Continuous Accountability: A Method to Assure Building Performance Presented to Penn State Student Chapter of ASHRAE 12 September 2002 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Continuous Accountability: A Method to Assure Building Performance Presented to Penn State Student Chapter of ASHRAE 12 September 2002


1
Continuous Accountability A Method to Assure
Building PerformancePresented to Penn State
Student Chapter of ASHRAE 12 September 2002
  • By
  • James E. Woods, Ph.D., P.E.
  • The Building Diagnostics Research Institute, Inc.

2
Presentation Content
  • Part 1 Introduce whole building concepts and
    consequences of Continuous Degradation,
    Continuous Accountability, and Building
    Diagnostics
  • Part 2 Discuss Lessons Learned from ASHRAE Study
    Group on Building Health and Safety under
    Extraordinary Incidents
  • Part 3 Describe Diagnostic Procedures, and
    Evaluation and Classification Criteria for
    virtual and actual buildings

3
Part 1Whole Building Concepts
  • Purpose of Buildings
  • Fundamental Objectives of Environmental Control
  • Continuous Degradation
  • Continuous Accountability
  • Building Diagnostics

4
Purpose of Buildings
  • Provide secure, safe, and healthy conditions
  • Facilitate well being and productivity of
    occupants, owners, and managers
  • Four functional categories
  • Residential
  • Educational
  • Health Care
  • Commercial/Public Assembly

5
Fundamental Objectives of Environmental Control
  • Prevent adverse health and safety effects
  • Provide for desired conditions
  • Human Response
  • Occupant Performance
  • Productivity
  • Achieve by simultaneous control of exposure
    parameters
  • Thermal
  • IAQ
  • Lighting
  • Acoustics

6
Definition of Indoor Air Quality
  • The nature of air that affects the health and
    well-being of occupants

7
Definition of Health
  • From the Constitution of the World Health
    Organization (1946)
  • Health is a state of complete physical, mental,
    and social well-being and not merely the absence
    of disease or infirmity.

8
Current Drivers
Safety and Environment
  • Green Buildings
  • Sustainability
  • Global warming
  • Moisture and Mold
  • Environmental Security

Productivity
  • Health awareness
  • Occupant performance
  • Health care costs
  • Employee absences
  • O M costs
  • Value Engineering
  • Fear of terrorism

Energy
  • Reduced loads and capacities
  • Advanced control strategies
  • Changes in OM procedures

9
Regulations, Standards, Guidelines and Codes
  • Guidelines
  • USGBC LEED Criteria
  • NIBS Whole Building Commissioning
  • ASHRAE Risk Management Guidance on Health and
    Safety under Extraordinary Incidents
  • Others
  • Regulations
  • GSA PBS P-100
  • Executive Orders
  • GSA HVAC Excellence Criteria
  • Others
  • Standards
  • ASHRAE Standards 55, 62, 90, and others
  • ASTM Standards
  • ANSI Standards
  • Others
  • Model Codes
  • UBC/BOCA/SBC
  • IBC
  • NFPA (NEC/NMC)
  • Others

10
Existing Building Stock
  • In USA
  • gt 100 million residential buildings
  • gt 4.6 million non-residential buildings
  • 2-4 replacement rate
  • 80 - 90 in use in 2025 already exist
  • Global
  • Similar percentages in developed regions
  • Different percentages in developing regions

11
Concept of Continuous Degradation
Non-industrial Buildings
Problem Buildings (20 - 30)
Buildings Without Known Problems (70 - 80)
BRI (5 - 10)
SBS (10 - 25)
UPB (10 - 20)
HB (50 - 70)
12
Problem Buildings
  • Symptoms or Illnesses
  • Occupant complaints symptoms
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Asthma
  • Tuberculosis
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Magnitude of Problem
  • 20-50 existing buildings in NA and WE
  • Most common chronic disease
  • Leading cause of school absences
  • Most lethal infection in health care facilities
  • 6 global mortality from indoor biomass fuels

13
Types of Problem Buildings
  • Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
  • Persistence of symptoms
  • Substantial percentage affected
  • Rapid relief on exit
  • Causes Unknown
  • Solve by System Performance
  • Building Related Illness (BRI)
  • Clinical signs
  • More than one affected
  • Linkages to indoor exposures
  • Solve by Source Removal

14
Healthy Buildings
  • Pragmatic (Woods, et al)
  • Minimize occupant complaints
  • Comply with acceptable criteria
  • Exposures
  • System performance
  • Economic performance
  • Ideal (Berglund, et al)
  • Free from BRI and discomfort
  • Promote well being and health
  • Provide for
  • Non-hazardous conditions
  • Thermal comfort
  • Pleasant air quality
  • Illumination and acoustic
  • satisfaction
  • Social needs and
  • productivity
  • Distinguished aesthetic
  • qualities
  • Undetected Problems
  • Some discomfort and symptoms
  • Non-compliance with some
  • acceptable criteria

