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North Carolina Agricultural

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When the act was singed the Negro population of the South, fifty years removed ... To advance vocational education in public 'negro' schools ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: North Carolina Agricultural


1
By Dr. Antoine J. Alston Associate Professor
Coordinator
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
2
Introduction
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
3
Who has historically controlled public school
education in the United States? Federal or
State Government
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
4
Prelude to the NFA
  • The United States Constitution and Public School
    Education
  • Primarily left to the states control
  • Structurally different from state to state
  • The 1862 Land Grant College Act (a milestone in
    the development of a formal training program in
    agriculture) Federal Education Input

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
5
Prelude to the NFA
  • 1880 Booker T. Washington (established
    agricultural teaching for negro boys in his
    little one-room school at Tuskegee, Alabama. )
  • The 1890 Land Grant College Act (formal
    collegiate training for negro students interested
    in agriculture)

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
6
Plessy vs. Ferguson (Doctrine Separate but
equal) provided the basis for a permissive
policy of segregation of the races, in
educational establishments and otherwise, in the
South.
The 1896-97 Supreme Court The members of the
United States Supreme Court, 1896-97. Under Chief
Justice Melville Fuller, the Court established
the separate-but-equal rule. (Plessy vs. Ferguson
Courtesy of Supreme Court of the United States)
7
Prelude to the NFA
  • With the Separate but equal doctrine in place,
    the plan of operation under the Smith Hughes Act
    of 1917 (National Vocational Education Act)
    provided for Negro departments and White
    Departments of Vocational Agriculture in the
    South.
  • When the act was singed the Negro population of
    the South, fifty years removed from the slave
    economy of cotton farming, was still
    predominantly a rural people.
  • The migration stream to northern industry had
    hardly begun.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
8
Prelude to the NFA
  • Three priors to the passage of Smith Hughes,
    provisions under the Smith Lever Act (cooperative
    agricultural extension) placed a Negro on the job
    as a federal agent for the promotion of this
    work.
  • Prominent Negro leadership expected a similar
    arrangement would be implemented under the Smith
    Hughes Act.
  • Disappointment existed when a southern white man
    was appointed as the Federal Agent for Special
    Groups (Black, Hispanic, and Native American at
    the time).

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
9
Prelude to the NFA
  • Dr. H.O. Sargent, a native of Russellville,
    Alabama was appointed by the Federal Board for
    Vocational Education as the first Federal Agent
    for Vocational Agricultural Education- Special
    Groups.
  • Because of his unique personality he was widely
    excepted by Negro agricultural educators.
  • Under his leadership many Negro teacher trainers,
    resident teacher trainers and supervisors were
    awarded Julius Rosenwald fellowships for graduate
    study.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
10
Founding of the NFA
  • In 1927 G.W. Owens, Teacher Trainer of Virginia
    State College wrote the constitution and by-laws
    for the New Farmers of Virginia, which was
    comprised of eighteen chapters and 400 members.
  • In May 1927 the New Farmers of Virginia held
    their first State meeting and rally and Virginia
    State College In Petersburg, VA.
  • At the suggestion of Dr. H.O. Sargent other
    states began to develop similar chapters and were
    supplied the constitution and by-laws of the New
    Farmers of Virginia.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
11
NFA Purpose
  • As outlined in its constitution the purposes of
    the NFA were to
  • To create more interest in the intelligent choice
    of farming
  • To encourage cooperative effort among students of
    vocational agriculture
  • To develop rural leadership
  • To promote thrift
  • To advance vocational education in public negro
    schools

