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OUR RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH STANDARDS

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Title: OUR RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH STANDARDS


1
OUR RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH STANDARDS
BY VANIDA LENNON
2
INTRODUCTION
  • Uncertainties certainly exist about future trends
    as a result of climate change. But the
    certainties and near certainties are equally
    important. Today the scientific community agrees
    on three key points
  • The earth is warming
  • The primary cause of this warming is fossil fuel
    consumption
  • If we dont act now to reduce emissions, this
    problem will only get worse.

3
What are core functions of SABS
  • According to the Standards Act, (Act 8, 2008) The
    objects of the SABS are to
  • Develop, promote and maintain South African
    National Standards
  • Promote quality in connection with commodities,
    products and services and
  • Render conformity assessment services and
    matters connected therewith.

4
Essence of Standards and Standardization
  1. improve the quality of life in society through
    enhanced awareness on safety issues, maintenance
    of societal health and environmental
    preservations.
  2. improve the quality of South African products,
    services and processes of production.
  3. ensure the efficient utilization of existing
    resources through better and improved
    communication.

5
GAPS IN GOVERNMENT RESPONSE CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Climate change policies
  • Climate change is now a mainstream political
    issue. However, there is no yet substantive
    framework for policy which offers coherence and
    consistency as to how national governments should
    cope with the long-term political challenges of
    climate change.
  • Presently, the public discussion on climate
    change tends to be partial and disparate.
  • Loosely connected debates hinge on

6
GAPS IN GOVERNMENT RESPONSE CLIMATE CHANGE -
cont
  • Evidence that climate change is occurring and
    estimates of its potential impacts
  • The prospects for agreeing on an international
    framework for an economic response to, for
    instance, carbon trading
  • futurology surrounding the potential for
    technological innovation that could solve the
    problem.
  • Such a debate is often limited in scope and is
    too compartmentalised. In order to come to terms
    with urgent need for mitigation and adaptation, a
    broad policy perspective is required because the
    impact of climate change challenges every corner
    of the 21st century state.

7
COMMON THEMES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Clear and consistent policy signals are urgently
    needed
  • Both broad (economy-wide) and technology-specific
    policies are essential
  • There is a need to balance policy flexibility
    with reasonable policy certainty
  • A sustained carbon price signal through policies
    such as cap and trade or carbon taxes might be
    the most important cross-cutting policy driver
  • Mandatory GHG emission reporting might be an
    essential tool for identifying and stimulating
    reductions

8
COMMON THEMES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • A portfolio of technologies will be needed to
    drive the absolute reductions of GHG emissions
    necessary to address climate change
  • No single technology or policy will be sufficient
    to enable low carbon future
  • All technologies studied so far have the
    potential, but revamped research, development and
    deployment (RDD) is necessary in all of them
  • Energy efficiency will provide the greatest
    opportunity in the near term and will remain
    important over the long term as well
  • While specific technologies are likely to be
    important players, it is important to avoid the
    temptation to pick winners

9
COMMON THEMES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • A low-carbon technology revolution will require
    both leadership and broad engagement throughout
    society
  • Policies should address climate change in the
    context of other societal goals (e.g., clean air,
    energy security) taking advantage of creating
    public/private partnerships
  • Clear and unambiguous target set by corporate
    leaders and governments can have a significant
    positive effect on achieving GHG reductions
  • Greater focus is needed on critical energy
    challenges, both in terms of resources and
    innovative technology

10
COMMON THEMES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • It is essential to start now
  • It is imperative to begin now with clear
    statements of policy and both cross-cutting and
    technology specific policies and investments in
    order to transit to a low-carbon economy

11
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC POLICIES
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Energy conservation and environmental protection
    are keys to sustainability. The drive for
    improved energy efficiency and renewable energy
    sources needs to be addressed by globally
    accepted standards.

12
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC POLICIES cont.
  • The technological potential for energy efficiency
    improvements now and in the future is
    significant, yet this potential is not likely to
    be realized through market forces alone. We need
    policies that address the technical, cost, and
    societal hurdles facing widespread improvements
    in energy efficiency. In addition to price
    signals and reporting, certain standards,
    incentives, and RDD programs can increase the
    use of efficient technologies. These options
    include
  • Adoption and promotion of codes and standards
    focused on maximizing GHG reductions (e.g., for
    buildings, vehicles and appliances)
  • Increase in public RDD in innovative energy
    efficiency technologies and
  • Incentives for the private and public procurement
    of highly efficient technologies

13
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC POLICIES
  • Hydrogen in transportation
  • Specific policies are needed to address the major
    challenges to hydrogen becoming the low-carbon
    transportation fuel of the future. Near-term
    policy options to enable future widespread
    deployment of hydrogen and other potentially
    low-carbon transportation technologies include
  • Continued and increased state support for
    hydrogen-related RD in targeted areas (e.g.,
    low-carbon hydrogen production, storage, and fuel
    cells)
  • National and international harmonization of
    hydrogen codes and standards
  • Incentives to increase the development and
    deployment of lower-GHG transportation
    technologies (e.g., hybrids), many of which are
    part of an evolutionary path toward the use of
    fuel cells and
  • Increased consumer and public education regarding
    transportation, energy use, and GHG emissions.

