1980 85 - MGM Grand Hotel, Las Vegas
  • 12/4/1980 26 Stouffer Inn, NYC
  • 9/3/1991 25 Imperial Foods, Hamlet, NC
  • 9/11/2001 2752 - World Trade Center
  • 2/20/2003 100 Great White concert at The
    Station nightclub, West Warwick, RI

Fire or Combustion
  • Chemical reaction between oxygen and a
    combustible fuel
  • Combustion is the process by which fire converts
    fuel and oxygen into energy, usually heat
  • By-products include light and smoke

Ignition of Fire
  • Spark or open flame
  • Sufficiently high temperature
  • given a sufficiently high temp, almost every
    substance will burn
  • Ignition temperature or combustion point
  • temp at which given fuel can burst into flame

Explosive Limits
  • UEL
  • upper explosive limit
  • LEL
  • lower explosive limit

Fire is a Chain Reaction
  • For combustion to continue, there must be a
    constant source of fuel, oxygen, and heat
  • Exothermic Reactions
  • create heat

Chemical Reaction
  • During combustion, carbon atoms are released
    which combine with the oxygen present to form
  • carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • with ample oxygen present
  • carbon monoxide (CO)
  • insufficient oxygen, incomplete combustion
  • colorless, odorless deadly gas

Chemical Rxns Cont.
  • Hydrogen atoms released during fire combine with
    oxygen present to form water
  • Synthetic polymers (plastics and vinyls) form
    deadly fumes during combustion

Hot Work
  • Operations such as welding, brazing, soldering,
    cutting, chipping, grinding, drilling Use of
    spark-producing power tools Heat guns
  • Flammable, combustible, or ignitable materials
    should be kept gt 20 feet away or covered with
    flame-retardant material

Extinguishing a Fire
  • Removing the fuel source
  • Starving it of oxygen
  • Cooling below combustion point
  • Remember the triangle

Heat Transfer
  • Heat transfers from a fire to surrounding objects
    which may ignite, explode, or decompose
  • Usually simultaneous means of heat transfer
  • conduction - direct contact
  • radiation - wave transfer of heat to a solid
  • convection - movement of hot gases

Spontaneous Combustion
  • Rare, but possible
  • Pile of oil-soaked rags

Sources of Fire Hazards
  • Fuel is present almost everywhere
  • paint on seemingly non-fuel items
  • even fire walls are not fire-proof, they only
    slow the fire
  • Oxygen is almost always present
  • What is the passive fire suppression technique?
  • Lack of sufficient heat

Classes of Fire (Table 13.1)
  • Class A Fires - Ext. w/ foam, water, dry
  • solid materials wood, plastic, textiles, paper,
    housing, clothing
  • Class B Fires - Ext. w/ dry chemicals, foam, CO2
  • flammable liquids and gases
  • Class C Fires - Ext. w/ CO2, dry chemicals,
  • Energized electrical equipment (live electricity)
  • Class D Fires - Ext. w/ special powders
    (graphite, sand)
  • Combustible, easily oxidized metals (aluminum,
    magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium,

Classes Of Fire Fires are classified according to
the types of objects being burned Class A
ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, cloth,
rubber or certain types of plastic Class B
flammable or combustible gases and liquids such
as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners or
propane Class C energized electrical equipment
such as appliances, switches or power
tools Class D certain combustible metals such
as magnesium, titanium, potassium or sodium.
Fire Extinguishers The faceplate of every fire
extinguisher shows the class or classes of fire
it is designed to fight. To properly use a fire
extinguisher, follow the P-A-S-S procedure
P Pull the pin A Aim the extinguishers hose or
nozzle at the bottom of the fire S Squeeze the
trigger S Sweep it slowly back and forth,
covering the entire fire with the extinguishing
October Is National Fire Prevention Month
Methods of Controlling Extinguishing Fire
  • Remember the fire pyramid
  • Cool the fire
  • Limit the oxygen supply
  • Remove the fuel
  • Inhibit the reaction producing hydroxyl (OH)

  • Flash Point
  • lowest temp at which vapors are produced in
    sufficient concentration to flash in the presence
    of an ignition source
  • Fire Point
  • lowest temp at which vapors will continue to
    burn, given an ignition source
  • Auto-Ignition Temperature
  • lowest temp at which vapors of a liquid or solid
    will self-ignite without a source of ignition

Flammable Combustible Liquids
  • Flammable Liquids
  • flash point below 100 degrees F
  • Combustible Liquids
  • flash point gt 100 degrees F
  • See Figure 11.1

