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Biology 2900 Evolution and Systematics

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Title: Biology 2900 Evolution and Systematics


1
Biology 2900Evolution and Systematics
  • Systematics (text Chapters 1, 2, 14 in part)

2
  • In 1848 an Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia
    longicauda) was shot in what is now Centennial
    Park, Sydney, Australia. The mounted specimen was
    sent to John Gould by the Australian Museum he
    illustrated the specimen in his supplementary
    volume of The Birds of Australia and returned the
    specimen in 1861. This is the only Australian
    record of the species.

3
  • Systematics
  • Study of (evolutionary) biological diversity
    kinds, diversity, interrelationships,
    biogeography, taxonomy

4
  • Classification
  • Process of ordering organisms into groups result
    of such ordering
  • Taxonomy
  • Theory and practice of classification
  • Taxon
  • Formally named and classified group
  • Nomenclature
  • Procedures for applying formal names to groups

5
  • Carl von Linné (1707-78)
  • Swedish botanist
  • Proposed nomenclatural system
  • based on binomen
  • ( genus and species names)

6
TRADITIONAL NAMES AND CLASSIFICATION
  • Unique binomen for species within hierarchy (e.g.
    species-genus-family-order)
  • Brassicaceae (family)
  • Braya (genus)
  • longii (species)

7
Meadow vole
  • Rodentia (order)
  • Muridae (family)
  • Arvicolinae (subfamily)
  • Microtus (genus)
  • pennsylvanicus (species)
  • terraenovae (subspecies)

8
CODES OF NOMENCLATURE
  • International Code of Virus Classification and
    Nomenclature (ICVCN)
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
    (ICTV, of Virology Division of International
    Union of Microbiological Societies) (to species
    excludes strains, variants, isolates, etc.)
  • International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria
  • International Committee on Systematic
    Bacteriology

9
  • International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
    (St. Louis Code)
  • Adopted by Sixteenth International Botanical
    Congress (1999)
  • International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
    International Commission on Zoological
    Nomenclature (ICZN) official body responsible
    for providing and regulating the system for
    ensuring that every animal has a unique and
    universally accepted scientific name

10
  • ICZN based on principle of priority, starting
    with Linnaeuss X edition of Systema Naturae
    (1758)
  • First published name is formally accepted name
  • Other later names junior synonyms

11
  • Ring seal described and named in 1775 publication
    by Schreber as Phoca hispida
  • Later this species was described and formally
    named in other publications, including
  • 1820 Nilsson (as Phoca annellata)
  • 1943 Anderson (as Phoca beaufortiana)
  • The latter two names are junior synonyms

12
  • Therefore the proper scientific name for the ring
    seal is Phoca hispida
  • More formally this can be written as
  • -- Phoca hispida Schreber, or
  • -- Phoca hispida Schreber 1775
  • Many scientists place the ring seal in a
    different genus (Pusa) with closely related
    species. Then the name is
  • -- Pusa hispida, or
  • -- Pusa hispida (Schreber)
  • -- Pusa hispida (Schreber 1775)

13
  • Q Explain the following name for harp
    seal Pagophilus groenlandicus (Erxleben 1777)

14
SYNONYMY DUE TO LIFE-STAGE CONFUSION
  • Juvenile fish found dead, May 1982
  • Formally named by Smith Heemstra (1983) as
  • Xanthichthys punctatus
  • Outrigger triggerfish (Balistidae)

Xanthichthys punctatus Smith Hemstra 1983
15
  • 2nd (moribund) juvenile found May 1994
  • Given to aquarists
  • 4 years later ? adult of previously described
    species
  • Therefore X. punctatus is junior synonym

Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus Randall, Matsuura,
Zama, 1978
16
SYNONYMY DUE TOSEX CONFUSIONWILLIAMSONS
SAPSUCKER
17
  • John Cassin (1813-1869)
  • Ornithologist born and died in Pennsylvania
  • Never visited West
  • 1852 published description of new woodpecker
    species from Eldorado Co., California
  • -- Picus thyroideus
  • Female specimen (study skin) in Academy of
    Natural Sciences (Philadelphia)

