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Benefits, Liabilities, and Examples of Seismic

Interferometry

- Chaiwoot B., W. Cao, S. Dong, Yibo Wang, G.

Schuster, - X. Xiao, Yanwei Xu , Jianhua Yu

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

CDP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

VSP

SWP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

VSP

Reciprocity Correlation Equation 1D Transmission

Data

B

Im(G(AB))

A

Phase of Common Raypath Cancels

x

Reciprocity Correlation Equation 1D Reflection

Data

A

B

Phase of Common Raypath Cancels

x

Reciprocity Correlation Equation 1D Reflection

Data

A

B

x

Reciprocity Correlation Equation 2D Reflection

Data

k

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB))

B

Phase of Common Raypath Cancels

General Reciprocity Correlation Eqn. 2D

Reflection Data (Wapenaar, 2004)

2i Im(G(AB)) dG(Ax)G(xB) -

G(Ax)dG(xB)

k

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB)

dn

dn

A

B

B

x

x

Phase of Common Raypath Cancels

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

- VSP -gt CDP Transform

- CDPVSP -gt VSP Transform

- CDP-gt CDP Transform

- VSP -gt SWP Transform

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

CDP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

VSP

SWP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

VSP

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

2i Im(G(AB)) dG(Ax)G(xB) -

G(Ax)dG(xB)

k

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB)

dn

dn

well

A

B

x

G(Ax)

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

VSP -gt CDP Transform

2i Im(G(AB)) dG(Ax)G(xB) -

G(Ax)dG(xB)

k

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB)

dn

dn

2ik

G(Ax)G(xB)

A

B

x

G(Ax)

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

VSP -gt CDP Transform

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB))

k

well

A

B

x

G(Ax)

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

VSP -gt CDP Transform

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB))

k

well

Transform Multiples into Primaries

Benefit

Superillumination

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB))

k

well

Standard VSP Primary

VSP -gt CDP

VSP -gt CDP Transform Numerical Tests

- Synthetic VSP Data
- 2D VSP Land Data
- 2D VSP Marine Data
- 3D VSP Marine Data

VSP Images with Static Errors

Kirchhoff Mig.

Interferometric Mig.

0.5 km 2.5 km

0.5 km 2.5 km

0.5 km 2.5 km

0.5 km 2.5 km

VSP -gt CDP Transform Numerical Tests

- Synthetic VSP Data
- 2D VSP Land Data
- 2D VSP Marine Data
- 3D VSP Marine Data

VSP Multiple (12 receivers 13 kft _at_ 30 ft

spacing 500 shots)

5000

Depth (ft)

13000

X (ft)

0

56000

Surface Seismic

5000

Depth (ft)

13000

X (ft)

0

56000

VSP Multiple (12 receivers 13 kft _at_ 30 ft

spacing 500 shots)

5000

Depth (ft)

13000

X (ft)

0

56000

VSP -gt CDP Transform Numerical Tests

- Synthetic VSP Data
- 2D VSP Land Data
- 2D VSP Marine Data
- 3D VSP Marine Data

Exxon Field VSP Data

Depth (ft)

30

900

0

Raw Data(CRG15)

G(Ax)

Time (s)

G(Bx)

0.3

Field RVSP Images with Static Errors

Kirchhoff Mig.

Interferometric Mig.

X (m)

1000

0.0 km .9 km

950

Depth (m)

1950

0.0 km .12 km

0.0 km .12 km

Primaries and multiples migration

(background is CDP stack)

100

Time (ms)

geophones

1600

VSP -gt CDP Transform Numerical Tests

- Synthetic VSP Data
- 2D VSP Land Data
- 2D VSP Marine Data
- 3D VSP Marine Data

3D SEG Salt Model Test

VSP Multiples Migration

Stack of 6 receiver gathers

( Courtesy of P/GSI ¼ million traces, 3 GB

memory, 4 hours on a PC )

GOM Field 3D VSP Data Application

3D VSP Acquisition

11 km

11 km

4.5 km deep

12 geophones at an interval of 15.25 m.

3D Migration Result

Migration of only one receiver gather

A 2D Image Slice after Stack

0

Depth (m)

Coherent Noise Mismigrated Primary

6500

Offset (m)

11000

0

Summary

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB)

k

well

Benefits

Liabilities

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

CDP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

VSP

SWP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

VSP

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

CDP -gt CDP Transform

Im(G(AB)

S

x

A

B

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

CDP -gt CDP Transform

Im(G(AB)

S

x

A

B

BenefitsDistinguish Mult. From Prim.

