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EP 704 Unit 6

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1 Precedence diagramming (PDM) 2 Arrow diagramming (ADM) 3 Conditional diagramming ... 1 PDM. 2 ADM. 3 Conditional DM. 4 Network Templates. 1 Project Network ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EP 704 Unit 6


1
EP 704Unit 6
  • Project Time Management

Dr. J. Michael Bennett, P. Eng., PMP UNENE,
McMaster University, The University of Western
Ontario Version 2K4-XI-24
2
Revisions
  • 2K4-XI-24 Initial Creation

3
EP 704 Road Map
  • Unit 1 Introduction to Project Management
  • Unit 2 The Project Management Context
  • Unit 3 Project Management Processes
  • Unit 4 Project Integration Management
  • Unit 5 Project Scope Management
  • Unit 6 Project Time Management
  • Unit 7 Project Cost Management
  • Unit 8 Project Quality Management
  • Unit 9 Project Human Resource Management
  • Unit 10 Project Communications Management
  • Unit 11 Project Risk Management
  • Unit 12 Project Procurement Management

4
Process Time Management
  • Here we estimate the time and sequencing of WBEs
  • Must have the WBS done
  • Here we present the material as sequential but
    likely will be significant overlap
  • In smaller projects, activity sequencing and
    duration and schedule development will be a
    single process done by the PM

5
Project Time Management Processes
  • 6.1 Activity Definition
  • 6.2 Activity Sequencing
  • 6.3 Activity Duration Estimating
  • 6.4 Schedule Development
  • 6.5 Schedule Control

6
PMI Project Time Management
6 Activity Definition 6.2.2.5.1 Inputs 1
WBS 2 Scope Statement 3 Historical
information 4 Constraints 5
Assumptions 6 Expert judgment 6.2.2.5.2
Tools and Techniques 1 Decomposition 2
Templates 6.2.2.5.3 Output 1 Activity
list 2 Supporting detail 3 WBS updates
6.3 Activity Duration Estimating 6.3.1 Inputs
1 Activity list 2 Constraints 3
Assumptions 4 Resource requirements 5
Resource capabilities 6 Historical
information 7 Identified risks 6.3.2 Tools
and Techniques 1 Expert judgment 2
Analogous estimating 3 Quantitatively based
durations 4 Reserve time (contingency) 6.3..3
Output 1 Activity duration estimations
2 Basis of estimates 3 Activity list
updates
6.2 Activity Sequencing 6.2.1 Inputs 1
Activity list 2 Product description 3
Mandatory dependencies 4 Discretionary
dependencies 5 External dependencies 6
Milestones 6.2.2 Tools and Techniques 1
Precedence diagramming (PDM) 2 Arrow
diagramming (ADM) 3 Conditional diagramming
4 Network templates 6.2.3 Output 1
Project network diagrams 2 Activity list
updates
7
PMI Project Cost Management
6.4 Schedule Development 6.4.1 Inputs 1
Project network diagrams 2 Activity duration
estimates 3 Resource requirements 4
Resource pool description 5 Calendars 6
Constraints 7 Assumptions 8 Leads and
lags 9 Risk management plan 10 Activity
attributes 6.4.2 Tools and Techniques 1
Mathematical analysis 2 Duration
compression 3 Simulation 4 Resource
leveling heuristics 5 Project management
software 6 Coding structure 6.4.3 Output
1 Project schedule 2 Supporting
detail 3 Schedule management plan 4
Resource requirement updates
8
Time Planning Processes
Time
Time
Time
Scope
6.2 Activity Sequencing
6.1 Activity Definition
6.4 Schedule Development
5.2 Scope Planning
Time
6.3 Activity Dur Estimating
Cost
Scope
Core Processes
7.3 Cost Budgeting
5.3 Scope Defn.
Cost
7.2 Cost Estimating
Integration
IP
4.1 Project Plan Development
XP
CP
Quality
Human Res
Human Res
Procurement
Procurement
8.1 Quality Planning
9.2 Staff Acquisition
9.1 HR Planning
12.2 Solicitation Planning
12.1 Procurement Planning
Risk
Communication
Risk
Risk
Facilitating Processes
10.1 Communication Planning
11.3 Qualitative Risk Analysis
11.4 Quantitative Risk Analysis
11.5 Risk Response Planning
9
Time Controlling Process
Communications
10.3 Performance Reporting
Facilitating Processes
XPs
Time
6.5 Schedule Control
Risk
11.6 Risk Monitoring/Control
10
6.1 Activity Definition
1 WBS 2 Scope Statement 3 Historical Info 4
Constraints 5 Assumptions 6 Expert Judgment
1 Activity List 2 Supporting Detail 3 WBS
Updates

