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Report to GHRSST10 from Australia BLUElink and IMOS

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Helen Beggs1,2, Leon Majewski2, George Paltoglou1,2, Ruslan Verein1, ... NOAA Global NWP model (GDAS) hourly ~1/3 (0.025 ) BoM MTSAT-1R hourly SSTskin L3 (0.05 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Report to GHRSST10 from Australia BLUElink and IMOS


1
Report to GHRSST10 from Australia BLUElinkgt and
IMOS
  • Helen Beggs1,2, Leon Majewski2, George
    Paltoglou1,2, Ruslan Verein1,2, Peter Oke1,3 and
    Jeff Maynard4
  • 1Centre for Australian Weather and Climate
    Research,
  • 2Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia
  • 3CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart,
    Australia
  • 4University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Presented at the 10th GHRSST Science Team
    Meeting, Santa Rosa, 1-5 June 2009

2
Introduction
  • BoM GHRSST Products (2009)
  • L2P and L3P files of locally received HRPT AVHRR
    SST (IMOS)
  • L4 files (BLUElink)
  • RAMSSA Operational, daily 1/12? regional SSTfnd
    analysis
  • GAMSSA Operational, daily 1/4? global SSTfnd
    analysis
  • Other Contributions to GHRSST (2009)
  • Validation SST from ships (IMOS)
  • NOAA/BoM collaboration on MTSAT-1R SST
    calibration, validation and processing
  • Regional and Global Skin SST Analyses
    (RAMSSA_skin and GAMSSA_skin)
  • Datasets for Tropical Warm Pool Diurnal
    Variability Study (TWP)
  • BLUElink ReANalysis (BRAN)

3
Enhancing SOOP SST over Australian Region through
IMOS
Locations of 2008-09 IMOS ship SST observations
  • Goal
  • Significantly enhance quantity, quality and
    timeliness of ship SST data in the Australian
    region available for satellite validation,
    research and operations. Extra 13 QAd ship SST
    data streams on GTS by 2010 (7 from hull-contact
    sensors).
  • Status (June 2009)
  • NRT QAd SST data from 5 vessels available from
    GTS and IMOS (www.imos.org.au) in netCDF format
  • 3-way validation of RV Southern Surveyor (SBE 3)
    and MV Spirit of Tasmania II (SBE 48) SSTs
    against 1/6? AATSR SSTs and drifters showed both
    ship SST streams 0.1ºC warmer than drifters and
    0.1ºC less SD!!!
  • Ship SST being used to validate BLUElinkgt RAMSSA
    SSTfnd and OceanMAPS SST5m analyses
  • Plans for 2009-10
  • Add RT QAd SST data from 8 more vessels (inc 6
    more hull-contact sensors)
  • Validate all ship SST data streams using AATSR
  • Incorporate ship SST into BoM NRT satellite SST
    validation system
  • Apply for extra IMOS funds to install autonomous
    radiometers on Australian vessels

Hull-Contact Sensor (SBE 48) Test on RV Southern
Surveyor Aug 2008
SBE 3
4
MTSAT-1R SSTskin L3P products from IMOS in
collaboration with NOAA/STAR
  • Goal
  • Significantly improve the accuracy and useability
    of geostationary satellite skin SST over
    Australian region.
  • Current Status
  • BoM can produce RT and reprocessed (back to Jun
    2006) MTSAT-1R 5-6 km skin SST L2P files using
    NOAA statistical/physical retrieval code
  • NOAA/STAR also producing MTSAT-1R SSTskin L2
    files
  • During Dec 2008
  • NOAA RMSE 0.37?C (Night), 0.74?C (Day)
  • BoM RMSE 0.5?C (Night), 0.8?C (Day)
  • BoM/NOAA collaborating on correcting MTSAT-1R
    SSTskin for diurnal and seasonal calibration
    biases to hopefully reduce RMSE further.
  • By Dec 2009
  • RT and reprocessed MTSAT-1R SSTskin hourly, 0.05?
    L3P files over 0ºN to 55ºS, 90ºE to 180ºE will be
    made publicly available via IMOS OPeNDAP server
    at imos.org.au/srs_data.html

