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PAYLOAD Project Progress Feasibility Study for International, Intelligent

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Title: PAYLOAD Project Progress Feasibility Study for International, Intelligent


1
PAYLOAD Project ProgressFeasibility Study for
International, Intelligent Intermodal Freight
Tracking and Transfer Systems
  • To
  • Alaska Department of Transportation and Public
    Facilities
  • By
  • Engineering Management Graduate Program
  • University of Alaska Anchorage
  • December 15, 2000

2
The purpose of this project is
  • To conduct feasibility study for proposing the
    State of Alaska not only as a test bed for new
    ITS technology operations before nationwide
    deployments, but also as a strategic site for
    harmonizing U.S. domestic and international
    standards for seamless international, intelligent
    and intermodal freight movement system.
  • Alaska is an ideal place for this study because
    of its strategic location, harsh climate,
    geographical diversity and competitive, but
    cooperative stakeholders representing all
    transportation modes of air, highway, marine,
    pipeline and rail.

National Worldwide Deployments
Lessons Learned Standards
Tests in Alaska
New Technologies Operations
National ITS Architecture
3
Presentation Outline (60 slides)
  • PAYLOAD (4-19)
  • Goals
  • Applications
  • Feasibility
  • Approach
  • Information Sources
  • Interviews
  • Technologies
  • Lessons Learned
  • Future Works
  • ALASKA (41-60)
  • Location
  • Facts
  • Infrastructure
  • Transportation Modes
  • Air
  • Land
  • Rail
  • Water
  • Pipeline
  • Winter
  • Military
  • ITS (20-26)
  • Leadership
  • Architecture
  • Regulations
  • Education
  • Intermodal Freight (27-40)
  • Movements
  • Significance
  • Cargo Growth
  • Modes

4
PAYLOAD Project Goals
  • PAYLOAD will implement as seamless, intermodal
    freight tracking and transfer technology (FT3)
    system that embodies the critical elements of a
    nationwide system.
  • PAYLOAD is a significant deployment and extension
    of the National ITS Architecture.
  • PAYLOAD will develop FT3 physical infrastructure,
    operating practices and business processes in a
    fully intermodal, real world setting.
  • PAYLOAD will develop new forms of Public/Private
    Partnerships (P3s) to serve as models for
    national FT3 deployments.
  • PAYLOAD will build proof of concept FT3 Systems
    under rigorous field conditions.
  • Douglas Terhune, ADOTPF, PAYLOAD Description
    and Workplan, 1998

5
PAYLOAD Applications Areas
  • Alaska (potential)
  • Value Added Assembly
  • Baggage Handling for Intermodal Tourism
  • Rural Emergency Medical Service
  • Military Logistics
  • Sea Life Export Products
  • Border Crossing
  • Hazmat Response Systems
  • Postal Transport
  • Perishable Goods
  • Asset Location and Management Systems
  • International Cargo Customs Clearance systems
  • D. Terhune, PAYLOAD Description and Workplan,
    1998
  • Alaska ITS Convergence (SAIC UAA)
  • Emergency Transportation in AK
  • http//www.alaska.faa.gov/esf1/
  • Nationwide (implemented)
  • Shipment Information systems
  • Security Systems
  • Customs Clearance Systems
  • Ship Stowage Management Systems
  • Railcar Planning Systems
  • Motor Carrier Routing and Dispatching systems
  • Terminal Inventory Management Systems
  • Gate Clearance Systems
  • Asset Location and Management Systems
  • Advanced Traveler Information Systems
  • Traffic Management Systems
  • Railroad Grade Crossing Management Systems
  • Incident Management Systems
  • Hazmat Response Systems
  • Electronic Toll Collection Systems
  • Weigh Station Clearance Systems
  • Oversize/Overweight Permitting Systems
  • Safety Assurance Systems

6
Feasibility?
  • Technologically Possible? ITS Threats?
  • Only 16 of IT projects are currently done on
    time and within budget.
  • Economically Justifiable?
  • Environmentally Responsible?
  • Socially Acceptable?
  • Financially Feasible?
  • www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep10/corbor/feastudy.html3