11
6.1   The Schedule Control Plan
  • 6.1.1 Modalities of Scheduling
  • 6.1.2 Network Fundamentals
  • 6.1.3 PERT/Network Analysis
  • 6.1.4 Software Support
  • 6.1.5 Examples

12
6.1.1 Modalities of Scheduling
  • Gantt/bar charts
  • Milestone charts
  • Networks
  • PERT
  • ADM
  • Precedence

13
Need WBS
  • Has to be done before we can schedule accurately
  • Flows out of Project Objectives

14
Project Objectives
  • Deliverables
  • Customer benefits
  • Resources and budget
  • Schedule

15
DoD WBS Classification
  • 1 Program
  • 2 Project
  • 3 Task
  • 4 Subtask
  • 5 Work Package
  • 6 Level of Effort

16
More Useful WBS Classification
  • 1 Project
  • 2 Work Package
  • 3 Task
  • 4 Subtask (if necessary)

17
Work Package Components
  • Defined ownership
  • Defined start/end dates
  • Results that can be compared against planned
  • Specific budget
  • Structure that minimizes the required
    documentation
  • WPs are independent

18
Remember
  • Structure follows strategy (P. Drucker)

19
Templates
  • Product-oriented organization
  • Phase-oriented organization
  • Function-oriented organization

20
WBS maps to OBS/RAM
  • OBS who does what
  • RAM shows
  • Responsibility
  • Support
  • Notification
  • Approval

21
Problems with Each
  • Gantts do not show interdependencies
  • PERTs et al are time intensive, too much detail
  • Each is useful in their own right not the final
    solution

22
6.2 Activity Sequencing
1 Activity List 2 Product Description 3 Mandatory
Deps 4 Discretionary Deps 5 External Deps 6
Milestones
1 Project Network Diagrams 2 Activity Updates
1 PDM 2 ADM 3 Conditional DM 4 Network Templates

23
6.1.2 Network Fundamentals
  • Types of Scheduling Tools
  • Milestone charts
  • Flow charts
  • Gantt Charts
  • Network Diagrams

24
Example Gantt, Milestone, PERT
1
14
14
1
5
3
4
4
3
4
1
2
7
1
25
Network Fundamentals
  • Shown through a diagram. Visualization of
  • Activity interdependence
  • Project completion time
  • Impact of early/late starts
  • Trade-off analysis
  • what if scenarios
  • Cost of crashing
  • Slippages in planning/performance
  • Performance evaluation

26
Definitions (activities on arrow AOA)
  • Event is start or end of group of activities
    (circle)
  • Activity is work required to move from event to
    event (arrow)

2 weeks
Complete testing
Final report
27
Network Diagram
28
Definitions (activities on node AON)
  • Event is start or end of group of activities
    (circle)
  • Activity is work required to move from event to
    event (node time)

Complete testing
Final report
29
Sources and Sinks
Source (burst point)
Sink
30
Comments
  • Idea of Critical Path
  • Can use optimistic, normal or pessimistic time
    estimates (Ro6?)
  • Can use dummy variables to help in sequencing
  • PERT for high variance
  • CPM for low

31
PERT/GERT/Network Analysis
  • Basic Definitions
  • How to Crash Critical Paths
  • Estimating ranges of completion times

32
Definitions
  • Dependencies
  • Hard must be done first
  • Soft may be necessary or not (I can start high
    level design before all requirements are done)
  • External beyond PMs control

33
Dummy Activities
4lt1,2,3
D
A
DUMMY
B
C
34
Slack Time
  • time between scheduled completion date and
    required date (to meet CP)
  • TE is earliest time event can take place
  • TL is latest time
  • ST TE TL