15
Summary of Consequences of Continuous
Degradation (1)
  • gt 20 occupants with symptoms
  • gt 20 occupants with hampered performance
  • gt50 occupants have loss of confidence in
    management
  • Potential cost of recovering good will from
  • SBS gt cost of mitigation
  • BRI gt cost of facility

16
Summary of Consequences of Continuous
Degradation (2)
  • 40 - 60 B/ yr (Woods, 1989)
  • Up to 60 B/yr (EPA, 1989)
  • 6 - 14 B/yr from increased respiratory diseases
    (Fisk, 1999)
  • 2 - 4 B/yr from increased asthma and allergies
    (Fisk, 1999)
  • 15 - 38 B/yr from SBS (Fisk, 1999)
  • 20 - 200 B/yr from reduced productivity (Fisk,
    1999)

17
Primary Causes of Continuous Degradation
  • Lack of accountability for building performance
  • Abdication of professional responsibility for
    building performance
  • Lack of occupant awareness of consequences of
    problem buildings
  • Lack of scientific quantitative data on building
    performance

18
Interception of Continuous Degradation
Building Diagnostics
Intervention
Continuous Accountability
Healthy Building
Problem Building
19
Commitments needed forContinuous Accountability
  • Accountable person must be
  • Explicitly identified for each phase in
    buildings life
  • Empowered with authority to assure building
    performance
  • Educated and trained to assure adequate building
    performance and occupant protection

20
Planning Conceptual Design
Occupancy Functional Performance
Assure
Set
Owner Financier Planner Designer
Owner Manager Tenant Occupant
Healthy Building
Designer Builder
Owner Financier
Builder Designer Owner Tenant
Evaluate
Translate
Accountability
Detailed Design Construction
Commissioning Substantial Completion
Performance Criteria
21
Part 2 Summary of ASHRAE Study Group
ReportRisk Management Guidance for Health and
Safety Under Extraordinary IncidentsReleased 14
January 2002Report Available at www.ashrae.org
22
Charge to Study Group
  • Based on ASHRAEs expertise and responsibilities,
    a Presidential Study Group was appointed in
    October 2001 to
  • Provide initial guidance on actions that should
    be taken to reduce health and safety risks of
    occupants in buildings that might be subjected to
    extraordinary incidences.

23
Problem Statement
  • Building owners and occupants may now be willing
    to redirect resources to enhance building
    performance
  • To further reduce occupant risks associated with
    extraordinary incidences,
  • While continuing to provide acceptable indoor
    environments, with energy efficiency and cost
    effectiveness during normal conditions.

24
Issues Included in Report (1)
  • Study pertains to public use and assembly
    buildings
  • Commercial
  • Institution
  • Educational
  • Residential for more than four families

25
Issues Included in Report (2)
  • Study addresses aspects of building performance
    that affect health and safety under extraordinary
    incidents
  • Egress
  • CBR protection
  • Fire protection
  • Smoke removal or purging
  • Filtration
  • Air Quality
  • Entrance paths for contaminants
  • Building envelope

26
Limits of the Report
  • The fundamental parameters of risk/benefit, cost,
    and level of protection were considered.
  • But the recommendations are limited based on time
    and current state of knowledge.

27
Lessons Learned (1)
  • Committee deliberations on the events of 9/11,
    and the subsequent Anthrax attacks, suggested
    that
  • Methods of protection from intentional
    extraordinary incidents are related to protection
    from accidental and naturally occurring
    extraordinary incidents.

28
Lessons Learned (2)
  • US buildings have important safety features
    against some threats because of
  • Quality of standards of care practiced in the US.
  • Enforcement of building codes and standards
    during design and construction.
  • Legal liability of designers, constructors and
    owners.

29
To protect against aerosol attacks from an
external source, building openings where aerosols
might enter must be
Lessons Learned (3)
  • Capable of timely closure.
  • Located remote from any launch site.
  • Equipped with adequate filtration.

30
To protect against aerosol attacks from a source
inside a building
Lessons Learned (4)
  • Site of initial release must be isolated in a
    timely manner by closure of all openings to other
    spaces.
  • Any contaminated space must be isolated as
    described above.

31
Lessons Learned (5)
  • Sensors, monitors or other detectors are not
    presently available, or are not reliable for many
    contaminants.
  • This RULES OUT feedback control as a strategy for
    now.