7
PAYLOAD Project Systems Approach
Dream State PAYLOAD
  • Indicates System Element that has Progress

Performance Measures
Gaps Analysis
Work Packages Development
Information Technology Requirements
Goals Strategies
Comparative Analysis of Alternative Technologies
Stakeholders Claims
Stakeholders Identification
Current State
8
Rank PAYLOAD Projects using AHP Survey (TBD)
Identify Best PAYLOAD Projects Technologies
Goal Mode People
Project Technology
Air
Highway
Pipeline
Rail
Sea
Stakeholder 1
Stakeholder 1
Stakeholder i
Project 1
Project 2
Project j
Technology 1
Technology 2
Technology k
9
Plans for Selected Projects (TBD)
  • Identify Work Packages Needed Technologies
  • Conduct Economic Analysis
  • Explore Financial Options
  • Promote Public/Private/Academic/Military
    Cooperation
  • Establish Performance Measures

10
Information Sources for ITS/Intermodal Freight
  • Government Webs
  • US DOT Office of Intermodalism within OST
  • ITS/Intermodal Freight website
  • http//www.dot.gov/intermodal/freight.html
  • US DOT ITS Joint Program Office within FHWA
  • http//www.its.dot.gov/
  • US DOT ITS Electronic Document Library
    http//www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/
  • ITS America http//www.itsa.org
  • Bureau of Transportation Statistics
    http//www.bts.gov/
  • Transportation Statistics Annual Report 1999
    http//www.bts.gov/transtu/tsar/tsar1999/
  • Freight Transportation in Alaska
    http//www.bts.gov/reference/ak_sfp.pdf
  • Publications
  • Gerhardt Muller, Intermodal Freight
    Transportation, 4th Ed., 1999.
  • Douglas Terhune, PAYLOAD Description and
    Workplan, 1998.
  • HDR Engineering, Alaska Intermodal
    Transportation Plan, 1994.

11
28 Interviews with (54) people Conducted
  • 1 Alaska Dept of Tran., Whittier (3)
  • 1 Anchorage Economic Development Co. (3)
  • 1 Alaska Rail Road Co. (2)
  • 1 Alaska Marine Highway System (4, phone)
  • 1 Alaska Seafood International (1)
  • 1 Alaska Trucking Association (1)
  • 1 Alaska Journal of Commerce (1)
  • 2 Anchorage Police Dept. (7)
  • 1 Carlile Enterprise, Inc (3)
  • 1 Computer Assoc. (2) 1 CSX (1)
  • 1 Danzas Corporation (1)
  • 2 FedEx (2)
  • 1 GCI (1, phone interview)
  • 1 Korean Airlines (2)
  • 1 Lynden (1)
  • 1 Port of Anchorage (2)
  • 1 Racal Inc. (1)
  • 1 Totem (1)
  • 3 Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport (3)
  • 1 UPS (3)
  • 1 US Army (8)
  • 1 US Customs (1)
  • 1 US Dept of Commerce (1, phone interview)
  • To be continued..

12
Alaskas PAYLOAD-Related Projects
  • ADOTPFs
  • WIM, CVISN, RWIS http//www.alaskaits.com/Pages/RW
    IS_page.html
  • APDs Mobile Data Communications System Project
    (6.1M)
  • Alaska Weather Cams
  • FAA http//akweathercams.faa.gov/indexnew.htm
  • ADOTPF
  • Tracking systems
  • Lyndens http//www.lynden.com
  • UPS http//www.ups.com/tracking/tracking.html
  • FedEx http//www.fedex.com/us/tracking/
  • ARRCs Intermodal Facilities
  • Anchorage (4.3M) http//www.akrr.com/Corporate/PS
    Plan/PSintmda.htm
  • Fairbanks (5M) http//www.akrr.com/Corporate/PSP
    lan/PSintmdf.htm

13
Advanced PAYLOAD Technologies
  • Identification Technologies (Cargo, Equipment,
    Driver..)
  • Bar Codes scanning www.symbol.com
  • Biometrics ID www.biometricid.com
  • Fingerprint Verification Technology
  • Smart Cards (electromagnetic signal 2-3)
  • www.scia.org/knowledgebase/default.htm
  • Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) Tag
    Technology
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ( 60-200
    feet) http//corp.intermec.com/products/pdf/rfidin
    tr.pdf

