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Environmental Stability of Forest Corridors in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC) Region

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V. S. Manoharan, U. S. Nair, R. Lawton, J.Mecikalski, A. Song, T. Sever, ... Jr., K. M. Bedka, and U. S. Nair, 2008: Convective cloud identification and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Stability of Forest Corridors in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC) Region


1
Environmental Stability of Forest Corridors in
the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC) Region
  • R. Welch University of Alabama Huntsville
  • V. S. Manoharan, U. S. Nair, R. Lawton,
    J.Mecikalski, A. Song, T. Sever,
  • D. Irwin, R. Griffin, T. Berendes,
  • D. Berendes, S. Asefi, D.K. Ray
  • First Year Results

2
  • The proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor
    (MBC) is an ambitious effort to stem the erosion
    of biodiversity in one of the worlds
    biologically richest regions. The intent is to
    connect large existing parks and reserves with
    new protected areas by means of an extensive
    network of biological corridors within
    Mesoamerica/Central America to create an
    environment which provides better prospects for
    the long-term survival of native species while
    also addressing the regions socioeconomic needs.

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To what extent are land use change disturbances
affecting the environmental stability of
protected regions and corridors in the MBC?
  • Compared to forested habitats in the same life
    zone, dry season deforested habitats have
  • higher daytime temperatures,
  • are less cloudy,
  • lower estimated soil moisture and
  • lower values of Normalized Difference Vegetation
    Index (NDVI).
  • The result is hotter and drier air over
    deforested regions, with lower values of cloud
    formation and precipitation.

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Holdridge Life Zones Each of the Life Zones is
named so as to suggest a vegetation formation.
  • Based on three climate parameters
  • 1) Mean Annual Biotemperature
  • Mean annual biotemperature is the sum of daily
    mean temperatures between 0 and 30C divided by
    365. Biotemperature defines the latitudinal or
    altitudinal belts of life zones.
  • 2) Annual Precipitation
  • 3) Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) Ratio.
  • PET is a simple empirical linear function of
    biotemperature, and the PET-ratio is defined as
    PET divided by annual precipitation. The
    PET-ratio defines humidity provinces

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Guatemala Climatological Average Rainfall (? ? ?) for March (mm) Guatemala Climatological Average Rainfall (? ? ?) for March (mm) Guatemala Climatological Average Rainfall (? ? ?) for March (mm) Guatemala Climatological Average Rainfall (? ? ?) for March (mm) Guatemala Climatological Average Rainfall (? ? ?) for March (mm)
HOLDRIDGE LIFE ZONES Rainfall observed over Forested Areas Rainfall observed over Forested Areas Rainfall observed over Deforested Areas Rainfall observed over Deforested Areas
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest 23.14 ? 13.63 N7 14.79 ? 6.65 N19
Subtropical Moist Forest 39.00 ? 37.66 N11 14.34 ? 11.45 N38
Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest 65.90 ? 70.57 N10 32.00 ? 33.70 N5
Subtropical Wet Forest 74.79 ? 39.28 N41 58.07 ? 31.61 N58
Subtropical Rain Forest 105.17 ? 50.00 N6 - -
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CF Climatological cloud frequency 2000-2003 () LST Land surface temperature (K) NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index on a scale 0-1 and SLM Soil moisture on a scale 0-1 N Sample size. CF Climatological cloud frequency 2000-2003 () LST Land surface temperature (K) NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index on a scale 0-1 and SLM Soil moisture on a scale 0-1 N Sample size. CF Climatological cloud frequency 2000-2003 () LST Land surface temperature (K) NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index on a scale 0-1 and SLM Soil moisture on a scale 0-1 N Sample size. CF Climatological cloud frequency 2000-2003 () LST Land surface temperature (K) NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index on a scale 0-1 and SLM Soil moisture on a scale 0-1 N Sample size. CF Climatological cloud frequency 2000-2003 () LST Land surface temperature (K) NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index on a scale 0-1 and SLM Soil moisture on a scale 0-1 N Sample size. CF Climatological cloud frequency 2000-2003 () LST Land surface temperature (K) NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index on a scale 0-1 and SLM Soil moisture on a scale 0-1 N Sample size. CF Climatological cloud frequency 2000-2003 () LST Land surface temperature (K) NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index on a scale 0-1 and SLM Soil moisture on a scale 0-1 N Sample size.
Holdridge Life Zone Ecosystem Type CF LST NDVI SLM N
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest Evergreen Needleleaf 31.28 ? 16.35 304.3 ?1.80 0.52 ?0.09 0.71 ?0.18 496
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest Evergreen Broadleaf 31.26 ? 11.58 304.4 ?2.06 0.53 ?0.10 0.68 ?0.20 1482
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest Deciduous Broadleaf 32.39 ? 13.07 304.6 ?2.09 0.52 ?0.10 0.67 ?0.20 377
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest Woodlands 24.05 ? 11.94 305.9 ?2.41 0.49 ?0.09 0.56 ?0.21 3919
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest Wooded Grasslands 22.62 ? 10.99 307.4 ?2.47 0.44 ?0.09 0.44 ?0.19 2288
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest Grasslands 21.90 ? 12.63 307.7 ?2.33 0.44 ?0.09 0.40 ?0.18 1562
12
HYPOTHESIS Central American deforestation and
land use change have altered regional and local
climates in ways that influence the conservation
utility of MBC core elements and corridors
  • Precipitation Records
  • Convective Initialization
  • GEMRAMS Model
  • IF SO Can we predict future local climatic
    conditions and the type of vegetation likely to
    exist in the altered landscapes?