35
PERT with Slack Time
TE3TL3
TE6TL9
3
3
6
TE0TL0
7
TE15TL15
2
5
5
TE2 TL5
TE10TL10
36
Can Refine
  • ES earliest start
  • EF earliest finish
  • LS latest start
  • LF latest finish

37
Full PERT
ACTIVITY IDENTIFICATION
EARLIEST START TIME
EARLIEST FINISH TIME
ACTIVITY TIME
LATEST FINISH TIME
LATEST START TIME
38
PERT with Full Slack Times
F(15,22) 7(15,22)
B(6,15)9(6,15)
E(15,18) 3(15,18)
I(18,21) 3(19,22)
A(0,6)6(0,6)
G(12,14)6(17,19)
D(6,12) 6(11,17)
H(12,16) 4(18,22)
39
PERTing Along
develop schedule
feedback
Resource control
plan?
Management Approval
BL plans schedule
40
How to Feedback?
  • Transfer resources from sps to cps
  • Eliminate activities
  • Add more resources
  • Use less time-consuming activities
  • Parallelize more
  • Shorten CP
  • Shorten earliest activities

41
  • Shorten latest activities
  • Increase number of working hours/day
  • Use cheaper people

42
Parallelizing to Shrink Critical Paths
4
16
2
3
2
4
0
16
0
3
43
Nested PERTs
8
9
7
5
4
2
4
6
C
E
B
F
D
44
Types of Float
  • Free Float time a task can be delayed without
    delaying the early start date of its successor
  • Total Float - time a task can be delayed without
    delaying the project completion date
  • Project Float - time the project can be delayed
    without delaying the externally imposed project
    completion date (by customer, management, project
    manager etc.)

45
Lag
  • Insertion of waiting time between tasks
  • For example, must wait a week after pouring
    concrete before framing
  • Can have negative lag (can start design 10 days
    before completion of requirements)

46
Lag Time
  • Suppose that B lags A by 3

47
Passes
  • To compute the likely finish time plus critical
    path(s)
  • Forward pass
  • Start at the beginning
  • Backward pass
  • Start at the customers wanted finish date and
    work backwards
  • Can have negative float!

48
PERT Life Cycle
  • 1 lay out list of activities
  • 2 order them and add arrows
  • 3 review with line managers
  • 4 doers add time estimates (unlimited Res)
  • 5 PM adds calendar dates (limitations)
  • 6 Checks reality of calendar dates

49
Perturbation Analysis
  • Always check if times change dramatically
  • Primary Objectives are
  • Best time
  • Least cost
  • Least risk

50
Secondary Objectives
  • Alternatives
  • Optimum schedules
  • Effective use of resources
  • Communications
  • Refinement of the estimating process
  • Ease of project control
  • Ease of time/cost revisions

51
PERT Constraints
  • Calendar completion
  • Cash flow
  • Limited resources
  • Management approvals

52
PERTs and CPMs
  • PERTs are event-oriented
  • Good for RD
  • Hard to tell percentage complete
  • Payouts at milestones
  • CPMs are activity-oriented
  • complete along lines can be done
  • Good for well-defined activities

53
CPM best for
  • Well-defined projects such as construction
  • One dominant organization
  • Relatively small risk
  • One geographic location

54
Crashing
  • Try to compute the CP
  • Work out the cost per week to crash
  • Start with lowest

55
Crashing with CPM
D.2
B.6
A.4
.
F.6
C.2
E.7
56
Crash Data
57
Crash details
  • Normal time
  • Crash time
  • Note follows U-curve
  • CT is most compressed time
  • Compute (CC-NC)/(NT-CT)

58
Network Analysis
ES
ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
59
Zero or 1?
  • Note do we start at day 0 or day 1?
  • Most folks start at 0

60
Forward Pass
61
Backward Pass
10
10
F
3
62
Critical Path
10
10
F
3
63
Comments
  • Idea of Critical Path
  • Note FP is done to estimate finish date
  • BP is done when finish date is fixed and you want
    to know when to start
  • Must be the same

64
(No Transcript)
65
6.1.4 Project Software Support
  • Level II (MS)
  • Level III (Artemis)

