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Pests: Symptoms to Causes

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Title: Pests: Symptoms to Causes


1
Pests Symptoms to Causes
  • Joran Viers
  • Horticulture Agent
  • Bernalillo County Cooperative Extension Service

2
Symptoms
  • Tree browning from top down.
  • Occurs on ponderosa and pinyon pine AZ and
    Leyland cypress ash and elm.
  • Small pencil-lead sized holes appearing on trunk.
  • Sawdust/frass around holes on trunk.
  • Bark comes off, leaves powdery tunneled surface
    behind.

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5
Cause
  • Bark beetles
  • Pine bark beetles, cypress bark beetles, elm bark
    beetles, ash bark beetles
  • Attack drought-stressed trees.
  • Invade cambium layer in trunk.
  • May bring fungal spores in (blue stain disease)
  • Once theyre inthe tree is theirs.
  • Preventative water appropriately permethrin or
    carbaryl on bark of trunk (timing?).

6
Symptoms
  • On pinyon needle browning that spreads around
    tree.
  • Tiny holes in bark of twigs may be frass
    associated with holes.
  • Cambium of twigs turned reddish brown, dead.

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9
Cause
  • Twig beetles
  • So far attacking mostly pinyon, some mugo pines.
  • Key in on drought stressed trees.
  • Permethrin or carbaryl as a preventative full
    twig coverage?
  • High-pressure permethrin may actually kill some
    of them under the bark.

10
Symptoms
  • Small holes in leaves of ornamentals or vegetable
    crops shot holes.
  • Presence of small beetles that jump away when
    disturbed.
  • Presence of squishy little larva along with the
    beetles.

11
Cause
  • Flea beetles
  • Many different species attacking many different
    plants
  • On vegetables, may render leaves un-appealing and
    inedible.
  • On ornamentals, may defoliate (but what real
    consequence? 20 or less, dont worry).
  • Floating row covers intentional mowing repel
    with DE, neem treat with spinosad, permethrin,
    carbaryl.

12
Symptoms
  • Heavy leaf feeding on bean plants.
  • Feeding may extend to flowers and fruits.
  • Lace-like appearance of leaves, yellowing and
    drying of leaf tissue.
  • Frass.
  • Presence of adult and larval insects

13
Cause
  • Mexican bean beetle
  • A type of lady bird beetle.
  • Natural enemies include assassin bugs and
    parasitic wasps.
  • Clean up old bean debris and destroy after season
    is over to kill overwintering adults.
  • Garlic as a repellent also onions and mint.
  • Neem, rotenone, sabadilla, pyrethrum, Sharp
    Shooter (lemon-based), carbaryl can give some
    control.

14
Symptoms
  • On small-flowered sunflowers
  • Stems chewed through just below head, causes head
    to droop over but typically remains attached.

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Cause
  • Headclipper weevil
  • Not a serious pest, attacks smaller-flowered
    sunflower plants.
  • Plants continue producing new heads.
  • Call came in, I searched internet for sunflower
    pests, came across reference to this weevil,
    then went home and found them on my own plants!

17
Symptoms
  • On apples, possibly on pears
  • Interior of fruit largely destroyed by feeding.
  • Exit wound (possibly frassy) clearly marks fruit
    as tainted.

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Cause
  • Codling moth
  • Proverbial worm in the apple.
  • Eggs laid on surface of fruit (from very young to
    almost mature, depending on generation).
  • Pheromone traps quite effective at home-scale.
  • Combined with insecticide, very effective.
  • Spinosad
  • Carbaryl
  • First application typically late April/early May
  • Second application 10-14 days later.

20
Pheromone trap in Ron Walsers experimental
orchard at the Alcalde Sustainable Agriculture
Science Center.
21
Symptoms
  • Bare petioles on tomato plants.
  • Rapid progression of damage.
  • Big black/brown lumps on leaves.

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Cause
  • Tomato hornworm
  • Larva of a type of sphinx moth
  • Cryptically colored to hide on plant tissue
  • By the time theyre noticed, quite large (thumb
    sized).
  • Hand pick and feed to chickens (get some)
  • I know a man who has eaten them

24
Symptoms
  • Tree leaf feeding
  • Apple
  • Sycamore
  • Others
  • Strange structures hanging down from branches.

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Cause
  • Bagworm
  • Moth larva adult females are typically wingless,
    may not have eyes, antennae, legs live in their
    bag.
  • Usually not noticed until pupal stage hand pick
    and destroy.
  • Early infestations (if observed) could be treated
    with Bt, pyrethrum, rotenone, carbaryl and others.

27
Symptoms
  • Mass defoliation attack on sunflower leaves.
  • Many small caterpillars crowded together to feed.
  • Sunflower plant continues to grow

28
Cause
  • Painted lady butterfly
  • Locally heavy, but healthy plants outgrow.
  • Control young larva with a Bt product.
  • Leave em alone and let your kids have a science
    project/nature experience.

29
Symptoms
  • Mostly on pinyon
  • White, frothy sap from wounds on main trunk.
  • Sap initially soft and sticky, eventually
    hardens.
  • Small white larva may be found.