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
12
NFA Sectional Groups
  • First sectional group meeting was held at
    Virginia State College in 1928 (Washington
    Section Formed at this meeting.)
  • Washington Section( Eastern Section) North
    Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, (Maryland,
    West Virginia, New Jersey Later Added)
  • Almot Section (Originally called the A-L-Tex-O
    Section) Arkansas, Louisana, Mississippi,
    Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas
  • Sargent Section (Originally called the Gulf
    Section) Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee,
    Kentucky
  • From 1928 1935 the sectionals held meetings in
    the various states of their section.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
13
NFA Takes Shape
  • Between the years 1927 1931 the idea of a
    National Organization of New Farmers of American
    began to take shape for the purposes of promoting
    vocational agriculture in the Negro schools of
    the Southland.
  • At the Orangeburg meeting of the Eastern Section
    (Washington) in 1929 the consensus of opinion of
    representatives was not only feasible but highly
    desirable.
  • A committee was appointed to submit
    recommendations at the next sectional meetings
    for the organization and also to design
    appropriate pins, medals, and keys. S. B.
    Simmons chaired the committee.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
14
Founding of the NFA
  • Dr. Sargent in conjunction with Negro Teacher
    Trainers in the various states scheduled the
    first National Convention of the New Farmers of
    America for August 4, 5, 6, 7, 1935, at Tuskegee
    Institute, Alabama.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
15
Founding of the NFA
  • The program agreed upon provided eight features
  • 1. Preliminary sessions for introductions and
    general
  • orientation
  • 2. Business session-temporary organization
  • 3. Business sessions permanent organization
  • 4. Elimination contest-oratorical
  • 5. Work of committees
  • 6. First national judging contest
  • 7. Oratorical contest
  • 8. Entertainment

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
16
Founding of the NFA
  • National Conventions
  • 2nd Hampton Institute, Virginia (Tentative
  • Constitution Formally Adopted)
  • 3rd (1937) Prairie View State and Industrial
    College,
  • Prairie View Texas
  • 4th (1938) Georgia State College, Savanna,
    Georgia
  • 5th (1939) Borden Town, New Jersey
  • 6th (1940) Pine Bluff, Arkansas
  • (All conventions after this were held in Atlanta,
    Georgia)

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
17
NFA Outside the U.S. Office of Education (1935
1941)
  • During the first six of years of national
    existence the NFA operated outside of the U.S.
    Office of Education, except on a consultative
    basis.
  • The arrangement was for a quasi-headquarters at
    AT College, Greensboro, North Carolina, with
    S.B. Simmons, State Supervisor of Vocational
    Agriculture in Negro Schools serving as executive
    secretary-treasurer and with Dr. H.O. Sargent
    serving as a roving consultant and general
    advisor throughout the several states.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
18
NFA Outside the U.S. Office of Education (1935
1941)
  • J.R. Thomas, Teacher Trainer Virginia State
    College and Church Banks, Teacher Trainer,
    Prairie View AM College, served as national
    advisors.
  • Communication with Simmons was done primarily by
    mail given the driving distance.
  • Simmons spearheaded planning for each national
    convention filling in program details after
    arriving at general agreement on format from the
    Washington office and the national advisor.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
19
NFA Colors and Emblems
Colors Black and Old Gold
  • The NFA Emblem is comprised of five symbols
  • Plow representing tillage of the soil,
    the basis of agriculture
  • Owl representing wisdom
  • Rising Sun representing progress
  • Open Boll of Cotton, with two leaves
    attached at its base representing
    important economic agricultural
    interests
  • American Eagle, with shield, arrows, and
    olive branch representing the wide
    scope of the organization
  • The Emblem also included the letters NFA
    and the words Vocational Agriculture

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
20
NFA Chapter Officers (Required)
  • President Rising Sun
  • Vice President Plow
  • Secretary Cotton Boll
  • Treasurer Picture of Booker T. Washington
  • Reporter United States flag and NFA Flag
  • Advisor Owl and picture of H.O. Sargent

(Please see page 26 of the Guide For NFA (1962)
for specific officer duties.)
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
21
NFA Chapter Officers (May Be Added)
  • Watchman Straight stick of native wood
  • Historian Scrapbook
  • Parliamentarian Stewarts Help In Mastering
    Parliamentary Procedure
  • Chaplain Bible
  • Song Leader Baton