14
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC POLICIES
  • Carbon sequestration/Coal gasification
  • In order to answer critical RD questions and to
    commercialize carbon capture and storage (CCS),
    significant effort must be made over the next 10
    to 15 years. Near-term steps include
  • A coordinated international effort to deploy coal
    gasification with CCS through trial projects that
    focus on technical issues
  • Establishment of carbon sequestration trial
    projects to validate integrity of geologic
    storage
  • Beginning to establish regulatory framework for
    underground carbon dioxide (CO2 ) storage
  • Establishing frameworks to encourage improved
    farm and forest management that enhance carbon
    storage (i.e., sinks)

15
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC POLICIES
  • Renewables
  • Despite significant potential for growth of
    renewables, these resources currently only
    provide a small fraction of commercial energy.
    Closing the gap between the current low level of
    renewables deployment and their high potential
    will require significant and sustained policies.
    Near-term policy options include
  • Establishment of a national Renewable Portfolio
    Standard with set-asides for specific generation
    technologies and tradable renewable energy
    credits
  • A major RDD effort by DoE focused on the use of
    renewables beyond niche markets
  • National test beds for new electricity grid
    systems that enable a broader set of power supply
    options, including intermittent and distributed
    energy and combined heat and power

16
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC POLICIES
  • Renewables
  • Increased research on expanding energy storage
    options
  • Pollution fees for polluting energy sources and
  • Continued and consistent support (e.g., through
    tax credits) to help renewables become
    competitive with fossil fuels for electricity
    generation.

17
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC POLICIES
  • Renewable energy candidates
  • Solar energy
  • Biomass energy
  • Hydro electricity
  • Biogas energy
  • Wind energy
  • Ocean energy
  • Standards should take end use devices into
    account, and consider their integration with
    auxiliary energy sources.
  • Standards are also needed for the installation,
    inspection and maintenance of renewable systems
    to enhance consumer access and confidence in
    renewable technology

18
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC POLICIES
  • Advanced Nuclear power generation
  • The ability of nuclear power to play a
    significant role in reducing GHG emissions over
    the next half century depends upon what happens
    in the next 10 to 15 years. The question is
    whether, in that time frame, the nuclear industry
    can overcome serious obstacles, including
    economic concerns, waste, and safety. Near-term
    policy options
  • Electricity production tax credits for first
    mover nuclear plants
  • Public dialogue and education regarding the costs
    and benefits of nuclear power, especially in the
    context of climate change.

19
THE ROLE OF SABS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • MAIN FOCUS
  • The world is challenged by a changing climate,
    loss of biodiversity, abject poverty and
    environmental degradation.
  • WHAT CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE
  • Good ideas, creativity, passion, innovation and
    the application of standards in order to achieve
    - in a consistent manner positive change.

20
STANDARDS A SOLUTION TO GLOBAL CHALLENGES
  • STANDARDS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE
  • Means to ensure that our actions lead to a
    better quality of life and a safer evolution of
    human kind.
  • Key tools in influencing sustainability.
  • Provide avenues toward improved environmental
    performance
  • Make a valuable contribution to environmental
    protection (Applicable standard ARP 720, Guide
    for addressing environmental issues in product
    standards
  • Standards ensure that our products meet the
    highest environmental standards
  • Standards help Government in regulating the
    behaviour of producers in order to protect
    consumers. Regulation is there to protect the
    public interest against the undesirable outcomes
    from unregulated markets.