14
Advanced PAYLOAD Technologies (Contd)
  • Vehicle Tracking Technologies
  • Satellite Communications (GPS, DGPS, GEOS, MEOS,
    LEOS..)
  • GPS http//www.trimble.com/gps/index.htm
  • Automatic Vehicle Location http//trimble.com/mpc/
    avl/index.htm
  • Differential GPS (DGPS) www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/janpr
    /dgps.htm
  • Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), Medium (MEO)
    systems
  • Low Earth Orbiting Satellite (LEOS) Tracking
    http//www.orbcomm.com/frames/frame3.htm
  • In Anchorage, UPS communicates with its fleet of
    vehicles via cellular network while FedEx uses
    radio frequency.

15
Advanced PAYLOAD Technologies (Contd)
  • Information Exchange and Communication
    Technologies
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  • http//www.1edisource.com/edi101.html
  • U.N.s EDIFACT v. U.S.s ANSI X12
  • www.unece.org/trade/untdid v. www.acq.osd.mil/jecp
    o/ansi_x12.htm
  • U.S. Customs Automated Commercial System (ACS)
  • http//www.customs.gov/imp-exp2/auto-sys/acs.htm
    STATEPROC
  • ITS Communications
  • http//www.its.dot.gov/tcomm/tcomm.htm
  • Wireless Technology
  • Integrated service (voice, data video) and
    broadband wireless connectivity (anywhere
    high-speed)
  • http//www.its.dot.gov/tcomm/broadband.html

16
Advanced PAYLOAD Technologies (Contd)
  • Weight In Motion (WIM)
  • Vendor
  • International Road Dynamics Inc. (IRD)
  • http//www.irdinc.com/
  • http//www.odot.state.or.us/trucking/its/green/pre
    clear.htm
  • 10 Increase in Weight 40 Increase in Damage
  • WIM Sensors
  • http//www.measurementspecialties.com/bl_traffic_
    package.pdf
  • Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System
    www.saic.com/products/security/vacisii/vacisii.htm
    l
  • License Plate Recognition Technology, U of
    Kentucky Transportation Center

17
PAYLOAD Technologies in Alaska (TBD)
  • Research in Progress
  • Alaska Telecommunications http//www.state.ak.us/l
    ocal/akpages/ADMIN/info/rfpweb/
  • Communications Backbone
  • FCC allotted a special bandwidth of 5.9
    gigahertz (GHz)

18
Lessons Learned Opportunities Identified
  • Lack of Critical Mass
  • AK moved 8B of goods weighing 24M tons that
    accounted for 0.1 of the value and 0.2 of the
    weight of total U.S. shipments. (1993 Commodity
    Flow Survey)
  • Imbalances between Inbound and Outbound Flows
  • Lack of Commodity Flow Data
  • Harsh climate and geography in Alaskas cold
    regions
  • Increase the difficulties of high-tech
    equipments installations
  • rapidly degrade the functionality and reliability
    of high-technology products and equipments
  • increase user costs.
  • Untapped Tremendous Opportunities
  • Lack of Public Outreach/Education/Training/Researc
    h

19
Future Work
  • Progress Reports on Web since June,
    2000http//www.engr.uaa.alaska.edu/esm/
  • Conduct Survey
  • To identify Whos Who in ITS/Intermodal Freight
    in Alaska
  • To rank prospective PAYLOAD projects
  • Continue interviews and intermodal facility tour
    (Feb. 5th 9th, 2001)
  • Offer ITS Intermodal Transportation Workshop
    (Richard Easely, Spring, 2001)
  • Build ALASKA ITS PAYLOAD web site
  • Submit a final PAYLOAD project report (Summer,
    2001)
  •  

20
What is ITS? http//www.its.dot.gov/
  • Bringing Information and Communication
    Technologies
  • into Transportation
  • ITS Applications http//www.itsa.org/whatits.html
  • Commercial Vehicles http//www.its.dot.gov/faqs.ht
    m
  • Electronic clearance
  • Automated roadside
  • Onboard safety monitoring systems
  • Automated administrative processes
  • Hazardous materials incident response
  • Freight mobility systems http//www.dot.gov/inter
    modal/freight.html
  • http//www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/
  • Intelligent Vehicles
  • Rural Applications http//www.ruralits.org/
  • Traffic Management
  • Traveler Information
  • Transit
  • Weather Applications http//www.roadweather.com/wb
    public/AboutRoadWeather.htm

