NOAA-PMEL Hydrothermal Vents Program Presented by Dr. Joseph Resing Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and the Ocean The University of Washington and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NOAA-PMEL Hydrothermal Vents Program Presented by Dr. Joseph Resing Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and the Ocean The University of Washington and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Title: NOAA-PMEL Hydrothermal Vents Program Presented by Dr. Joseph Resing Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and the Ocean The University of Washington and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


1
NOAA-PMEL Hydrothermal Vents Program Presented
by Dr. Joseph Resing Joint Institute for the
Study of the Atmosphere and the Ocean The
University of Washington and The National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administrations Pacific Marine
Environmental Laboratory
2
Global Submarine Volcanism
3
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5
Hydrothermal Circulation
6
Vents Program PIs
  • NOAA-PMEL
  • Newport, Oregon
  • Dr. Stephen Hammond
  • Dr. Robert Embley
  • Dr. John Lupton
  • Seattle, Washington
  • Dr. Edward Baker
  • Dr. William Lavelle
  • JISAO-UW
  • Seattle, Washington
  • Dr. Joseph Resing
  • Dr. David Butterfield

CIMRS-OSU Newport, Oregon Dr. William
Chadwick Dr. Robert Dziak
7
Vents Program International Partners
  • Canada
  • University Victoria
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
  • Dalhousie U.
  • Canadian Scientific Support Facility
  • Institute For Ocean Sciences
  • New Zealand
  • National Institute of Water and Atmospheric
    Research
  • Institute of Geological Nuclear Sciences (GNS)
  • Japan
  • Okayama University
  • Chiba University
  • University of Tokyo
  • Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Sci. and Technology
  • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sci.
    and Technology

8
Federal Partners
  • Federal
  • USGS
  • National Science Foundation
  • US Navy SOSUS
  • Office of Ocean Exploration
  • Federally Sponsored University Programs
  • West Coast and Polar Regions Undersea Research
    Center (WCNURC)
  • Hawaii Undersea Research Lab (HURL)

9
University Partners
  • University of Washington
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Hawaii
  • Western Washington University
  • University of Texas
  • Austin
  • Dallas
  • Woods Hole Institute of Oceanography
  • University of California at Santa Barbara

10
Program Goals
  • Locate Hydrothermal Sites
  • Map Submarine Volcanoes
  • Characterize
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Geology
  • Assess Global Impacts
  • Assess Ecological Importance
  • Monitor Volcanic and Hydrothermal Systems
  • Hazard Identification

11
Global Study Sites
Densely surveyed good knowledge of where vents
are and are not (4000km)
Moderately surveyed systematic but not
comprehensive (4300km)
Poorly surveyed considerable uncertainty
regarding vent sites (3500km)
Baker and German, 2004
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13
Divergent plate boundaries-- the Juan de Fuca
Ridge
14
Convergent plate boundaries-- the Mariana Arc
15
Submarine Ring of Fire 2003 and 2004 Exploratory
Interdisciplinary Investigations of Active
Hydrothermal and Volcanic Processes of Mariana
Arc Submarine Volcanoes R/V Thomas G.
Thompson/ROPOS February 9 March 5, 2003 March
27 April 17, 2004 Generously Supported
by NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration Natural
Sciences and Engineering Research Council of
Canada Pacific Marine Environmental
Laboratory/NOAA VENTS Program
16
Science Team
Baker, Edward T. NOAA/PMEL Plume
Physics Basu, Neil U. Texas GS,
Petrology Bolton, Sheryl U. Washington
Microbiology Butterfield, Dave
A. JISAO/PMEL Vent Chemistry Chadwick, Bill
W. CIMRS/PMEL Volcanology de Ronde,
Cornel Inst. Geological and Nuclear Sci.,
N.Z. Economic Geology Dower, John U.
Victoria Seamount Biology Embley, Robert
W. NOAA/PMEL/Cheif. Sci. Marine
Geology Evans, Leigh CIMRS/OSU Noble
Gases Hein, James U.S.G.S. Economic
Geology Juniper, Kim U. Quebec a
Montreal Biology/Microbiology Larson, Ben U.
Washington Chemistry Lebon, Geoff JISAO/U.
Wash. CTD Lupton, John E. NOAA/PMEL Noble
Gases Merle, Susan G. CIMRS/OSU Data
Manage/Outreach Metaxas, Anna Dalhousie
U. Larval Ecology Miyabe, Shunsuke Okayama
University Sulfur Isotopes Moyer, Craig W.
Washington U. Microbiol. Nakamura,
Ko-ichi NAIST, Japan Electrochemistry Ristau,
Shannon NOAA/PMEL Mapping Roe,
Kevin JISAO/PMEL Vent Chemistry ROPOS
Team CSSF Rose, Jonathon U. Victoria Biology S
tern, Robert U. Texas Dallas Petrology/Volcanol
gy Tunnicliffe, Verena U. Victoria Ecology
17
Submarine Ring of Fire
Rationale for Exploration Program
  • Hydrothermal Systems of Volcanic Arcs poorly
    known
  • Wide Range of water depth, rock composition
  • Magmatic gasses probably common in vents
  • Biologically interesting because of shallow
    depth
  • Input of hydrothermal products into shallow
    ocean
  • - Mariana Arc mostly in U.S. EEZ

