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An Introduction to Winter Botany

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Title: An Introduction to Winter Botany


1
An Introduction to Winter Botany
James E. Perry, PhD, PWS
Feb. 6, 2009
2
Definition of Terms
Habit

Tree
Sapling
Forb/Herb/ Graminoids
Shrub
3
Definitions of Habit
4
Definition of Terms
Twigs
  • Terminal portion of a branch which grew during
    the current year or preceding year.
  • Stoutness, color, smoothness, round or angled in
    Xsection, corky ridges or thorns, spines or
    prickles.
  • Thorns are shape-pointed modified branches
    spines are sharp, modified persistent stipules
    (usually paired), prickles are outgrowths from
    young bark and are usually scattered over the
    surface.

5
Prickles
Armament
Spines - sharp, modified persistent stipules
(usually paired). Prickles - outgrowths from
young bark and are usually scattered over the
surface. Thorns - shape-pointed modified
branches.
Spines
Thorns
6
Twigs
Spur shoots - slow growing twigs (characteristic
of Rosaceae and Aquifoliacea).
Lenticels -small dots or patches scattered over
the surface of twigs.
7
Twigs
Pith - central portion of twig that is composed
of large, thin-walled cells. Look for color,
shape, robustness.
8
Twigs
Leaf Scares -corky protrusion that forms at base
of leaves just before abscission. Look at shape,
size, arrangement
9
Twigs
Bundle Scares point where vascular tissue
passed from stem to leaf. Look for number and
arrangement
Stipule Scares - found on many trees, but missing
on some, these are a small leaf-like appendage
attached at the base of the leaf petiole. Shape,
size, and length. (Note circular stipule scares
on Sycamore and Magnoliaceae)
10
Buds
Formed in resting stage during the growth of the
tree and contain embryonic leaves or flowers.
May be protected by bud scales (modified leaf) or
scale-less (naked). Bud scales can be valvate
or imbricate.
Naked Bud
11
Buds
  • May be terminal or lateral, or lacking
    (pseudoterminal).
  • When pseudoterminal, lateral buds then platy role
    of terminal buds.

12
Special Cases
Oaks have one terminal and four lateral buds,
giving appearance of five terminal buds).
13
Special Cases
American Beach has alternate sharp terminal buds
Members of Elm Family (Celtus, Ulmus) have
pseudoterminal buds that give them a zig-zag shape
14
Special Cases
Only four species of trees have leaves/bud scares
Maple (Aceraceae)
Ash (Oleaceae)
Dogwood (Cornaceae)
Buckeye (Hippocastanaceae)
15
Habitat
Note environmental site conditions Xeric Mesic
Hydric.
Note aspect, soil, slope, temperature.
16
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Twigs2
18
Pith
19
Fruit
20
Fruit2
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Data Sources on the Web
  • USDA Plants Database
  • http//plants.usda.gov/plants/
  • VT Forestry site http//www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/den
    drology/factsheets.cfm
  • Virginia Atlas http//www.biol.vt.edu/digital_atl
    as/

28
Other Data Sources
National Plant List http//www.sac.usace.army.mil/
permits/national.pdf)
29
Other Data Sources
Plant Synonymy http//www.sac.usace.army.mil/permi
ts/synonymy.pdf
30
Other Data Sources
Key to Winter Twigs (http//www2.una.edu/pdavis/Tw
ig20Key.htm) In part, after Preston Wright's
Identification of Southeastern Trees in Winter
N.C. Agri. Exten. S. AG-42
31
Fruit Terms
32
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