66
SW Capabilities
  • System capacity
  • Network schemes (AD/PRE)
  • Calendar dates
  • Gantt charts
  • Flexible report generation
  • Updating
  • Cost control
  • Scheduled dates
  • Sorting
  • Filtering
  • Resource allocation
  • Plotting
  • Machine requirements
  • Cost

67
6.3 Activity Duration Estimation
  • This maps the scope definition and resource
    availability onto time inputs that will be used
    in schedule development
  • Should be done by the folks who will actually do
    the work
  • Another example of progressive elaboration
  • Two main classes of durations
  • Effort
  • Elapsed time

68
Other things
  • Need to know the expected working periods
  • Do you count weekends?
  • Also what is the normal metric for effort?
  • ph?
  • pd?
  • pm?
  • py?

69
6.3 Activity Duration Estimation
1 Activity List 2 Constraints 3 Assumptions 4
Resource Reqs 5 Resource Capabilities 6
Historical Info 7 Identified risks
1 Activity duration estimates 2 Bases of
estimates 3 Activity lists updates
1 Expert Judgment 2 Analogous ests 3 Quant based
durs 4 Reserve time

70
6.3.1 Inputs to Activity Duration Est
  • 1 Activity List
  • 2 Constraints
  • 3 Assumptions
  • 4 Resource Requirements
  • 5 Resource Capabilities
  • 6 Historical Information
  • 7 Identified risks

71
4 Resource Requirements
  • Is it the case that the work can be paralleled?
  • For example, two people can do the work twice as
    fast as one
  • But be careful the fallacy of linear scaling
  • There comes a time when adding more people to the
    work only causes it to take longer

72
Linear Scaling
  • 1 person can do the work in 8 days
  • 2 can do it in 4
  • 4 can do it in 2
  • 8 can do it in 1
  • 16 can do it in ½ a day
  • 32 in a ¼
  • 64 in an hour etc etc

73
5 Resource Capabilities
  • People do work at different rates
  • Senior people should be faster than juniors
  • Some areas are human-specific
  • in coding, it has been measured, that holding all
    other variables constant, there can be a ten to
    one difference in coding rates (Weinstein, 1972)

74
6 Historical Information
  • Can come from the PM morgue
  • In many engineering areas, there are tables
  • Steel girders, for example
  • Unions have rates
  • Commercial databases

75
Remember the Cops and the Donuts
  • We need two estimates
  • SIZE
  • EFFORT
  • We also want to specify the confidence levels of
    our numbers
  • Rule of 6 good here

76
Risk
  • Need to estimate the costs of risk
  • High risk means higher costs because of the risk
    oversight and possible mitigation

77
6.3.2 TT for Activity Duration Est
  • 1 Expert Judgment
  • 2 Analogous estimates
  • 3 Quantitative based durations
  • 4 Reserve time (contingency)

78
Estimation in General
  • Ways to do this

79
Estimating in General
  • General Idea
  • Rules of Thumbs and SWAGs

80
General Principles of Estimation
  • General Principles
  • Pitfalls of Estimation
  • General Volumetrics

81
General Estimating
  • Estimates are just that!
  • Example how long does it take you to drive to
    work?

82
Distributions
  • How measurements might be distributed
  • Plot the length of 100 meter sticks
  • Plot the Julian birthday of every Canadian (JBD
    is the day of the year tat you were born. Jan011
    and Dec 31365)

83
The Normal Distribution
84
Normal Distribution
6S 3.4 in 106
5S 1.0 in 105
4S 1.0 in 104
3S 1.0 in 103
2S 1.0 in 102
1S 1.0 in 101
MEAN
85
Six-Sigma
  • One and two tailed estimates
  • Ours are normally one-tailed
  • 2? is 99
  • 3? is 99.9
  • 4? is 99.99
  • 5? is 99.999
  • 6? is 3 part in a million (99.9999)

86
Question?
  • You have a 2400 square foot house and you order
    your cleaner to clean it to within 6?.
  • What is the size of the largest piece of dirt?
  • A thimble?
  • A teacup?
  • A saucer?
  • A bathroom?