Flammable Liquid Classes
  • Class I-A
  • Flash point below 73 F, boiling point below 100 F
  • Class I-B
  • Flash point below 73 F, boiling point gt 100 F
  • Class I-C
  • 73 F lt FLASH POINT lt 100F

Combustible Liquid Classes
  • Class II
  • 100 F lt Flash Point lt 140 F
  • Class III-A
  • 140 lt Flash Point lt 200 F
  • Class III-B
  • Flash Point gt 200 F

NFPA 704
  • Diamond labeling system to aid in quick
    identification of hazards present when substances
  • Red - Flammability - Top Quarter
  • Blue - Health - Left Quarter
  • Yellow - Reactivity - Right Quarter
  • White - Special Information) - Bottom Quarter
  • Used on product labels, shipping cartons,

NFPA Symbol System for Identification of Hazards
of Materials (see NFPA 704)

Reactivity Signal (Yellow)
Flammability Signal (Red)

Health Signal (Blue)
Special Symbols (Radiation, Use of Water is
NFPA Symbol Flammability Signal

Degree of Hazard FLAMMABILITY Susceptibility of Materials to Burning
4 Materials which will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or which are readily dispersed in air and which will burn readily
3 Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions
2 Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur
1 Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur
0 Material that will not burn

NFPA Symbol Reactivity Signal
Degree of Hazard REACTIVITY Susceptibility of Release of Energy
4 Materials which in themselves are readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or reaction at normal temperatures and pressures
3 Materials which in themselves are capable of detonation or explosive reaction but require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation or which react explosively with water
2 Materials which in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. Also materials which may react violently with water or which may form potentially explosive mixtures with water.
1 Materials which in themselves are normally stable, but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures or which may react with water with some release of energy but not violently
0 Materials which in themselves are normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and which are not reactive with water

NFPA Symbol Special Symbols

Approved Symbols SPECIAL HAZARDS
OX This denotes an oxidizer. A chemical which can greatly increase the rate of combustion / fire.
W Unusual reactivity with water. This indicates a potential hazard using water to fight a fire involving this material.

Fire Detection Systems
  • Thermal expansion detectors
  • heat sensitive metal link that melts at
    predetermined temp
  • Photoelectric fire sensor
  • detects changes in infrared energy radiated by
    smoke and smoke particles, obscuring the beam
  • Ionization or radiation sensors
  • uses the tendency of a radioactive substance to
    ionize when exposed to smoke
  • Ultraviolet or infrared detectors
  • detects radiation from fire flames

Fire Extinguishing Systems
  • Large facilities may have fire brigades
  • Standpipe and hose systems
  • Automatic sprinkler systems
  • usually water
  • pipes can be kept filled or empty

OSHA Fire Standards
  • 29 CFR Subpart L
  • Fire Protection
  • 1910.155-156
  • Portable Fire Suppression Equipment
  • 1910.157-158
  • Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment
  • 1910.159-163
  • Other Fire Protection Systems
  • 1910.164-165
  • 29 CFR Subpart E - Exits, Emergency action
    plans, means of egress

Life Safety Code
  • NFPA 101
  • protecting vehicles, vessels, and lives of people
    in buildings and structures
  • address construction, protection, and occupancy

Hot Work Program
  • Companies that have flammable, combustible, or
    ignitable materials and need to perform hot work
    in or around these materials need to have a Hot
    Work Program
  • Written Program
  • Pre-work inspection
  • Signed permit to show inspection and approval

Fire Safety Objectives
  1. Getting occupants out safely
  2. Minimizing property loss for structures and
  3. Minimizing interruption of operations

Fire Safety Fundamentals
  • Site Planning Accessibility
  • Separation of Structures
  • Building Construction Materials
  • Fire Resistance Ratings
  • See Brauer Table 16-4
  • Confinement / Compartmentation
  • Consider Fire Load and Fire Spread

Industrial Process Fire Hazard
  • Venting
  • Fire Walls
  • Welding Cutting
  • Hot Work Permits
  • Indoor Storage of Flammable Liquids
  • Warehouses

Life Safety
  • Protection of human life is 1 priority
  • Understanding human behavior in fires
  • General Principles of Life Safety
  • 3 classes of hazard low, ordinary, high
  • Type of occupancy residential, assembly,
    hospitals, industrial

General Principles of Life Safety
  • Interior Finishes
  • Means of Egress
  • Capacity
  • Number of Means of Egress
  • Exit Access
  • Width
  • Stairs

  • Read Chapters 11 13
  • HW12
  • Chapter 11, pages 245-6
  • Problems 1-19, divisible by 3
  • Chapter 13, pages 284-5
  • Problems 1-42, divisible by 3