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Day Care

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Day Care. Trends in Maternal Employment if returning to work... Lawrence and Topeka, KS Seattle, WA. Boston, MA Madison, WI. Morganton and Hickory, NC ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Day Care


1
Day Care
2
Trends in Maternal Employment if returning to
work.
  • 1960s -- when child entered kindergarten
  • 1970s -- when child was 2-3 yrs old
  • 1980s, 90s, 00s -- before child was 1 yr

3
Family System
Day Care
Plus neighborhood, cultural values/norms,
socioeconomic factors
4
Family Medical Leave Policy
  • USA up to 12 weeks unpaid (companies of 50
    employees or more)
  • Other Countries
  • Canada
  • Sweden
  • Peoples Republic of China
  • Germany

5
Care Arrangements Preschoolers (2005)

6
(No Transcript)
7
Care Arrangements Preschoolers (2005)
8
Time in Care Hours/weekPreschoolers (2005)
Any arrangement 36 hours
9
Day Care Facts
  • Child care workers get paid very little
  • at poverty line
  • no benefits (vacation, sick leave, health ins.)
  • High turnover -- 41 quit each year
  • Before age 3, estimate 2-6 care providers

10
Licensing Regulations
  • Maine ratios for Centers
  • 4 infants/toddlers per adult (6 weeks-2 years)
  • 8 children per adult (2-5 years) plus 2 children
    over 5 years
  • 12 children per adult (6-12 years)
  • Mixed aged programs allowed

11
Licensing Regulations
  • Maine ratios for Home Day Care (one provider)
  • 4 infants per adult (6 weeks-2 years) OR
  • 3 infants/toddlers plus 3 preschoolers, plus 2
    school aged children OR
  • 8 preschoolers plus 2 school aged children OR
  • 12 school aged children

12
Effects of Day Care
  • Questions?
  • What will we learn from asking these questions?

13
Early Concerns about Nonmaternal Care for Children
  • Higher rate of insecure attachment to mother
    (especially if gt35 hours per week)
  • Criticisms of studies
  • Small samples (N 100 was still small)
  • Constrained samples (predominantly Caucasian,
    middle to lower class SES)
  • Didnt assess day care centers or home envi.
  • NICHD National Institute of Child Health and
    Human Development

14
Ongoing NICHD STUDY (started 1997)
  • Conducted by prominent researchers
  • 14 universities
  • 9 states
  • Little Rock, AR Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Orange County, CA Charlottesville, VA
  • Lawrence and Topeka, KS Seattle, WA
  • Boston, MA
    Madison, WI
  • Morganton and Hickory, NC

15
Features of the Study
  • Rural, urban
  • Variety of ethnicities
  • Low, middle, and upper class households
  • Variation in type of child-care (center, home,
    relative, etc)
  • Variation in child-care quality
  • Large sample (1,281 families)

16
Some of the Measures
  • Mothers wellbeing
  • Childs health
  • Parenting stress
  • HOME
  • Quality of child care setting
  • General demographics

17
Q1 Attachment Security
  • Strange Situation at 6 mos and 15 mos
  • Type of care
  • History of care experience (number of changes)
  • Quality of care
  • Quality of home

NICHD (1997)
18
Type of Care at 5 mos
19
Type of Care at 14 mos
20
Other Variables
  • No differences in security classification as a
    function of
  • age of entry into day care
  • number of hours per week in day care
  • number of day care changes over the course of the
    study

21
Insecure Attachment more likely in
  • poor families (economic stress undermines
    parenting?)
  • families with unresponsive and insensitive moms
  • families selecting low quality day care settings
  • families where mom returned to work early

22
Q2 Social and cognitive outcomes for older
children
  • Behavior problems
  • Prosocial behavior
  • Language
  • 24 and 36 months of age
  • N 794

NICHD (2000)
23
Child care and risk factor effects - Three
possibilities
  • Compensatory day care makes up for other risks
  • Lost resources day care introduces risk in
    low risk kids
  • Dual-risk day care amplifies risk

24
Measures
  • Problem behavior- reported by mom and caregiver
  • Prosocial behavior reported by mom and
    caregiver
  • Language comprehension

25
Three Risk Factors
  • Psychosocial
  • Maternal depression
  • Lack of social support
  • Parenting stress
  • Low marital quality
  • Socioeconomic
  • Income-to-needs ratio
  • Financial stress
  • Mothers education

26
Three Risk Factors
  • Sociocultural
  • Single parent status
  • Minority status

27
Results
  • Higher family psychosocial risk more behavior
    problems and less prosocial behavior
  • Higher socioeconomic risk and sociocultural risk
    lower language skills

Media Headline Study Shows Day Care Makes Kids
Aggressive
28
Effects of Child Care?
  • Compensatory day care makes up for other risks
  • Lost resources day care introduces risk in
    low risk kids
  • Dual-risk day care amplifies risk

29
Effects of Child Care?
  • Compensatory day care makes up for other risks
  • Lost resources day care introduces risk in
    low risk kids
  • Dual-risk day care amplifies risk

Prosocial behavior less seen when higher risk
sociocultural children were in low quality child
care.
30
NICHD Take Home Message
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