30
Cause
  • Pitch moth
  • Eggs laid on trunk, larva tunnel in, stimulate
    flow of sap and feed on same.
  • Though quite noticeable, not usually very
    damaging and probably dont require treatment.
  • Dig them out with small knife, poke em with a
    wire.
  • No good chemical controls.

31
Symptoms
  • Die-back of branch tips on pine, mostly
    ponderosa.
  • Short, squat ponderosa trees without strong
    apical leader.

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Cause
  • Pine tip moth
  • Two flights per year, typically early May and
    early July.
  • Rarely fatal rather, cause disfurement
  • Typically dont fly above about 20 feet from
    ground, so tall trees will likely escape
    disfigurment.

34
Symptoms
  • Tips of corn fouled by feeding.
  • More common on sweet corn than field, indian, pop
    or ornamental corns.
  • May extend well downward on ear.

35
Cause
  • Corn earworm
  • Also feeds on tomato, then known as tomato fruit
    worm.
  • Tight-husked varieties less affected.
  • Vegetable oil pyrethrum drops on silk as it
    emerges.
  • Carbaryl, synthetic pyrethroids mentioned but
    with resistance caution.

36
Symptoms
  • Damage to lower trunk of peach, cherry, plum
    trees.
  • Sappy exudations mixed with frass and sawdust.
  • Bark die-off, evidence of boring in surface of
    wood.

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Cause
  • Peach tree borer
  • Day-flying, clear-wing moth.
  • Eggs laid on trunk, larva tunnel in, then drop to
    soil to overwinter and pupate.
  • Mechanical control, pheromone trapping to catch
    males.

39
Symptoms
  • In green ash trees, mostly
  • Die-back of branches.
  • Holes in trunk.
  • Little pupal cases sticking out of holes.
  • Sawdust and frass on trunk below holes.
  • Death of tree.

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42
Cause
  • Ash borer
  • Day-flying wasp-mimic moth.
  • Also attacks lilac.
  • Pheromone traps are available for monitoring.
  • Spray control material 10 days after first catch.
  • Permethrin sprayed on the bark of the trunk and
    main branches (make sure its labeled for this
    critter - Astro.

43
Symptoms
  • Ragged, extensive feeding damage on cole crops
    (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Chinese
    cabbage.
  • Frass on leaves.

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Cause
  • Cabbage looper
  • Has many natural enemies, but they alone wont
    control.
  • Control with early and frequent applications of
    Bt.

46
Symptoms
  • Leaves (or young fruits, stems) roughly eaten,
    large chunks missing.
  • Ornamentals, perennials, all kinds of plants.
  • Often early-season damage, leaves continue to
    grow and function although deformed.
  • Typically, no villain spotted.

47
Cause
  • Grasshoppers
  • Feed on all kinds of things, including some other
    insects and their own dead!
  • Very mobile, forget about chemical control.
  • Chickens, turkeys and guinea hens.
  • Nolobait for long-term warfare.
  • Large grasshopper population one year may be
    followed by large blister beetle population next
    year the beetle larva feed on grasshopper eggs.

48
Symptoms
  • Second-year needles on pinyon yellowing, stipled
    third-year needles browning.
  • Small black bumps on second year needles.
  • In late winter, cotton masses on trunks and
    branches of pinyon.

49
Cause
  • Pinyon needle scale
  • Two vulnerable stages
  • Egg hose off NOW through mid-March.
  • Crawler after eggs hatch, young larva seek last
    years needles to settle on.
  • Hose of eggs, but leave some to monitor
  • As soon as they hatch, control with
    horticultural oil (keep off foliage), neem oil,
    insecticidal soap, acephate, carbaryl.

50
Symptoms
  • Leaves of woody perennials curling along edges or
    across midrib.
  • Stipling and discoloration of leaves.
  • Sticky clear liquid collecting on leaf surfaces,
    branches, etc.
  • Lots of ant activity.
  • Lots of lady bug activity.
  • Weird little critters on leaves, stems often
    stuck in place.

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54
Cause
  • Aphids
  • Many natural predators and parasites often no
    control is needed.
  • Hose off with strong jet of water.
  • Treat with insecticidal soap, neem products,
    imidacloprid, permethrin, carbaryl (BUT DONT BE
    IN A HURRY YOU CAN DO MORE DAMAGE THAN GOOD!)

55
Symptoms
  • Ripe cherry fruit starting to rot inside.
  • Small white worms visible inside fruit.

56
Cause
  • Western Cherry Fruit Fly
  • Smaller than a house fly.
  • Attacks fruit as it ripens.
  • Control with spinosad.

57
Symptoms
  • Copious amounts of sap dripping to ground from
    large trees.
  • Lots of bird activity in trees.
  • Sound of woodpeckers in trees.
  • Lines of holes drilled into bark, but not real
    deep.

58
Cause
  • Sapsucker woodpecker
  • Feeding on sweet sap in early part of season.
  • Also feeds on insects.
  • Usually doesnt drill deep enough to compromise
    tree health.
  • Scare away with bird tape, noises, fake owls, etc.
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