21
U.S. DOTs ITS Leadership
  • In 1992, Office of Intermodalism was established
    within the Office of the Secretary of
    Transportation and is responsible for
    coordinating DOT project, programs and policies
    involving more than one mode of transportation.
    http//www.dot.gov/intermodal/

In 1994, ITS JPO is housed
in the FHWA and its objectives are to
http//www.its.dot.gov/ (1) provide
strategic leadership for ITS research,
development, testing, and deployment,
(2) guide policy coordination, and
(3) ensure resource accountability.
22
Alaska DOTPFs ITS Leadershiphttp//www.engr.ua
a.alaska.edu/esm/itschart/default.htm

23
National ITS Architecture Communication
Relationships

http//www.its.dot.gov/arch/arch.htm
24
Legislative and Financial Incentives For
Integrated National Transportation System
http//www.house.gov/transportation/
TEA-21 217.3B 98-03
SEA-21 ??? 2001?
AIR-21 40B 00-03

ISTEA 155B, 92-97 ITS JPO BTS
Various Deregulations (next page) Established
U.S. DOT in 1967 to encompass all modes Regulated
railroads in the mid 1800s, steamship lines in
the early 1900s, pipelines, motor carriers, and
airlines in the mid-1930s
25
Deregulations
  • Deregulated route entry or withdrawal by carriers
    and freed rate-making by Air Cargo Act of 1977
  • Deregulation of rail piggyback (TOFC/COFC) by
    Staggers Rail Act of 1980
  • Relaxed entry into the trucking business by Motor
    Carrier Act of 1980
  • Deregulated ocean carrier conferences by Shipping
    Act of 1984
  • Prohibited local govt from regulating prices,
    route or service of any motor carriers by
    Airport Improvement Program Reauthorization Act
    of 1994
  • Phased out intrastate economic regulation by
    Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) Termination
    Act of 1995
  • Allowed confidential contracts and eliminated
    tariffs by Ocean shipping Reform Act of 1998
  • But Jones Act of 1920 still prevents foreign-flag
    carriers from carrying cargo directly between
    American ports.

26
ITS Education Research
  • TEA-21 (June 9, 1998, with 198.8 million)
    established 33 University Transportation Centers
    ( http//educ.dot.gov/listing1.html ) of which 10
    were designated as Regional Centers (
    http//educ.dot.gov/statelist.html ). Alaska
    belongs to Region 10, Transportation Northwest
    (TransNow).
  • http//depts.washington.edu/transnow/.

Univ. of Michigans Web based Course on Essential
Competencies for the Transportation Professional
of the Future http//cpddev.engin.umich.edu/app/13
/modules.jsp
27
Intermodal Freight Movements in Alaska
Air Carrier
Airport
Airport
Shipper
Receiver
Motor Carrier
Motor Carrier
Rail Carrier
Terminal
Terminal
Water Carrier
Pipeline
Pipeline
Port
Port
  • 3 Moving Items
  • Cargo in Containers
  • Vehicles and Equipments at Terminals
  • Information via Communications

28
Terminals Access Routes Weakest Link in
Supply Chain
Diminish Nations Security
Freight Growth
Empty Trucks on Roads
Traffic Increase
Diminish Economic Growth
Congestion
Safety
Delay
Pollution
Lost Business
29
Why Economically Significant?
  • In 1997, 14 billion tons of goods and raw
    materials (over 8 trillion) were moved over the
    U.S. transportation system, generating 4 trillion
    ton-miles.
  • Alaska accounted for 0.2 of the weight (0.1 of
    the value). (BTS, 1997 1993
    Commodity Flow Survey)
  • Logistics expenditures accounted for 17 of GDP
    in 1980 and 10.5 (or 797B of 10T) in 1996. US
    industry spent approximately 451B on
    transportation of freight.
  • Over the last two decades, cost of transportation
    has reduced 20 while inventory carrying costs
    reduced more than 50.
  • 30 of trucks driving on highways are empty.