13
Central American Precipitation Data Acquired
COUNTRIES No of sites with Monthly data No of sites with Daily data Years of data availability
BELIZE 76 85 1952-2006
GUATEMALA 266 20 1970-present
EL SALVADOR - 40 1942-2006
NICARAGUA 220 - -
HONDURAS - 13 1944-2006
COSTA RICA 272 890 1936-2007
PANAMA 187 113 1975-2006
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Precipitation Questions
  • To what extent does dry season precipitation
    decrease due to land use disturbances?
  • Are some Life Zones and Ecosystems more sensitive
    to land use disturbances?
  • Are there important scales of deforestation which
    are important? E.g. 1000 km2
  • Do changes upwind impact the precipitation in
    protected regions?

17
30-Year Cumulus Cloud Analysis MBC Region
1977-2007
  • Goal Develop a 30-year analysis of dry-season
    (Feb, Mar, Apr) cumulus cloud frequency towards
    testing the hypothesis that end-of dry season
    cumulus clouds are decreasing in coverage, to
    imply a lengthening of the dry season over MBC
    regions. A trend of such nature would suggest
    increasing stress on native flora and fauna in
    these biologically sensitive regions of Central
    America.
  • GOES-8 and GOES-12
  • (1800-2100 UTC Noon-2 pm Local Time) for each
    February, March and April, 1977-2007

18
Cloud Masking Procedure
Visible (above) plus GOES IR channels 6.5, 10.7
and 13.3 ?m via Berendes et al. (2008)
Standard Deviation Limited Adaptive Clustering
algorithm.Example CCM (right). Berendes, T. A.,
J. R. Mecikalski, W. M. Mackenzie, Jr., K. M.
Bedka, and U. S. Nair, 2008 Convective cloud
identification and classification in daytime
satellite imagery using standard deviation
limited adaptive clustering. Submitted J.
Geosphys. Res.
19
Cloud-Top Cooling Rate Example
Roberts and Rutledge (2003)
Cloud-top cooling rates gt-4 C/15-min Are highly
correlated with the first Occurrence of gt35 dBZ
rainfall echo at Ground within 1 hour. Defines
Convective Initiation
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  • Ongoing Work Immediate Plans
  • Develop correlation between cumulus cloud
    frequency and land-use, and especially with
    respect to the Life Zone regions.
  • Process GOES-8 and -12 data from 2007, 2002,
    1997, 1992, 1987, 1982 and 1977 to assess if
    there is a significant signal of change in
    low-cloud frequency with respect to the Life Zone
    regions.
  • If a signal exists, process data from
    February-March-April for all years (77-07), for
    selected times of day (e.g., 20 UTC), to assess
    the trend in low-clouds.
  • By late 2008, develop methods for
  • Estimating if the cumulus that do exist
  • Grow to produce rainfall.
  • Use the algorithm of Roberts and
  • Rutldge (2003) to relate large cloud-top
  • Cooling rates for cumulus to convective
  • Initiation (gt35 dBZ radar echoes).
  • Acquire GOES-7/-8/-12 10.7 ?m data
  • For estimating cloud-top cooling.

21
GEMRAMS Impact of deforestation on MBC
  • GEMRAMS Regional Atmospheric Modeling System
    (RAMS) coupled with General Energy and Mass
    Transport Model (GEMTM) (Beltran and Pielke, Sr)
  • GEMRAMS simulates dynamic interactions between
    the atmosphere and growing canopy
  • Impact of deforestation in the areas surrounding
    MBC
  • Use GEMRAMS to simulate how the vegetation in the
    MBC areas for different scenarios of
    deforestation in the surroundings

22
GEMRAMS
  • RAMS simulates mesoscale atmospheric processes
  • GEMTM computes daily gross photosynthesis
    considering C3 and C4 photosynthesis
  • Available carbon pool is then allocated to stem,
    leaves, roots and reproductive organs

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Results from this study will be placed into
SERVIR other than the Precipitation
Records Questions?
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