87
General Estimating cont.
  • normally, use the average
  • the (141) / 6 is good
  • be realistic (factor in time of year)

88
Rules of Thumbs
  • My Uncle's example
  • The Rule of 3
  • The Back of the Envelope

89
The Rule of 3
  • 3 people in my house
  • 30 close neighbours
  • 300 on my jogging route
  • 3000 in my school draw
  • 30000 in my ward
  • 300,000 in London
  • 3,000,000 in Ontario-Toronto
  • 30,000,000 in Canada
  • 300,000,000 in NA (- Mexico)
  • 3,000,000,000 "consumers" in the world

90
Rules of Thumbs (jon bentley)
  • How much water flows out of the Mississippi River
    in one day (cu miles)?

91
Rule of 72
  • Exponential are difficult
  • Most of our problems ARE expos
  • If you invest a sum that must double in y years
    at an interest rate of r percent/yr then ry 72
    holds. (RULE OF 72)
  • Example, how long will it take for 1,000 to
    double at 6? 72/612 years (2012)

92
Example
  • A program takes 10 seconds for size n40
  • Increasing n by 1 increases time by 12 (expo)
  • Rule-of-72 says RT doubles when n increases by 6
  • By 60, then 1,000
  • By 160, 107 seconds

93
Help Ma!
  • How BIG is 107 anyway?
  • Actually dear, 3.155x107 seconds in a year
  • Or ? seconds in a nanocentury
  • 264 100,000,000 donuts/sec for 5,000 years

94
The Delphi Approach
  • No clear way to estimate
  • Gather a group of Xperts
  • Give them the problem they go away and
    independently estimate as well as they can
  • They meet and exchange information
  • Then they repeat the above
  • After 3-4 cycles they will normally converge on a
    unified answer

95
A Little Quiz (thanks Jon)(give 141 confidence
limits)
  • Canadian population Jan 1,2004
  • Year of Napolean's birth
  • Length of the Great Lakes/St Lawrence watershed
  • Maximum takeoff weight of a 747 (pds)
  • Mass of the earth
  • Number of Fathers of Confederation

96
  • Latitude of London England
  • Number of airplanes in the air at this minute
  • Number of PCs in Canada
  • Number of bones in the adult human

97
General Estimating cont.
  • make sure you have a complete SOW
  • work out the WBS completely
  • hand off to the person responsible to estimate
    and cost
  • collect them in the PP
  • note that you do this at EACH of the three levels
    of report generation

98
Things to Avoid
  • warm fuzzies
  • too-new technologies
  • biggies
  • too-optimistic estimates
  • LINEARITY

99
Examples
  • How many kilometers per year does a taxi driver
    drive if he works an 8 hours day 200 days a year?

100
Volumetrics
  • CPU Loadings
  • Communication Loadings
  • Data Loadings
  • Number of dogs in Canada
  • Number of planes flying at any given moment in
    the world
  • Number of Internet pages available on-line

101
Conclusions, Crystal Balling
  • It Works!
  • can easily tailor the tool to the organizations
    process and culture
  • can instrument to collect metrics
  • can do the EV easily
  • can prompt the user for missing steps
  • can archive for the Morgue
  • can collect quality metrics

102
1 Expert Judgment
  • Remember my definition of xpert

103
2 Analogous estimates
  • Compares against work already done
  • Is really a form of expert judgment
  • Are most reliable when
  • Previously done activities are very similar
  • Experts really know the area

104
3 Quantitative Based Durations
  • When we know the rates
  • For example, function points and the Industrial
    Averages

105
4 Reserve Time (contingency)
  • Buffer in case of risky activities
  • Need to annotate the reasons for asking for one

106
6.3.3 Outputs for Activity Duration Est
  • 1 Activity duration estimates
  • 2 Bases of estimates
  • 3 Activity lists updates

107
1 Activity Duration Estimates
  • Need also to list the confidence levels of the
    estimates
  • Prob or SD good here

108
6.4 Schedule Development
1 Network diagrams 2 Activity duran ests 3
Resource Reqs 4 Resource pool descs 5 Calendars 6
Constraints 7 Assumptions 8 Leads and lags 9
RMP 10 Activity attributes
1 Math analysis 2 Dur compression 3 Simulation 4
Resource leveling 5 PM software 6 Coding
structure
1 Project schedule 2 Supporting detail 3 Sched
Man Plan 4 Res reqs update