Approach Step 1 Seafloor Mapping, CTD Survey of
Mariana Arc Volcanoes (2003) Step
2 Multidisciplinary Investigations With ROV,
Global Class Vessel (2004)
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20
East Diamante Quantifying hydrothermal discharge
21
Submarine Ring of Fire East Diamante
A rare ecosystem where a chemosynthetic
bacterial mat habitat gradually transitions to a
photosynthetic habitat dominated by corals and
tropical fish.
Tropical fish and soft corals at 167 m
Red algae and small corals lie beneath
filamentous bacterial mats on rock surfaces at
190 m
10 cm
Black smoker vents
22
Submarine Ring of Fire 2004
Mineral Formations
East Diamante Caldera
23
Submarine Ring of Fire NW Eifuku
  • One of only three sites in the ocean known to be
    venting liquid CO2 and forming natural CO2
    clathrates.
  • NW Eifuku is an ideal natural laboratory for
    studying the effects of carbon sequestration in
    the marine environment.

Liquid CO2 droplets at 1650 m
5 cm
1 m
Supercritical CO2 fluids venting at 103C
24
Submarine Ring of Fire NW Eifuku
Large amounts of biomass feeding on white
flocculent mats on periphery of white smokers
include vent shrimp and mussels showing that
microorganisms are channeling energy up the food
chain.
Yellow and orange microbial mats form a
bioreactor mound. The outer coating acts as a
thermal blanket to elevate the internal
temperature from diffuse venting which retains
reduced microbial nutrients.
25
Mariana Arc Major Results/Observations
  • First Observations of Deep Submarine Arc
    Volcanic Event
  • Photosynthetic/Chemosynthetic Ecosystems
    Interaction
  • Shallowest Massive Sulfide Formation at 345 m
    (2400 C)
  • 1600 meter site with intense CO2 Venting
    Bubbles
  • Of Liquid CO2
  • High Variability of Biological Communities
    Between
  • Volcanoes

26
Hydrothermal Vents Program Summary
  • Global Exploration of Submarine Volcanic systems
  • Locate
  • Characterize
  • Chemical Make up
  • Geological setting
  • Ecological Diversity
  • Microbial
  • Macrofaunal
  • Global Impacts and Consequences
  • Chemical alteration of the oceans
  • Modeling
  • Monitoring
  • Temporal Change
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Hazard identification

27
Hydrothermal plumes a global feature
Plume from the midocean ridge
Plume from the arc
Text
Text
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28
Hazard Identification
29
Life in the dark on a volcano
Volcanoes Water Life
30
Monitoring
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33
NZ-American Submarine Ring of Fire 2005
34
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35
Vents Program PIs
  • NOAA-PMEL
  • Seattle, Washington
  • Dr. Edward Baker
  • Ms. Sharon Walker
  • Dr. William Lavelle
  • Newport, Oregon
  • Dr. Stephen Hammond
  • Mr. Jonathan Klay
  • Ms. Jessica Black
  • Ms. Andra Bobbitt
  • Dr. Robert Embley
  • Ms. Shannon Ristau
  • Dr. John Lupton
  • Mr. Ronald Greene
  • Mr. Leigh Evans
  • JISAO-UW
  • Seattle, Washington
  • Dr. Joseph Resing
  • Geoff Lebon
  • Dr. David Butterfield
  • Kevin Roe

CIMRS-OSU Newport, Oregon Dr. William
Chadwick Ms. Susan Merle Dr. Robert Dziak Mr.
Matt Fowler Mr. Joe Haxel Mr. Andy Lau Dr.
Haru Matsumoto
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