32
Lessons Learned (6)
  • Areas of Refuge may not be economically viable
    in most buildings.
  • Therefore, practical and commercially viable
    applications of HVAC technologies include
  • Enhancement of building egress
    paths.
  • Isolation of significant contamination to
    selected building volumes.

33
Lessons Learned (7)
  • Enhanced filtration is a desirable, but not
    sufficient, control strategy to reduce occupant
    risk to airborne contaminants.
  • A comprehensive strategy must link
  • Enhanced filtration,
  • Building pressurization of its interior
    relative to the outdoors, and
  • Improved air tightness.

34
Recommendations for Owners and Managersof
Existing Buildings
  • 1. Understand capabilities of your building and
    its systems.
  • 2. Assure that your building is performing as
    intended.
  • 3. Do not make changes to building performance
    unless the consequences are understood.

35
List of Major Systems, Components, and Processes
to Consider
  • 1. Ventilation system operation
  • 2. Filter efficiency and bypass
  • 3. Quantity of outdoor air
  • 4. Control access to air handler components
  • 5. Isolate likely entry points
  • 6. Fire protection and life safety
  • 7. Building shell and duct tightness
  • 8. Areas of Refuge
  • 9. Preparedness Plan
  • 10. What Not To Do

36
Continued ASHRAE Study
  • Presidential Ad Hoc Committee has been appointed
    to
  • Continue to work on issues defined by Study Group
  • Develop recommendations on specific actions
    ASHRAE should take
  • Coordinate ASHRAEs activities in this effort
    with other recognized engineering and scientific
    organizations
  • Present Report by January 2003

37
Scope of ASHRAE Report
  • Will address health, comfort, and environmental
    security issues involving air, food and water
  • Will focus on
  • Risk Management Procedures
  • Infrastructure Constraints
  • Recommendations for Existing Buildings
  • Recommendations for New Buildings
  • Recommendations for ASHRAE Action and Commitments

38
Conclusions
  • Threats and fear of bio-terrorism require
    careful consideration, but should not be the
    primary focus of building performance
  • The importance of Continuous Accountability has
    been reinforced by the awareness of bio-terrorism
  • Rigorous application of known principles of
    design, construction and operations minimize the
    threat of bio-terrorism and enhance health,
    safety and productivity
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Continuous Accountability: A Method to Assure Building Performance Presented to Penn State Student Chapter of ASHRAE 12 September 2002

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Title: Continuous Accountability: A Method to Assure Building Performance Presented to Penn State Student Chapter of ASHRAE 12 September 2002


1
Continuous Accountability A Method to Assure
Building PerformancePresented to Penn State
Student Chapter of ASHRAE 12 September 2002
  • By
  • James E. Woods, Ph.D., P.E.
  • The Building Diagnostics Research Institute, Inc.

2
Presentation Content
  • Part 1 Introduce whole building concepts and
    consequences of Continuous Degradation,
    Continuous Accountability, and Building
    Diagnostics
  • Part 2 Discuss Lessons Learned from ASHRAE Study
    Group on Building Health and Safety under
    Extraordinary Incidents
  • Part 3 Describe Diagnostic Procedures, and
    Evaluation and Classification Criteria for
    virtual and actual buildings

3
Part 1Whole Building Concepts
  • Purpose of Buildings
  • Fundamental Objectives of Environmental Control
  • Continuous Degradation
  • Continuous Accountability
  • Building Diagnostics

4
Purpose of Buildings
  • Provide secure, safe, and healthy conditions
  • Facilitate well being and productivity of
    occupants, owners, and managers
  • Four functional categories
  • Residential
  • Educational
  • Health Care
  • Commercial/Public Assembly

5
Fundamental Objectives of Environmental Control
  • Prevent adverse health and safety effects
  • Provide for desired conditions
  • Human Response
  • Occupant Performance
  • Productivity
  • Achieve by simultaneous control of exposure
    parameters
  • Thermal
  • IAQ
  • Lighting
  • Acoustics

6
Definition of Indoor Air Quality
  • The nature of air that affects the health and
    well-being of occupants

7
Definition of Health
  • From the Constitution of the World Health
    Organization (1946)
  • Health is a state of complete physical, mental,
    and social well-being and not merely the absence
    of disease or infirmity.