(Please see page 26 of the Guide For NFA (1962)
for specific officer duties.)
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
22
NATIONAL OFFICERS
  • Student Officers
  • President
  • Three Vice Presidents
  • (One from each NFA section)
  • Secretary
  • Treasurer
  • Reporter

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
23
NATIONAL OFFICERS
  • Adult Offices
  • Administrative Adviser (Chief of the Agricultural
    Education Service U.S. Office of Education)
  • Adviser
  • Three Sectional Advisers (One from each NFA
    section)
  • Administrative Executive Secretary (Designated
    from the staff of the Chief of the Agricultural
    Education Service U.S. Office of Education)
  • Executive Secretary
  • Executive Treasurer

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
24
Board of Trustees
  • The student officers, Administrative Adviser
    Adviser, Adviser, Administrative Executive
    Secretary, Executive Treasurer, and outgoing
    National President constituted the Board of
    Trustees

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
25
Board of Trustees
  • Active Membership Degrees
  • Farm Hand
  • Improved Farmer
  • Modern Farmer
  • Superior Farmer

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
26
NFA Contest (Establishment In Farming Awards)
  • H.O. Sargent (Young Farmer Award)
  • Given annually to the most successful former
    student of vocational agriculture who has been
    out of school for 3 but not more than 10 years
  • Must have completed four years of in day-unit,
    all-day, or young famers classes
  • Star Superior Farmer given to outstanding
    active members who have reached a high degree of
    proficiency in farming and community leadership

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
27
NFA Contest (Establishment In Farming Awards)
  • Star Modern Farmer (State awards only) Given to
    the most outstanding modern farmer in each state.
  • Dairy Farming Given to the most outstanding
    dairy farmer in each state.
  • Farm Mechanics Designed to promote achievement
    in the care, operation, and repair of farm
    machinery.
  • Farm Electrification Because electricity had
    been extended to rural areas, students were
    encouraged to become proficient in this area

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
28
NFA Contest (Establishment In Farming Awards)
  • Farm and Home Improvement Designed to stimulate
    activities for increasing the farm income and
    beautifying the farm home.
  • Soil and Water Management Designed to encourage
    approved practices in effectively managing soil
    and water resources.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
29
NFA Contest (Contest Programs)
  • Public Speaking Designed to develop the ability
    of students to speak forcefully and effectively
    before an audience.
  • Quartet Designed to develop a greater
    appreciation for good music, including Negro
    Spirituals
  • Quiz Established to stimulate a thorough study
    of the NFA constitution, NFA Guide, and
    Parliamentary Practice
  • Talent (NFA Award) This award was designed to
    encourage desirable entertainment and develop
    musical ability.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
30
Legalizing The NFA
  • At first the NFA operated autonomously outside of
    the Office of Education, having as a national
    advisor a teacher trainer from one of the member
    states and an executive secretary-treasurer from
    another member state.
  • In 1941 rumors began from Washington that the NFA
    would have to be legalized by being brought under
    the guidance and control on the Agricultural
    Education Branch of the U.S. Office of Edcuation.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
31
Legalizing The NFA
  • Negro teacher trainers and supervisors were urged
    to attend a meeting the evening prior to the
    seventh National NFA Convention.
  • At this meeting is was made clear that the
    attendees were to vote for approval of the
    transitional plan else federal funds could no
    longer be used to subsidize traveling expenses
    incident to participation in NFA activities.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
32
Legalizing The NFA
  • From this point forward Negro control of the NFA
    was never the same.
  • Over the next twenty five years repeated attempts
    were made to obtain an administrative position
    for a Negro within The Agricultural Education
    Branch of the Office of Education with no success
    ever being made. (A.W. Tenney served as both
    the FFA Executive Secretary and the
    Administrative NFA Executive Secretary)