30
1997 Gross Domestic Product
50/50 Split The U.S. transportation system
supported about 4.4 trillion miles of passenger
travel and about 4 trillion ton-miles of goods
movement. (BTS)
31
Why Significant for Nations Security?
  • A military deployment is handled with military
    planes and ships augmented by chartered
    equipments. Marine Security Act of 1996
  • Drugs and Terrorists
  • Careful Border Control to avoid
  • Carriers port-shop
  • Logistics networks balloon effect
  • Compromising private sectors competitiveness
  • Source Stephen Flynn, USCG, Proceedings of the
    MTS RD Coordination conference.

32
Environmental Problems
  • http//www.bts.gov/transtu/tsar/tsar1999 p114
  • Petroleum provides about 97 of the
    transportation sectors energy requirements.
  • Highway vehicles accounted for about 80 of total
    transportation energy use in 1997.
  • 80 of maritime casualties and oil spills are the
    result of human error.
  • Ballast water discharges are major threats to the
    health of the Nations ecosystem.

33
97 Emissions and Pollutants by Mode
CO carbon monoxide NOx nitrogen oxides
PM-10 particulate matter 10 microns in diameter
or smaller VOC volatile organic compounds
Source www.epa/ttn/chief/trends97/emtmd.html
34
Safety Fatalities by Mode
  • 44,381 people died in transportation
    incidents during 1997. http//www.bts.gov/tra
    nstu/tsar/tsar1999 p85
  • Large Truck Motor Vehicle
    2.5 2.2
  • FMCSAs fatal crash involvement data (per 100
    million miles in 1998).

35
World Cargo Patterns
  • AIR
  • 90 of all freighter jets traveling between the
    Lower 48 (Chicago and LA) and Asia refuel at
    TSAIA.
  • By 2020, Boeing Co. predicts the U.S.-Asia
    air-cargo market will expand almost 8 annually
    and the worldwide market will triple.
  • SEA
  • Manufacturing in the Pacific Rim is shifting
    further south to countries like Malaysia and
    Indonesia. (World largest ports are at Singapore
    Hong Kong)
  • Increasing shipments through the Suez Canal to
    the East Coast are competitive with
    transportation across the Pacific.
  • Increasing demands on East Coast and Gulf Coast
    port infrastructure due to growing trade between
    the United State and South American countries.
  • Proceedings of the Marine Transportation
    System (MTS) RD Coordination Conference, Nov
    2-4, 1999, p26.

36
U.S. Intermodal Freight Traffic
Growthhttp//www.dot.gov/intermodal/Final.pdf

37
Large Vehicles
  • Large trucks are less than 5 of the vehicles on
    urban highways, but a doubling of intermodal
    truck volumes will add appreciably to
    congestion.
  • Megaships (4.5 to 6.5K TEUs) are 1 of the world
    containership fleet, but they are 8 of new
    containership orders.
  • As of Oct 1998, there were only 255 privately
    owned US-flag vessels, accounting for 2 of the
    worlds fleet.
  • One 15 barge tow can carry the same amount of
    grain as 870 trucks or 225 rail cars. It would
    take 660,000 rail cars to move the US
    agricultural products that now go by barge.
  • The freighter fleet will double over the next 20
    years. Widebody freighters will dominate, from
    34 of 1680 freighters in 1999 to 59 of 3,200 in
    2019. http//www.boeing.com/commercial/cmo/4da09.
    html17

38
Average Information by Mode
  • Source Business Logistics Management, Ronald
    Ballou, 4th ed, Prentice Hall, 1999. p138
  • Transportation in America, Eno
    Transportation Foundation, Inc., 1999

39
97 Modal Shares of U.S. Trade
  • Source www.bts.gov/transtu/tsar/tsar1999 p51

40
Domestic Freight Activity by Mode in Selected
Countries
  • http//www.bts.gov/programs/transtu/tsar/tsar97/ch
    ap10.pdf pages 26- 28

41
Alaskas Strategic Location
  • 90 of all Asia to North America air cargo jets
    stop for gas.
  • Arctic Ocean Route
  • Proposed Railroad Expansion to Canada and Russia
  • Proposed Gas Pipeline