8
Current Drivers
Safety and Environment
  • Green Buildings
  • Sustainability
  • Global warming
  • Moisture and Mold
  • Environmental Security

Productivity
  • Health awareness
  • Occupant performance
  • Health care costs
  • Employee absences
  • O M costs
  • Value Engineering
  • Fear of terrorism

Energy
  • Reduced loads and capacities
  • Advanced control strategies
  • Changes in OM procedures

9
Regulations, Standards, Guidelines and Codes
  • Guidelines
  • USGBC LEED Criteria
  • NIBS Whole Building Commissioning
  • ASHRAE Risk Management Guidance on Health and
    Safety under Extraordinary Incidents
  • Others
  • Regulations
  • GSA PBS P-100
  • Executive Orders
  • GSA HVAC Excellence Criteria
  • Others
  • Standards
  • ASHRAE Standards 55, 62, 90, and others
  • ASTM Standards
  • ANSI Standards
  • Others
  • Model Codes
  • UBC/BOCA/SBC
  • IBC
  • NFPA (NEC/NMC)
  • Others

10
Existing Building Stock
  • In USA
  • gt 100 million residential buildings
  • gt 4.6 million non-residential buildings
  • 2-4 replacement rate
  • 80 - 90 in use in 2025 already exist
  • Global
  • Similar percentages in developed regions
  • Different percentages in developing regions

11
Concept of Continuous Degradation
Non-industrial Buildings
Problem Buildings (20 - 30)
Buildings Without Known Problems (70 - 80)
BRI (5 - 10)
SBS (10 - 25)
UPB (10 - 20)
HB (50 - 70)
12
Problem Buildings
  • Symptoms or Illnesses
  • Occupant complaints symptoms
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Asthma
  • Tuberculosis
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Magnitude of Problem
  • 20-50 existing buildings in NA and WE
  • Most common chronic disease
  • Leading cause of school absences
  • Most lethal infection in health care facilities
  • 6 global mortality from indoor biomass fuels

13
Types of Problem Buildings
  • Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
  • Persistence of symptoms
  • Substantial percentage affected
  • Rapid relief on exit
  • Causes Unknown
  • Solve by System Performance
  • Building Related Illness (BRI)
  • Clinical signs
  • More than one affected
  • Linkages to indoor exposures
  • Solve by Source Removal

14
Healthy Buildings
  • Pragmatic (Woods, et al)
  • Minimize occupant complaints
  • Comply with acceptable criteria
  • Exposures
  • System performance
  • Economic performance
  • Ideal (Berglund, et al)
  • Free from BRI and discomfort
  • Promote well being and health
  • Provide for
  • Non-hazardous conditions
  • Thermal comfort
  • Pleasant air quality
  • Illumination and acoustic
  • satisfaction
  • Social needs and
  • productivity
  • Distinguished aesthetic
  • qualities
  • Undetected Problems
  • Some discomfort and symptoms
  • Non-compliance with some
  • acceptable criteria

15
Summary of Consequences of Continuous
Degradation (1)
  • gt 20 occupants with symptoms
  • gt 20 occupants with hampered performance
  • gt50 occupants have loss of confidence in
    management
  • Potential cost of recovering good will from
  • SBS gt cost of mitigation
  • BRI gt cost of facility

16
Summary of Consequences of Continuous
Degradation (2)
  • 40 - 60 B/ yr (Woods, 1989)
  • Up to 60 B/yr (EPA, 1989)
  • 6 - 14 B/yr from increased respiratory diseases
    (Fisk, 1999)
  • 2 - 4 B/yr from increased asthma and allergies
    (Fisk, 1999)
  • 15 - 38 B/yr from SBS (Fisk, 1999)
  • 20 - 200 B/yr from reduced productivity (Fisk,
    1999)

17
Primary Causes of Continuous Degradation
  • Lack of accountability for building performance
  • Abdication of professional responsibility for
    building performance
  • Lack of occupant awareness of consequences of
    problem buildings
  • Lack of scientific quantitative data on building
    performance

18
Interception of Continuous Degradation
Building Diagnostics
Intervention
Continuous Accountability
Healthy Building
Problem Building
19
Commitments needed forContinuous Accountability
  • Accountable person must be
  • Explicitly identified for each phase in
    buildings life
  • Empowered with authority to assure building
    performance
  • Educated and trained to assure adequate building
    performance and occupant protection

20
Planning Conceptual Design
Occupancy Functional Performance
Assure
Set
Owner Financier Planner Designer
Owner Manager Tenant Occupant
Healthy Building
Designer Builder
Owner Financier
Builder Designer Owner Tenant
Evaluate
Translate
Accountability
Detailed Design Construction
Commissioning Substantial Completion
Performance Criteria
21
Part 2 Summary of ASHRAE Study Group
ReportRisk Management Guidance for Health and
Safety Under Extraordinary IncidentsReleased 14
January 2002Report Available at www.ashrae.org
22
Charge to Study Group
  • Based on ASHRAEs expertise and responsibilities,
    a Presidential Study Group was appointed in
    October 2001 to
  • Provide initial guidance on actions that should
    be taken to reduce health and safety risks of
    occupants in buildings that might be subjected to
    extraordinary incidences.