10 April 2009
1630 UT MTSAT-1R SSTskin 0.05? L3P
0530 UT MTSAT-1R SSTskin 0.05? L3P
5
New Australian Locally Received AVHRR SST L2P/L3P
products from IMOS
10 April 2009
Goal Significantly improve the accuracy and
useability of HRPT AVHRR SST products over
Australian region.
Nighttime HRPT AVHRR SST1m 0.01 L3P
  • Current Status
  • RT GHRSST format L2P (swath) and 0.01 x 0.01
    resolution, single day/single night L3P
    (composite) files of HRPT AVHRR SST1m data from
    NOAA-17 and NOAA-18 satellites available from
    IMOS OPeNDAP server by July 2009 (see
    imos.org.au/srs_data.html)
  • New SST products exhibit half the RMS error of
    the BoM pre-existing HRPT AVHRR level 2 SST data
    from NOAA-17 and NOAA-18 satellites

Daytime HRPT AVHRR SST1m 0.01 L3P
By Dec 2010 Raw HRPT AVHRR SST data back to 1990
will be reprocessed to L2P/L3P files and made
publicly available via IMOS and GHRSST.
6
Legacy Australian Locally Received AVHRR SST
14-day Mosaic L3P product from IMOS
28 Mar - 10 April 2009
  • BoM Legacy 14-day weighted mean Mosaic of HRPT
    AVHRR SST1m data from NOAA-15, NOAA-17 and
    NOAA-18 satellites has been converted to GHRSST
    format 0.01 x 0.01 resolution, L3P files over
    8ºS to 48ºS, 104ºE to 165ºE.
  • 14-day AVHRR Mosaic Multi-Sensor L3P files
    available back to 1 Jan 2001 via IMOS OPeNDAP
    server (imos.org.au/srs_data.html).
  • Does GHRSST want these files too?

NOAA-17 and NOAA-18 14-day HRPT AVHRR SST1m
0.01 L3P
7
GHRSST Applications in Australia J. Maynard et
al.
  • New predictive tools for coral disease outbreaks
    in northern Australia.
  • Forms the early warning system in a new coral
    disease response plan managed by the Great
    Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
  • Shows outbreak likelihood is high for reefs in
    the northern Great Barrier Reef this year!

Maynard et al. (in prep)
8
GHRSST Applications in Australia J. Maynard et
al.
  • Temperature animations of daily SST and SST
    anomalies (L3P) from December 2001 to February
    2009
  • Informs bioregional planning and impact response
    plans for the Commonwealth Marine Reserve
    managers at the Department of Environment, etc.
  • 150 extreme anomalies found in the 7.5 year
    period.
  • Only 26 of the anomalies were negative anomalies
  • General warming trends APPARENT.

J. Maynard maynardmarine_at_gmail.com
9
BoM Regional Australian Multi-Sensor SST Analysis
System
  • Depth Foundation (pre-dawn SST)
  • Resolution Daily, 1/12
  • Domain 60E - 170W , 20N - 70S
  • Start 0130 UT, Finish 0500 UT
  • Data Inputs
  • 1 km HRPT AVHRR (NOAA-17, -18)
  • 9 km NAVOCEANO GAC AVHRR (NOAA-17, -18, METOP-A)
    L2P
  • 25 km AMSR-E (Aqua) L2P
  • 1/6 AATSR (EnviSat)
  • Buoy and ship obs (GTS)
  • 1/12 NCEP ice edge analyses
  • NAVOCEANO 1/120? land/sea mask
  • Uses
  • Boundary condition for all new BoM regional NWP
    models
  • Validating OceanMAPS SST5m analyses/forecasts

V1.0 Operational 13 Jun 2007 V1.1 Operational
26 Oct 2007 V1.2 Operational 10 Jun 2008 V1.3
Operational 9 Apr 2009 Daily foundation SST
analyses available as netCDF L4 files from
godae.bom.gov.au and ghrsst-pp.jpl.nasa.gov
10
BoM Global Australian Multi-Sensor SST Analysis
System
  • Depth Foundation
  • Resolution Daily, 1/4
  • Domain global
  • Start 0030 UT, Finish 0300 UT
  • Based on RAMSSA v1.3 code
  • Data Inputs
  • 9 km NAVOCEANO GAC AVHRR (NOAA-17, -18, METOP-A)
    L2P
  • 25 km AMSR-E (Aqua) L2P
  • 1/6 AATSR (EnviSat)
  • Buoy and ship obs (GTS)
  • 1/12 NCEP ice edge analyses
  • NAVOCEANO 1/120? land/sea mask
  • Uses
  • Boundary condition for all new BoM global NWP
    models (ACCESS-G)
  • Initialisation of new seasonal forecast models
    (Test POAMA)