Source www.portmackenzie.com
42
(No Transcript)
43
Alaskas Land Ownership
  • Alaska ranks 1, 2 and 3 in of FedStates,
    States, and Feds total area, respectively.
    http//www.ucelandclaim.com/Land
    Chart.html
  • Alaskas transportation planning is complicated
    due to the land ownership situation

44
Alaskas Communities
  • There are 300-plus communities in Alaska grouped
    into three basic categories
  • Urban (gt10,000) Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau
  • Rural (100-10,000, connected by roadways)
  • Bush (no connection to Alaskas highway system)
    Barrow (4,000)
  • About 30 of Alaskans are not connected to the
    states road system.
  • The expectation that freight can reach virtually
    any community by road does not apply to Alaska.
  • HDR Engineering, Alaska Intermodal
    Transportation Plan, 1994.

45
Alaskas Freight Movements
  • Most goods shipped to and from Alaska move by
    way of intermodal transportation systems.
  • In-state and outbound freights are dominated by
    petroleum products, mining products, gravel,
    seafood, etc..
  • U.S. Postal Services Bypass Mail Program
  • 70M per year for approximately 100,000 Alaskans
  • http//new.usps.com/cpim/ftp/hand/po508.pdf p39

46
Alaskas Facts
47
Alaskas Facts (continued)
48
Alaskas Facts (continued)
  • The wide range of environmental and climatic
    conditions ranging from Arctic permafrost to rain
    forests and wetlands.
  • Alaska is the only state where the marine
    highway is part of the National Highway System.
  • Alaska is the only state whose capital is not
    connected to land highway system.
  • 17 of the 20 highest peaks in the U.S. are
    located in Alaska Mt. McKinley is 20,320feet
    above sea level.
  • 13 of the 15 largest islands in the U.S.
  • Over 80 of all active volcanoes in US.
  • Approximately 5,000 glaciers covering about
    29,000 acres

49
Alaskas Transportation Systems
MOA MPO, AMATS (Policy Committee Technical
Advisory Committee)
50
Alaskas Multi-modal Transportation System
51
Alaskas Air Transport
  • AKUS Pilots per capita 61 Aircrafts per
    capita 161
  • Alaska has 13 of the nations commercial
    service (commuter airline and air taxi trips)
    airports 76570AKUS. This means Alaskan use
    commuter airlines 65 times more often than the
    average US citizen.
  • TSAIA is 1 for total weight of air freight
    landed about 50 widebody freights land every
    day. http//www.house.gov/transportation/air21co
    nf/cargo20002001.html
  • 90 of all freighter jets traveling between the
    Lower 48 and Asia refuel at TSAIA.
  • At least 420 international cargo pilots live in
    the state.
  • Alaska has 102 seaplane bases, far more than any
    other state with the largest seaplane base in the
    world at Lake Hood.
  • The Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation has
    completed a new space port facility for launching
    low-earth-orbit satellite on Kodiak Island.
    http//www.akaerospace.com/frames1.html
  • Capstone project http//www.alaska.faa.gov/capston
    e/

52
Alaskas Land Transport
  • 4,000 state-based commercial carriers, 1,000
    interstate carriers and 35,000 state-based
    commercial vehicles including 25,000 intrastate
    vehicles
  • 10 weigh stations 11 US customs throughout the
    state
  • Alaska-Canadian Border Crossing Data
    http//www.bts.gov/itt/cross/trk_al.html

53
Alaska Railway Transport
  • ARRC Additional 1,200 miles to Canada for 6.9
    and 4.7B (270 to the border 900 in Canada).
  • Williams Alaska Petroleum Co.s refinery in
    North Pole ships on average 40,000 barrels of jet
    fuel a day to Anchorage, much of it consumed by
    cargo jets.
  • There is a 111-mile long narrow gauge line from
    Skagway to Whitehorse, operating as a primarily
    summer passenger tourist operation.
  • Super characteristics of railroads over
    highways
  • Easy maintenance w.r.t. frost heaves in
    permafrost.
  • Greater resistance of materials to extremely cold
    temperature
  • Economically efficient, safe, environmentally
    benign energy conserving (one double stack
    train 280 trucks _at_90mph)
  • Lower initial cost and shorter construction time
    than highway