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
33
The Merger/Absorption
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
34
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
Factors Influencing Merger
George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James
Nabrit, congratulating each other, following
Supreme Court decision declaring segregation
unconstitutional
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
35
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title IV)
Factors Influencing Merger
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of
1964. Among the guests behind him is Dr. Martin
Luther King.
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
36
Implications of Merging the NFA and FFA
  • NFA would give up all name, charter,
    constitution, bylaws, special prizes, awards,
    insignia, emblem, jacket, creed, flag, banner,
    colors, adult leadership for guidance,
    consultation and advice.
  • FFA would give up nothing, not even a one board
    membership for the NFA.
  • The National FFA Membership would be increased by
    13 percent, while in some southern states the
    membership would increase by as much as 25 to 30
    percent.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
37
Resolutions of the National Advisory Council and
the National Board of Trustees of the New
Farmers of America (Joint Meeting of Controlling
Boards To Discuss The Merger July 1965)
  • Resolution No. 1 The National FFA Constitution
    and Charter be reconstituted to include
    representation of both groups included in the
    merger
  • Resolution No. 2 The Secretary of Health,
    Education, and Welfare be petitioned to establish
    a permanent Civil Service position within twelve
    months after the merger to handle the increased
    administrative burden at the National level, and
    that this position be specifically earmarked for
    an African American.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
38
Resolutions of the National Advisory Council and
the National Board of Trustees of the New
Farmers of America (Joint Meeting of Controlling
Boards To Discuss The Merger July 1965)
  • Resolution No. 3 To allow State Association
    treasuries of NFA to give whatever relief that
    may be allowable to local chapters that must
    replace NFA paraphernalia with FFA paraphernalia.
  • Resolution No. 4 Given that the merging of the
    NFA and FFA is a wholesome product of the Civil
    Rights Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 1964,
    be it required that the U.S. Department of
    Justice be asked for a legal review of the
    resolutions Numbers 1, 2, 4, and 4.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
39
Resolutions of the National Advisory Council and
the National Board of Trustees of the New
Farmers of America (Joint Meeting of Controlling
Boards To Discuss The Merger July 1965)
  • The presentation of the resolutions converted an
    amicable atmosphere into one of consternation,
    suspicion, and off side whispers
  • After discussion in open assembly the Chief of
    the Agricultural Education branch of the Office
    of Education called the Adult NFA officers aside
    and emphasized the hazards to intra-branch
    progress in solving the problem if these
    resolutions were implemented at this time.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
40
Resolutions of the National Advisory Council and
the National Board of Trustees of the New
Farmers of America (Joint Meeting of Controlling
Boards To Discuss The Merger July 1965)
  • Following the meeting, the two groups went their
    respective ways and began planning their national
    conventions for the first and second weeks in
    October.
  • Open lines of communications were maintained
    during this time to plan the merging ceremony to
    be conducted during the FFA Convention in Kansas
    City.
  • All went well in Atlanta with the final NFA
    Convention and in Kansas City with the FFA
    Convention.
  • At the merging ceremony there was evidence of
    congeniality of acceptance, in public display
    with several appearances of the 50 voice NFA
    chorus then appearing as the FFA chorus.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
41
Resolutions of the National Advisory Council and
the National Board of Trustees of the New
Farmers of America (Joint Meeting of Controlling
Boards To Discuss The Merger July 1965)
  • Both President Lyndon Johnson and Vice President
    Hubert Humphrey by telephonic address praised the
    merging feature very highly, and related it to
    upward bound of the great society.
  • It should be noted that in the minutes of the
    Governing Committee of the FFA November 30, 1965
    (a month later) there appeared a note that
    efforts to obtain an appointment of a former NFA
    member as a regional representative for
    agriculture who could serve as a member of the
    FFA Board of Directors was not approved by U.S.
    Office of Education Officials.

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
42
Final Thoughts
  • The function of education is to teach one to
    think intensively and to think critically...
    Intelligence plus character - that is the goal of
    true education.
  • Dr. Martin Luther King

North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
43
Conclusion
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
44
Thank You
Any Questions?
North Carolina Agricultural Technical State
University School of Agriculture Environmental
Sciences Department of Agribusiness, Applied
Economics, Agriscience Education
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