18
  • John Strong Newberry (1822-1892)
  • Army surgeon-geologist in railroad survey mission
  • Collected woodpecker near Klamath Lake, Oregon
  • Published description in 1857
  • -- Picus williamsonii
  • Named after his commanding officer Lt. Robert
    Stockton Williamson
  • Male specimen (fluid-preserved), deposited in
    United States National Museum ( NMNH)

19
Picus williamsonii Newberry 1857
Picus thyroideus Cassin 1852
20
  • Henry Wetherbee Henshaw (1850-1930)
  • Born Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Met William Brewster in High School
  • They met C.J. Maynard collector-preparator
  • 1872-79 Wheeler Expeditions in W U.S.
  • -- Geographical Explorations and Surveys West
    of the 100th Meridian
  • 1875 Saw many pairs, collected
  • 1 pair near Fort Garland, Colorado

21
Picus williamsonii Newberry 1857
Junior synonym
Picus thyroideus Cassin 1852
Sphyapicus thyroideus (Cassin)
22
IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OFSPECIES NAMES
  • Uniqueness
  • Stability
  • Universality

23
Description of new species Melithreptus
albogularis in The Birds of Australia (1848)
by John Gould
24
THE TYPE CONCEPT
  • Holotype (the type the type specimen)
  • Specimen upon which original description based
  • Function name-bearer
  • Also paratypes (? type series) other kinds of
    type specimens

25
  • Many published listings of types
  • Nature of types varies life stages partial
    specimens etc. depends on applicable Code
  • Name available if published acceptably
  • Name valid if it is oldest available name
  • Principle of priority (in publishing)

26
TAXONOMIC PUBLICATIONS
  • Continuum from description to synthetic
  • Original descriptions
  • Monographs
  • Identification keys
  • Floras/faunas
  • Phylogenetic/biogeographic works
  • Lists
  • Links to field guides, identification manuals

27
Professor Dave Larson
28
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31
TAXONOMIC CHARACTER(TRAIT ATTRIBUTE)
  • Any attribute of a member of a taxon by which
    it differs or may differ from a member of a
    different taxon
  • External or internal anatomy used traditionally

32
TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS ARE DIVERSE
  • Anatomy
  • Chromosomes
  • Genetics
  • Measurements
  • Behaviour
  • Distribution
  • Ecology

33
Types of characters Anatomy (pollen grains of
Polygonum Polygonaceae)
34
Types of characters Chromosomes (Commelinaceae
Commelina sp. 2n 90 Callisia fragrans, 2n
12) dayflowers, wandering jew, spiderworts, etc.
Commelina erecta
35
Types of characters Behaviour songs of katydids
(Orthoptera)
Common Meadow KatydidOrchelimum vulgare
Common True KatydidPterophylla camellifolia
36
Types of characters Distribution Otopappus
(Compositae) in central Mexico
37
CHARACTER DESCRIPTION
  • Types of variables
  • Measurement variables
  • Continuous
  • Discontinuous (meristic)
  • Ranked variables
  • Nominal variables (inc. presence/absence)
  • Distinguish character from character state

38
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39
Specimen Max. diam. (µm) No. spines /- Sulcus/groove Surface
A 145 0 patchy
B 135 98 homogeneous
D 141 0 - homogeneous
E 142 0 homogeneous
40
10 µm
Ectothiorhodospira halophila (anoxygenic
phototrophic bacterium genus marine to
high-saline neutral to high-alkaline pH
environments with sulfide (icluding saltwater
estuaries, salt flats sometimes In soil)
41
(From Bergeys Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology, vol. 2 (1989))
42
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43
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (BIODIVERSITY)
  • Diverse meanings
  • Kinds
  • Form
  • Function
  • Ecology
  • Others

44
PURPOSES OF CLASSIFICATIONS
  • Indexes to stored information
  • Predictive power
  • Two important, potentially conflicting purposes
  • Reflect similarity
  • Reflect relationships
  • Phylogenetic trees commonly used to depict
    relationships
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