109
6.4.1 Inputs to Schedule Development
  • 1 Network diagrams
  • 2 Activity duration estimations
  • 3 Resource requirements
  • 4 Resource pool descriptions
  • 5 Calendars
  • 6 Constraints
  • 7 Assumptions
  • 8 Leads and lags
  • 9 Risk Management Plan
  • 10 Activity attributes

110
4 Resource Pool Descriptions
  • Need to know when people available and in what
    patterns
  • If there is a Critical Technologist, really
    important to schedule her dates

111
5 Calendars
  • These show when resources and the project are
    available for work assignment
  • Resources have vacations, religious holidays etc
  • A labour contract may limit the days of the week
    a person can work

112
6 Time Constraints
  • Imposed dates
  • Start no earlier than and Finish no later
    than commonest
  • Key events
  • Major milestones

113
8 Leads and Lags
  • Need to be specified
  • Lag must wait 2 weeks after ordering the
    equipment before using it
  • Lead can start 10 days before the current work
    is done (finish to start most common)

114
10 Activity Attributes
  • Who will do he work?
  • Where will it be done
  • Activity type (summary or detailed)

115
6.4.2 TT for Schedule Development
  • 1 Mathematical analysis
  • 2 Duration compression
  • 3 Simulation
  • 4 Resource leveling
  • 5 PM software
  • 6 Coding structure

116
1 Mathematical Analysis
  • Involves calculating early and late start dates
    for all activities without regard for resource
    limitations
  • Is NOT the schedule
  • Only says when activities could be done

117
Mathematical Choices
  • Critical Path Method (CPM)
  • Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)
  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

118
Critical Path Method (CPM)
  • Uses a single estimate for each activity
  • Concentrates on float
  • Leads to a Critical Path and a deterministic
    schedule

119
Float (also called slack)
  • Amount of time an activity can be delayed before
    it affects the final duration date (i.e. becomes
    part of the Critical Path)
  • Free float amount of time we can delay before
    we put the downstream activity in jeopardy
  • Total float - amount of time we can delay before
    we put the final completion time in jeopardy

120
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)
  • Permits an iterative looping in the schedule
    (none of the others do)
  • Uses probabilistic estimates

121
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
  • Uses a weighted average like the Rule of Six
  • Good for calculating best, expected and worse
    case scenarios

122
The Beta Distribution EV(BC4MLWC)/6
BC
ML
EV
WC
123
Estimating the SD PERT-wise
  • s (WC-BC)/6
  • If you have many, you must add up the variances
    not the ss. (var s2)

124
Example
2,3,4
3,5,7
4,7,10
s ab 0.33 sbc 0.33 scd 0.33
sad v s2ab s2bc s2cd
sad v (.3321.020.672) 1.25
125
2 Duration Compression
  • Crashing
  • Fast tracking
  • Critical Chain

126
Crashing
  • Try to compute the CP
  • Work out the cost per week to crash
  • Start with lowest

127
Crashing the Critical Path
128
Crash Data
129
Crash details
  • Normal time
  • Crash time
  • Note follows U-curve
  • CT is most compressed time
  • Compute (CC-NC)/(NT-CT)

130
Crashing Problems
  • May not be possible
  • Will INCREASE costs for sure
  • Assumes that you can take people off one task and
    add them to another (true in construction for
    example may well NOT be true in IT!)

131
Fast Tracking
  • Do CP tasks that were planned in series, in
    parallel
  • Problems
  • Often forces rework
  • Increases risk
  • Requires more communications
  • May cost more (need new people)

132
Critical Chain
  • A better way
  • Each activity has a mean of execution time, not a
    constant
  • CC says, start as soon as you finish
  • Suppose A -? B, A 42, B63
  • CMP says B starts on Day 5, regardless
  • CC says, start on Day 3 if lucky

133
CC comments
  • Idea is to take advantage of early finishes
  • What tends to happen in Anal Orgs is that the
    start date of each task is fixed
  • When CP task slips, whole project time slips
  • When it is early, people go fishing until the
    specified start date of the next task
  • CC starts ASAP and averages out under runs and
    overruns

134
3 Simulation
  • Monte Carlo simulations
  • Concept of stability

135
4 Resource Loading and Leveling
  • Resource loading amount of individual resources
    an existing project schedule requires during
    specific time periods
  • Resource histograms show resource loading
  • Over-allocation means more resources than are
    available are assigned to perform work at a given
    time