Key Idea Migrate Primaries And Water Multiples

Depth (km)

4

15

0

Distance (km)

Pick Traveltime of Water Bottom Reflection

0

Depth (km)

4

15

0

Distance (km)

M(x) d(s,g, )

Mult.

T

sg

0

Depth (km)

4

15

0

Distance (km)

2-D SEG/EAGE Salt Model

0

Depth (km)

4

15

0

Distance (km)

Kirchhoff Depth Migration (Primary)

0

Depth (km)

4

15

0

Distance (km)

Kirchhoff Depth Migration (Ghost)

0

Depth (km)

4

15

0

Distance (km)

Primary Ghost

0

Depth (km)

4

15

0

Distance (km)

Weighted Ghost Primary

BenefitsInterpolating Near Offset Missing Data

Original Data

0

Second (s)

1.0

Offset (m)

1390

0

Near Offset Missing Data

0

Second (s)

1.0

Offset (m)

1390

0

Pseudo Primaries

0

Second (s)

1.0

Offset (m)

1390

0

Interferometric Interpolation Result

0

Pseudo Primaries

Original Data

Second (s)

1.0

Offset (m)

1390

0

Interferometric Interpolation Result

0

Pseudo Primaries

Original Data

Second (s)

1.0

Offset (m)

1390

0

Summary

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB)

k

well

Benefits

Liabilities

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

CDP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

VSP

SWP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

VSP

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

VSP -gt CDP Transform

VSP -gt SWP Transform

2i Im(G(AB)

A

B

x

G(Ax)

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

VSP -gt CDP Transform

VSP -gt SWP Transform

2i Im(G(AB)

surface

B

A

x

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

VSP -gt SWP Transform

VSP -gt CDP Transform

Benefits SuperresolutionStatics

A Salt Flank Imaging Example

10 shots

Overburden

94 geophones

Interferometric Imaging

2700

Depth (m)

5500

0

Offset (m)

1700

Interferometric VSP Flank Imaging

0 700 m

(Hornby et al, 2006, The Leading Edge)

Interferometric VSP Flank Imaging

(Hornby et al, 2006, The Leading Edge)

0 700 m

Interferometric VSP Flank Imaging

(Hornby et al, 2006, The Leading Edge)

0 700 m

Interferometric VSP Flank Imaging

(Hornby et al, 2006, The Leading Edge)

0 700 m

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

VSPCDP -gt SWP Transform

VSP -gt CDP Transform

CDP Data

3

0

0

Depth (km)

1.8

X (km)

CDP Data

Virtual VSP Data

3

0

0

Depth (km)

1.8

X (km)

CDP Data

CDPVirtual VSP Data

3

0

0

Depth (km)

1.8

X (km)

CDP Data

CDPVirtual VSP Data

Redatumed CDPVirtual VSP Data

3

0

0

Depth (km)

1.8

X (km)

Redatumed CDPVirtual VSP Data

3

0

0

Depth (km)

1.8

X (km)

X (km)

0

3

0

Time (s)

3

CSG 100

Standard CDP Migration with Wrong Overburden

Velocity

X (km)

0

3

0

Depth (km)

1.8

Interferometric CDP Migration with Wrong

Overburden Velocity

X (km)

0

3

0

Depth (km)

1.8

Standard Migration

Interferometric Migration

Standard Migration

Correct Velocity

Incorrect Velocity

X (km)

X (km)

X (km)

3

3

3

0

0

0

0

Depth (km)

1.8

Summary

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB)

k

well

Benefits

Liabilities

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

CDP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

VSP

SWP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

VSP

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

- VSP -gt CDP Transform

- CDPVSP -gt VSP Transform

- CDP-gt CDP Transform

- VSP -gt SWP Transform

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

Prediction of Surface Waves

The work flow

Aramco Data

Original data from Saudi Arabia

Remove surface waves only by NLF

Aramco Data

Remove surface waves Int.NLF

Original data from Saudi Arabia

(No Transcript)

(No Transcript)

China Data

0

Time (s)

2.0

0

3600

Receiver (m)