V1.0 Operational 2 Oct 2008 V1.1 Operational 9
Apr 2009 Daily foundation SST analyses available
as netCDF L4 files from ghrsst-pp.jpl.nasa.gov
and godae.bom.gov.au
11
Trial Regional Skin SST Analysis (RAMSSA_skin)
  • Method
  • RAMSSA SSTfnd DSST 0.2 K
  • DSST calculated from Chelle Gentemanns empirical
    DV model based on SEVIRI data. (0 - 3?C)
  • Assumes no cloud!
  • Depth skin (10?m)
  • Resolution Hourly, 1/12
  • Domain 65E - 175W , 15N - 65S
  • Commenced 1 Oct 2008
  • Data Inputs
  • Daily RAMSSA SSTfnd
  • Mean hourly, 0.375º, 10 m winds from ACCESS-R NWP
    24 hour forecasts
  • Mean value of solar constant for 1978 to 1998
  • Planned Use
  • QC and application of satellite atmospheric
    sounding data input into new regional NWP models
    (ACCESS-R, ACCESS-A, ACCESS-C, etc)
  • Requires /- 2K accuracy

NetCDF files available godae.bom.gov.au
12
Trial Global Skin SST Analysis (GAMSSA_skin)
  • Method
  • GAMSSA SSTfnd DSST 0.2 K
  • DSST calculated from Chelle Gentemanns empirical
    DV model based on SEVIRI data.
  • Assumes no cloud! (0 - 3?C)
  • Depth skin (10?m)
  • Resolution 3-hourly, 1/4
  • Domain global
  • Commenced 1 Jun 2008
  • Data Inputs
  • Daily GAMSSA SSTfnd
  • Mean 3-hourly, 1.25º lon x 0.833 lat, 10 m winds
    from ACCESS-G NWP 24 hour forecasts
  • Mean value of solar constant for 1978 to 1998
  • Planned Use
  • QC and application of satellite atmospheric
    sounding data input into new global NWP model
    (ACCESS-G)
  • Requires /- 2K accuracy
  • NetCDF files available godae.bom.gov.au

13
Validating RAMSSA-skin using AATSR SSTskin L2P
  • Period 1 31 Jan 2009
  • AATSR on Envisat has local equator-crossing times
    of 1030 am and 1030 pm
  • RAMSSA_skin 1 km AATSR SSTskin 0.14
    0.38C
  • GAMSSA_skin 1 km AATSR SSTskin 0.10
    0.38C
  • BUT only tests under clear sky conditions and not
    at minima or maxima of diurnal cycle
  • Next will test with AMSR-E on Aqua
    (equator-crossing times of 130 am and 130 pm)

14
GHRSST Tropical Warm Pool Diurnal Variability
Experiment (TWP)
  • Area of study25S to 15N, 100E to 170E
  • Period 1 Jan 31 Apr 2009
  • By Dec 2009 assemble regridded data sets to test
    diurnal variation models in the region
  • GTS Buoy SST
  • IMOS ship SSTskin (Whitsunday Ferry)
  • BoM Regional NWP model (ACCESS-R) hourly 0.375
    (0.025)
  • NOAA Global NWP model (GDAS) hourly 1/3
    (0.025)
  • BoM MTSAT-1R hourly SSTskin L3 (0.05)
  • BoM 1/12º Regional SSTfnd Analyses (RAMSSA)
    (0.05)
  • BoM/IMOS 0.01º HRPT AVHRR SSTsubskin L3 (0.025)
  • Meteo-France METOP-A SSTsubskin L3 (0.025)
  • RSS AMSR-E/TMI SSTsubskin L3 (0.25)

15
BLUElink ReANalysis
  • GOAL To provide a realistic quantitative
    description of the 3D time-varying ocean
    circulation of all physical variables
    (temperature, salinity, sea-level and three
    components of velocity) for the last few decades
  • 1997 to 2008 BRAN netCDF files and maps of SST
    are publicly available (to registered users). See
    www.cmar.csiro.au/staff/oke/BRAN.htm
  • BLUElink are working towards the assimilation of
    more SST obs (eg NAVOCEANO GAC AVHRR SST L2P)
    into both our reanalysis (through BRAN) and
    forecast (through OceanMAPS) activities.