23
Problem Statement
  • Building owners and occupants may now be willing
    to redirect resources to enhance building
    performance
  • To further reduce occupant risks associated with
    extraordinary incidences,
  • While continuing to provide acceptable indoor
    environments, with energy efficiency and cost
    effectiveness during normal conditions.

24
Issues Included in Report (1)
  • Study pertains to public use and assembly
    buildings
  • Commercial
  • Institution
  • Educational
  • Residential for more than four families

25
Issues Included in Report (2)
  • Study addresses aspects of building performance
    that affect health and safety under extraordinary
    incidents
  • Egress
  • CBR protection
  • Fire protection
  • Smoke removal or purging
  • Filtration
  • Air Quality
  • Entrance paths for contaminants
  • Building envelope

26
Limits of the Report
  • The fundamental parameters of risk/benefit, cost,
    and level of protection were considered.
  • But the recommendations are limited based on time
    and current state of knowledge.

27
Lessons Learned (1)
  • Committee deliberations on the events of 9/11,
    and the subsequent Anthrax attacks, suggested
    that
  • Methods of protection from intentional
    extraordinary incidents are related to protection
    from accidental and naturally occurring
    extraordinary incidents.

28
Lessons Learned (2)
  • US buildings have important safety features
    against some threats because of
  • Quality of standards of care practiced in the US.
  • Enforcement of building codes and standards
    during design and construction.
  • Legal liability of designers, constructors and
    owners.

29
To protect against aerosol attacks from an
external source, building openings where aerosols
might enter must be
Lessons Learned (3)
  • Capable of timely closure.
  • Located remote from any launch site.
  • Equipped with adequate filtration.

30
To protect against aerosol attacks from a source
inside a building
Lessons Learned (4)
  • Site of initial release must be isolated in a
    timely manner by closure of all openings to other
    spaces.
  • Any contaminated space must be isolated as
    described above.

31
Lessons Learned (5)
  • Sensors, monitors or other detectors are not
    presently available, or are not reliable for many
    contaminants.
  • This RULES OUT feedback control as a strategy for
    now.

32
Lessons Learned (6)
  • Areas of Refuge may not be economically viable
    in most buildings.
  • Therefore, practical and commercially viable
    applications of HVAC technologies include
  • Enhancement of building egress
    paths.
  • Isolation of significant contamination to
    selected building volumes.

33
Lessons Learned (7)
  • Enhanced filtration is a desirable, but not
    sufficient, control strategy to reduce occupant
    risk to airborne contaminants.
  • A comprehensive strategy must link
  • Enhanced filtration,
  • Building pressurization of its interior
    relative to the outdoors, and
  • Improved air tightness.

34
Recommendations for Owners and Managersof
Existing Buildings
  • 1. Understand capabilities of your building and
    its systems.
  • 2. Assure that your building is performing as
    intended.
  • 3. Do not make changes to building performance
    unless the consequences are understood.

35
List of Major Systems, Components, and Processes
to Consider
  • 1. Ventilation system operation
  • 2. Filter efficiency and bypass
  • 3. Quantity of outdoor air
  • 4. Control access to air handler components
  • 5. Isolate likely entry points
  • 6. Fire protection and life safety
  • 7. Building shell and duct tightness
  • 8. Areas of Refuge
  • 9. Preparedness Plan
  • 10. What Not To Do

36
Continued ASHRAE Study
  • Presidential Ad Hoc Committee has been appointed
    to
  • Continue to work on issues defined by Study Group
  • Develop recommendations on specific actions
    ASHRAE should take
  • Coordinate ASHRAEs activities in this effort
    with other recognized engineering and scientific
    organizations
  • Present Report by January 2003

37
Scope of ASHRAE Report
  • Will address health, comfort, and environmental
    security issues involving air, food and water
  • Will focus on
  • Risk Management Procedures
  • Infrastructure Constraints
  • Recommendations for Existing Buildings
  • Recommendations for New Buildings
  • Recommendations for ASHRAE Action and Commitments

38
Conclusions
  • Threats and fear of bio-terrorism require
    careful consideration, but should not be the
    primary focus of building performance
  • The importance of Continuous Accountability has
    been reinforced by the awareness of bio-terrorism
  • Rigorous application of known principles of
    design, construction and operations minimize the
    threat of bio-terrorism and enhance health,
    safety and productivity
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