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

- VSP -gt CDP Transform

- CDPVSP -gt VSP Transform

- CDP-gt CDP Transform

- VSP -gt SWP Transform

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

Salt Model

0.0

Depth (km)

Model

3.8

X (km)

0 km

16 km

Common Offset Data

0.0

Time (s)

Data

5.0

X (km)

0 km

16 km

Kirchhoff Image

0.0

Depth (km)

3.8

X (km)

0 km

16 km

Interferomteric Image

0.0

Depth (km)

3.8

X (km)

0 km

16 km

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

- VSP -gt CDP Transform

- CDPVSP -gt SWP Transform

- CDP-gt CDP Transform

- VSP -gt SWP Transform

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

Outline

CDP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

CDP

VSP

SWP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

VSP

SWP

CDP

CDP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

SWP

VSP

Reciprocity Correlation Equation

VSPCDP -gt VSP Transform

Im(G(AB)

S

x

A

B

Reciprocity Correlation Equation VSPCDP -gt VSP

Phase of Common Raypath Cancels

(No Transcript)

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

- VSP -gt CDP Transform

- CDPVSP -gt SWP Transform

- CDP-gt CDP Transform

- VSP -gt SWP Transform

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

CDP Redatuming Interferometry

Field Data stack

Offset (km)

0

12

0.5

990 shots

180 geophones

Interval 25 m

Two-way Time (s)

trace length 8.188 s

sample interval 4 ms

4.0

Stack section (courtesy of Jianming Sheng)

Field Data

12

Offset (km)

0

0

One-way Time (s)

1.5

Time Migration with NMO Velocity

Natural Redatumed Field Data

12

Offset (km)

0

0

One-way Time (s)

1.5

Time Migration with NMO Velocity

Standard Time Migration

Offset (km)

8

11

1.0

Two-way Time (s)

1.6

Interferometric Migration

Offset (km)

8

11

1.0

Two-way Time (s)

1.6

Reduced Time Migration

Offset (km)

8

11

1.0

Two-way Time (s)

1.6

Outline

- Reciprocity Equation Correlation Type

- VSP -gt CDP Transform

- CDPVSP -gt VSP Transform

- CDP-gt CDP Transform

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

- VSPCDP -gt VSP

Outline

- Overview
- Surface Multiple Migration
- Interbed Multiple Migration
- Multiple Attenuation in
- Multiple Imaging
- Conclusions

Outline

- Overview
- Multiple Attenuation in
- Multiple Imaging
- Motivation
- Methodology
- Numerical Examples
- Summary

A major problem with multiple imaging

high-order multiple

Incorrectly positioned as low-order multiple

Outline

- Overview
- Multiple Attenuation in
- Multiple Imaging
- Motivation
- Methodology
- Numerical Examples
- Summary

Step1 Prediction

second-order multiple

Physics Behind Prediction

D(g s) ? G(g g) D(g s) dg

D(gs) Downgoing component

G(gg) Greens function for

propagating the wavefield

D(gs) Predicted high-order multiples

Step2 Subtraction

p(t) y(t) - ? fj(t)?mj(t)

Predicted high-order multiple

Original data

High-order multiple-free data

Generalized-Source Migration

Generalized-source wavefield

Reflection wavefield

Outline

- Overview
- Multiple Attenuation in
- Multiple Imaging
- Motivation
- Methodology
- Numerical Examples
- Summary

Numerical Examples

- Synthetic Data Test
- Field Data Test

Density Model

276 shots, 50m spacing

0

20 receivers 6.25m spacing

Depth (m)

6,000

14,000

0

X (m)

CRG1 Different Order Multiples

Before Attenuation

0.4

Time (sec)

2.5

0

14,000

X (m)

Prediction

0.4

Time (sec)

2.5

0

14,000

X (m)

After Attenuation

0.4

Time (sec)

2.5

0

14,000

X (m)

Before Attenuation

0.4

Time (sec)

2.5

0

14,000

X (m)

Migration Image Before Attenuation

500

Interference from high-order multiple

Depth (m)

6000

12500

1500

X (m)

Migration Image After Attenuation

500

Depth (m)

6000

12500

1500

X (m)

Numerical Examples

- Synthetic Data Test
- Field Data Test

Velocity Model

0

V (ft/s)

4910

Depth (ft)

14300

43000

0

60000

X (ft)