16
Future GHRSST Products
  • BoM aims to provide to GHRSST
  • June 2009 Trial regional and global SSTskin L4
    via godae.bom.gov.au
  • Sep 2009 RT operational, HRPT AVHRR SST1m L2P
    and L3P
  • June 2010 Operational daily, 5 9 km, RAMSSA
    regional SSTfnd L4
  • Using all L2P from MTSAT-1R, AATSR, AVHRR,
    AMSR-E, MODIS?, TMI?
  • Dec 2010 NRT Ship SST from 13 vessels via GTS
    and IMOS
  • Dec 2010 Reprocessed HRPT AVHRR SST1m L2P and
    L3P back to 1990

17
Dr Helen Beggs, Ocean Prediction Group, Centre
for Australian Weather and Climate
Research,Bureau of Meteorology, 700 Collins St,
Melbourne. Email h.beggs_at_bom.gov.au
18
Extra Slides for discussion
19
  • Nation-wide collaborative program designed to
    observe the oceans around Australia
  • 27 Australian institutions
  • mid-2007 to mid-2013
  • AUS107M to install infrastructure for marine
    research
  • All IMOS data available under the GOOS data
    access principles
  • Precursor to an Australian Integrated Ocean
    Observing System
  • IMOS director, Dr Gary Meyers, keen to support
    GHRSST
  • See http//www.imos.org.au

20
Performance Analysis1 Oct 2006 30 Nov 2008,
60E to 170W, 20N to 70S
  • Daily 1/4 Legacy SST1m
  • Daily 1/12 RAMSSA v1.1 and v1.2 SSTfnd

21
Validating RV Southern Surveyor SBE3 SSTs using
3-way comparison with AATSR and Buoy subskin SSTs
  • SBE3 SSTs 0.1?C warmer than buoy SSTs
  • SBE3 SSTs had 0.1?C less standard deviation than
    buoys when compared with AATSR SSTs
  • Hence Southern Surveyor SST data stream will be
    very useful for validating/calibrating satellite
    SST

22
Hull-Mounted temperature sensors on Bureaus AVOF
vessels
  • SeaBirds SBE 48 is a high-accuracy temperature
    recorder, designed for shipboard determination of
    sea surface temperature
  • Mounted with magnets just below the water line,
    the SBE 48s temperature sensor is in contact
    with the inside of the ships hull
  • Currently used by Woods Hole Oceanographic
    Institute and National Oceanographic Centre
    SouthHampton on ships of opportunity
  • Measurement Range -5 to 35C
  • Initial Accuracy 0.002C
  • Typical Stability (per month) 0.0002C
  • Resolution 0.0001C
  • Clock Accuracy 15 seconds/month

Weight 2.3 kg Dimensions 78 mm x 76 mm x 273 mm
23
Hull-Mounted SBE48 Sensor tests on RV Southern
Surveyor
  • Comparing SBE48 against SBE3 calibrated
    thermistor temperatures
  • Before insulating hull SBE48 SBE3 0.28
    0.14?C
  • After insulating hull SBE48 SBE3 0.19
    0.12?C
  • Majority of error occurs in periods when the
    water mass exhibits sharp thermal gradients
  • In water masses with low thermal gradients
    average offset was 0.15?C

24
BoM HRPT AVHRR Processing
  • Data received at 8 reception stations and sent to
    BoM (Melbourne) as raw data
  • Overlapping raw data is stitched using CSIRO code
    (Edward King)
  • Cloud masks determined (CLAVR-1)
  • SSTs computed for 1 m depth using NLSST (day)
    and MCSST (night) algorithms and regression
    coefficients based on regional buoy data
  • AVHRR SSTs matched with buoy SSTs (following
    Medspiration MDB method)
  • Single Sensor Error Statistics for each proximity
    confidence value (0,1,2,3,4,5 km to nearest
    cloudy pixel) calculated using 3 weeks of matches
    to 12 km and 2 hours

Locations of X/L band stations
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