54
Alaskas Waterborne Transport
  • Alaska has more than 50 of the entire coastline
    of the U.S.
  • AK ranked at 13th state in 1998 waterborne
    tonnage, total 79,629,000 tons ( 69,937,000
    shipping 9,693,000 receiving)
  • Valdez (8th port) 61,946,136 tons
  • Nikishika (69th) 6,938,522 tons
  • Anchorage (94th) 3,588,629 tons
  • Kodiak and Unalaska hold up the top two spots in
    the US for volume of fish landed annually. Dutch
    Harbor, 1,200 miles from Anchorage, is the number
    one fish port in the U.S.
  • Of the 177 major ports in the US, AK has 11.
  • Arctic ice is now a third thinner than in 1976.

55
Alaska Marine Highway System
  • Transports 104,000 vehicles and 350,000
    passengers each year.
  • Southwest (from Cordova west to Unalaska w/ 2
    vessels)
  • Southeast (from Bellingham north to Skagway w/
    6 vessels)
  • Gulf of Alaska (between SE SW w/ 1
    vessel purchase in 1998)
  • 3,500 miles of marine route at an annual cost of
    72M of which 40M is covered in fares.
  • Looking for high-speed, low-capacity vessels to
    save overnight crews accommodations costs
  • Source R.J. Doll, AMHS Fast Ferries Join the
    Fleet, TR News, No 209, 2000, pp29-33.

56
Port of Anchoragehttp//www.ci.anchorage.ak.us/Se
rvices/Departments/Port/
  • POA provides 80 of all the goods consumed by
    Alaskans
  • Offers the only active Foreign Trade Zone
    services presently available in Alaska
  • Landlord port
  • Major Cargo Operators
  • CSX (container) http//www.csxlines.com/wwwsite/de
    f_alaska.asp
  • Tote (trailer) www.alaskan.com/totemocean
  • POAs Intermodal Marine Facility (30M),
    proposed.
  • Port of Mackenzie http//www.portmackenzie.com/
    5,000 acres are dedicated for industrial
    development.
  • Top five issues facing ports identified by AAPAs
    national survey.
  • Facility expansion
  • Financing
  • Rail and highway access
  • Dredging
  • Environmental regulation

57
POAs 1999 Tonnage Summary
58
Alaskas Pipelines
  • The U.S. depends on the Trans Alaska Pipeline to
    deliver more than 20 of its domestic oil
    production.
  • Two major routes for an overland gas pipeline are
    being considered to move 35Tcf reserved
    (potential 100Tcf) gas to the Lower 48
    Southern route 1,998 miles, 10B,
  • Northern route 1,650 miles, 8B
  • Beluga Natural Gas Pipeline System (Enstar, in
    1984) 20, 102 miles, 200Mcf per day
  • Kenai Natural Gas Pipeline System (Enstar in
    1960 1978) 12, 85 miles 12-16 alongside,
    190Mcf
  • Nikiski-Anchorage Pipeline (Tesoro in 1976) 10,
    70 miles 48k barrels

59
Alaskas Winter Transportation
  • Trails rural transportation system by dog sled
    and snow machine
  • Ice Roads frozen tundra, lakes, and rivers on
    Alaskas north slope and in remote villages

60
Alaskas Military Logistics (TBD)
http//www.usarak.army.mil/
  • DODs Logistics
  • Advanced Logistics Program (APL)
    http//www.arpa.mil/iso/alp/main.htm
  • Defense Logistics Agency Pacific (DLAP)
    http//www.pacific1.dla.mil/dpac/intro.htm
  • Alaskas Military Sites
  • Ft. Richardson http//www.usarak.army.mil/frapage.
    htm and Elmendorf Air Force Base
    http//www.elmendorf.af.mil/ near Anchorage
  • Fort Wainright http//www.wainwright.army.mil/
    and Eielson Air Force Base http//www.eielson.af.m
    il/ near Fairbanks
  • Fort Greely http//www.usarak.army.mil/3posts/
    near Delta Junction
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