Different Order Multiples

Before Attenuation

1.25

1st-order multiple

Time (sec)

2nd-order multiple

5.00

0

60000

X (ft)

Predicted Multiple

1.25

Time (sec)

5.00

0

60000

X (ft)

After Attenuation

1.25

Time (sec)

5.00

0

60000

X (ft)

Before Attenuation

1.25

1st-order multiple

Time (sec)

2nd-order multiple

5.00

0

60000

X (ft)

Multiple Migration Image Before Attenuation

10

interference from high-order multiple

Depth (kft)

26

X (kft)

16

32

Multiple Migration Image After Attenuation

10

Depth (kft)

26

X (kft)

16

32

Multiple Migration Images Comparison

10

Depth (kft)

26

X (kft)

16

32

Overview

- CDP Interferometric Interpolation

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- CDPVSP -gt VSP Transform

- Migration Deconvolution New Pemex

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

- Reverse Time Migration

(No Transcript)

Standard Migration

Migration Deconvolution

vs

0 3.5 s

(courtesy of PEMEX)

PEMEX Prestack Migration Image

The CSG d

0.5 s

Time (s)

Time (s)

1.7 s

Receiver (m)

X (km)

0

3600

0 km

5 km

The original data from Saudi

Remove surface waves only by NLF

PEMEX Prestack Migration Image

The CSG d

0.5 s

Time (s)

Time (s)

1.7 s

Receiver (m)

X (km)

0

3600

0 km

5 km

The original data from Saudi

Remove surface waves only by NLF

MD Goal

- MDAttributes

Overview

- CDP Interferometric Interpolation

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- CDPVSP -gt VSP Transform

- Migration Deconvolution New Pemex

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

- Reverse Time Migration

Overview

- CDP Interferometric Interpolation

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- CDPVSP -gt VSP Transform

- Migration Deconvolution New Pemex

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

- Reverse Time Migration

Reverse Time Migration

- FPGA and RTM (Brown)

- Fast 3D Reverse Time Datum (Dong)

- Reverse Time Migration POIC (Cao)

- Waveform Inversion Saudi

- Interferometric Redatuming Saudi

Overview

- CDP Interferometric Interpolation

- Interferometric Surface Wave Filter

- CDPVSP -gt VSP Transform

- Migration Deconvolution New Pemex

- Poor Mans Superresolution Migration

01. Field data

02. Pick first break

03. Refraction traveltime tomography

reference

04. Pick reference layer in tomogram

05. Calculate reference reflection time

10. Reduced time migration

01. Field data

Wavelet Deconvolution

02. Pick first break

03. Refraction traveltime tomography

Elevation statics correction

Velocity analysis

reference

04. Pick reference layer in tomogram

First stack

05. Calculate reference reflection time

Residual statics correction

Velocity analysis

NMO velocity

10. Reduced time migration

Brute stack

01. Field data

Wavelet Deconvolution

02. Pick first break

06. Pick reference reflection time in seismogram

03. Refraction traveltime tomography

Elevation statics correction

07. Estimate one-way time to reference layer

Velocity analysis

reference

04. Pick reference layer in tomogram

08. Datum receivers to reference layer

First stack

05. Calculate reference reflection time

Residual statics correction

09. Datum sources to reference layer

Velocity analysis

NMO velocity

10. Reduced time migration

11. Interferometric migration

Brute stack

Geometry

Elevation

Plan view

18

180

Elev (m)

X (m)

0

0

0

5

0

Y (km)

Y (km)

5

Stacked section before statics correction

0

Time (s)

2

Stacked section after statics correction

0

Time (s)

2

0

1100

CDP number (5m)

Vel (m/s)

NMO velocity after statics correction

0

4000

Time (s)

2

1600

Vel (m/s)

Traveltime tomogram

0

6000

Depth (m)

800

0

0

CDP number (5m)

1100

Imaging Multiples

1. Turn Primaries into Multiples, then Subtract

2. Turn Multiples into Primaries, then Migrate

Imaging Multiples

1. Turn Multiples into Primaries, then Migrate

2. Turn Multiples into Primaries, then Migrate

Why Image Multiples in VSP Data?

Why Image Multiples in VSP Data?

PEMEX Prestack Migration Image

The CSG d

0.5 s

Time (s)

Time (s)

1.7 s

Receiver (m)

X (km)

0

3600

0 km

5 km

The original data from Saudi

Remove surface waves only by NLF

Why Image Multiples in VSP Data?