136
Resource Leveling
  • Resource leveling is technique for resolving
    resource conflicts by delaying tasks
  • Primary purpose of resource leveling create a
    smoother distribution of resource usage reduce
    over-allocation

137
Resource Histogram for Large IT Project
138
Histogram Showing an Over allocated
Individual
139
Resource Leveling Example
140
5 PM Software
  • MSP does this automatically

141
6 Coding Structure
  • Activities should have a code (database?) so that
    you can sort/extract on different attributes of
    the activities such as
  • Responsibility
  • Geographic area
  • Building
  • Project phase
  • Schedule level
  • WBS classification

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6.4.3 Outputs from Schedule Development
  • 1 Project schedule
  • 2 Supporting detail
  • 3 Schedule Management Plan
  • 4 Resource requirements update

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6.5 Schedule Control
  • This must do 3 things
  • Ensure that changes are agreed on
  • Determine that the schedule has changed
  • Managing the changes when they occur
  • Is another example of change control and if it is
    integrated properly, can be rolled up into it

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6.5 Schedule Control
1 Schedule control 2 Perf management 3 Additional
planning 4 PM software 5 Variance analysis
1 Schedule updates 2 Corrective actions 3
Lessons learned
1 Project schedule 2 Perf reports 3 Change
requests 4 Schedule management plan

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6.5.1 Inputs to Schedule Control
  • 1 Project schedule
  • 2 Performance reports
  • 3 Change requests
  • 4 Schedule management plan

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2 Performance Reports
  • These flow out of communications
  • Indicate when we are falling behind and signal
    the need for change

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3 Change Requests
  • Once an item has been baselined, it is put under
    CCM
  • Should be a form which is filled out and this,
    when approved by the CCB, is put into the
    Schedule Control process

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Change Requests can be
  • Oral or written
  • Direct or indirect
  • External or internal
  • Legally mandated
  • Optional

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6.5.2 TT for Schedule Control
  • 1 Schedule control
  • 2 Performance management
  • 3 Additional planning
  • 4 PM software
  • 5 Variance analysis

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1 Schedule Change Control System
  • Formal procedure by which we do the changes
  • See unit 4.
  • Is a very important case of CCM
  • Is isolated here to stress its importance
  • Necessary approvals here important

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2 Performance Management
  • Need to understand the metrics of PM and assess
    if change is needed immediately or can it wait?
  • If the activity is on the CP, do it now
  • If off the CP, could wait a bit

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3 Additional Planning
  • Corrective changes
  • These are likely mini-projects
  • Have to be planned like the project

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4 PM Software
  • Lets us know when corrective action is necessary
  • Could be a push technology (here be dragons!)

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5 Variance Analysis
  • Critical for the EV portion of time
  • Float is key here
  • Need to sort sub-critical paths in terms of
    increasing float

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6.5.3 Outputs from Schedule Control
  • 1 Schedule updates
  • 2 Corrective action
  • 3 Lessons learned

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1 Schedule Updates
  • Any modification to the schedule
  • Must notify stakeholders
  • May trigger updates to other parts of the PMP

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Revisions
  • These are changes to the projects start and
    finish date
  • Are major
  • May require rebaselining (a Baaaad thing)
  • Rebaselining is a Last Resort

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2 Corrective Action
  • Anything done to bring future performance in line
    with the planned estimates
  • Often involves expediting
  • Need to do a root cause analysis to avoid future
    deviations

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3 Lessons Learned
  • REALLY important
  • Those who ignore the failure lessons of history
    are doomed to repeat them G. Santayana

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Chapter Six Time Management
  • 2000 Edition
  • 6.1 Activity Definition
  • 6.2 Activity Sequencing
  • 6.3 Activity Duration Estimating
  • 6.4 Schedule Development
  • 6.5 Schedule Control
  • Third Edition
  • 6.1 Activity Definition
  • 6.2 Activity Sequencing
  • 6.3 Activity Resource Estimating
  • 6.4 Activity Duration Estimating
  • 6.5 Schedule Development
  • 6.6 Schedule Control
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