21
STANDARDS A SOLUTION TO GLOBAL CHALLENGES
  • Standards are vital towards Energy security
    Oil, coal and natural gas are expected to
    dominate energy supply for decades to come.
    Climate policy must recognize the role these
    critical energy sources play to ensure security
    of supply
  • Standards are central to conservation Energy
    efficiency and conservation are the most
    immediate and costeffective sources of "new"
    energy with no GHG emissions. Government programs
    to promote energy efficiency and conservation
    must continue and should be enhanced.
  • Standards ensure broad equitable treatment
    Broad and equitable treatment of all sectors of
    the economy is necessary to ensure no sector or
    company is disproportionately burdened.
  • Standards enable technology Emerging technology
    and as-yet-unknown technological breakthroughs
    have the potential to significantly reduce GHG
    emissions if they can be developed to commercial
    scale

22
STANDARDS A SOLUTION TO GLOBAL CHALLENGES
  • Standards encourages transparency The costs,
    risks, trade-offs and uncertainties associated
    with climate policies must be openly
    communicated.
  • Renewable electricity standards can positively
    impact the climate by reducing the amount of
    electricity generated from coal, and thus the
    total amount of emissions generated from the
    power sector.
  • Secondary benefits of standards include reduced
    reliance on foreign sources of oil and gas (which
    comprise approximately 20 percent of electricity
    generation), stability in the supply and cost of
    electricity, and the creation of high-tech
    green jobs

23
PUBLISHED STANDARDS
  • The SANS/ISO 14064 standards provide government
    and industry with an integrated set of tools for
    programs aimed at reducing greenhouse gas
    emissions, as well as for emissions trading.
  • SANS/ISO 14064 comprises three standards,
    respectively detailing specifications and
    guidance for the organisational and project
    levels, and for validation and verification.

24
SANS/ISO 14064
  • ISO 14064 part 1 Greenhouse gases
    specification with guidance at the organization
    level for quantification and reporting of
    greenhouse gas emissions and removals.
  • ISO 14064 part 2 Greenhouse gases
    specification with guidance at the project level
    for quantification, monitoring and reporting of
    greenhouse gas emissions reductions and removal
    enhancements.
  • ISO 14064 part 3 Greenhouse gases
    specification with guidance for the validation
    and verification of greenhouse gas assertions.

25
Requirements of the applicable GHG programs or
intended user
  • Application of SANS/ISO14001 together with the
    SANS/ISO14064 standards can provide an excellent
    framework for effective environmental management
    addressing the GHG impacts of an organisation.
  • GHG emission sources should be considered as
    significant aspects within environmental policies
    because of their impact on the environment.
    SANS/ISO 14064 provides tools for effective
    measurement of these impacts and SANS/ISO14001 an
    effective management system to initiate and
    progress improvement or containment actions.

26
Implementing ISO 14064 is intended to achieve the
following benefits
  • Promote consistency, transparency and credibility
    in GHG quantification, monitoring, reporting and
    verification
  • Enable organisations to identify and manage
    GHG-related liabilities, assets and risks
  • Facilitate the trade of GHG allowances or
    credits, and
  • Support the design, development and
    implementation of comparable and consistent GHG
    schemes or programs.

27
SANS/ISO 14065
  • SANS/ISO 14065 Greenhouse gases specification
    for greenhouse gas validation and verification
    bodies for use in accreditation and other forms
    of recognition.
  • ISO 14065 recognizes that a number of GHG
    programs are being used in various jurisdictions,
    underscoring the need for a clear and consistent
    approach.
  • Expressly designed as flexible tools for use in
    voluntary or regulatory schemes, ISO 14064 and
    ISO 14065 assist organizations in managing
    GHG-related opportunities and risks, and support
    the environmental integrity of GHG claims.

28
The objectives of the ISO 14064 and ISO 14065
standards include
  • Developing flexible, regime-neutral tools for use
    in voluntary or regulatory GHG schemes.
  • Promoting and harmonizing best practices.
  • Supporting the environmental integrity of GHG
    assertions.
  • Assisting organizations to manage GHG-related
    opportunities and risks.
  • Supporting the development of GHG programs and
    markets.

29
SABS RESPONSE TO EE INITIATIVES
  • RESPONSES

30
CONCLUSIONS
  • There are many national and international
    standards which provide the necessary tools to
    help businesses continually improve their
    sustainability performance
  • One of those tools is ARP 720, Guide for
    addressing environmental issues in product
    standards
  • Building on the well known SANS/ISO 14001,
    Environmental management systems, SABS is now
    developing SANS/ISO 50001, Energy management
    systems Requirements with guidance for use, a
    standard which holds great cost and
    energy-cutting potential for businesses in
    developed and developing countries
  • Carbon management will remain a key pressure on
    business throughout the recession, and to assist
    with this SABS TC 207, Environmental management,
    is currently working on carbon footprint
    quantification.

31
Conclusions - cont
  • Across the board, standards provide the extra
    cost saving, the new customer, the new innovation
    with a range of benefits that can make all the
    difference between sink and swim
  • Finally, when times are tough it is natural to
    look for easy savings, but the cost of using
    environmental and sustainability standards can be
    offset against the long-term financial gains.
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