VSP Multiple (12 receivers 13 kft _at_ 30 ft

spacing 500 shots)

5000

Depth (ft)

13000

X (ft)

0

56000

CDP Surface Seismic

5000

Depth (ft)

13000

X (ft)

0

56000

VSP Multiple (12 receivers 13 kft _at_ 30 ft

spacing 500 shots)

5000

Depth (ft)

13000

X (ft)

0

56000

A Real Walkaway VSP Experiment

0

401 shots on a topographic surface

well

Depth (m)

1400

12 geophones at 1400 - 1500 m depth

1500

0

10000

Offset (m)

A Common Receiver Gather

0.4

Time (s)

1.8

0

10000

Offset (m)

Work flow

Separate up and down going wavefields

Upgoing wavefield

Downgoing wavefield

Statics

Statics

Statics

Ray tracing

Pick first-break

Specular interferometry

Primaries migration

Multiples migration

Standard vs Interferometry Mig VSP (Narrow vs

Wide Illumination)

100

Time (ms)

geophones

1600

Why Image Multiples in CDP Data?

Imaging Multiples

1. Turn Multiples into Primaries, then Migrate

CDP Multiples Migration

Primary vs Multiple MigrationSynthetic Shot

Gather

Primaries migration in one CSG

Multiples migration in one CSG

Primary vs Multiple MigrationUnocal Shot Gather

Primaries migration in one CSG

Multiples migration in one CSG

Overview

- Imaging Multiples

- Waveform Inversion

- CDP Interferomtery

- Migration Deconvolution

- Scattering Deconvolution

Traveltime Tomography vs Waveform Inversion of

Early Arrivals

Early Arrival Waveform Tomography -gt

SharpSmoothDeeper V(x,z)

Early Arrival Waveform Tomography Strategy

1. Window about early arrivals Avoid Local

Minima problems

Synthetic Model

Traveltime Tomogram

Velocity Model

Saudi Land Survey

1. 1279 CSGs, 240 traces/gather

2. 30 m station interval, max. offset 3.6km

3. Line Length 46 km

4. Pick 246,000 traveltimes

5. Traveltime tomography -gt V(x,y,z)

Brute Stack Section

0

Time (s)

2.0

3920

5070

CDP

TomostaticsStacking

0

Time (s)

2.0

3920

5070

CDP

EWTStacking

0

Time (s)

2.0

3920

5070

CDP

Conclusion

Overview

- Imaging Multiples

- Waveform Inversion

- CDP Interferomtery

- Migration Deconvolution

- Scattering Deconvolution

SummaryInterferometric CDP Datuming

Overview

- Imaging Multiples

- Waveform Inversion

- CDP Interferomtery

- Migration Deconvolution

- Scattering Deconvolution

Prestack Time Migration Deconvolution for

VSPMarine CDP Data

(No Transcript)

Recording Geometry

MIG

MD

Depth Slices

Z1 km

Z3 km

Z5 km

MIG

MD

Depth Slices

Z7 km

Z9 km

Z10 km

Meandering Stream Model

2.5 km

2.5 km

0

0

Mig

Z3.5 KM

Model

MD

VSP Geometry source 21 x 21 geophone 12

Migration

MD

Depth1.75 km

3-D SEG/EAGE Salt Model

12.2 km

12.2 km

0

0

Imaging dxdy20 m

3-D SEG/EAGE Salt Model

Y7.12 km

X (km)

Y (km)

Mig (z1.2 km)

X (km)

X (km)

5

9.8

5

9.8

3

Y (km)

10

MD

X (km)

0

6

0

PSTMD

PSTM(courtesy of Unocal)

Time (s)

8

MD

X (km)

0

6

3

Time (s)

8

MD

Mig (courtesy of Aramco)

Time (s)

Mig (courtesy of Unocal)

MD

Inline Number

1

90

90

Inline Number

1

1.1

Depth (kft)

7.0

(Crossline50)

(No Transcript)

MD

Mig

(3.6 kft)

Standard Migration

Migration Deconvolution

vs

0 3.5 s

(courtesy of PEMEX)

Conclusions

MD reduces migration artifacts

Overview

- Imaging Multiples

- Waveform Inversion

- CDP Interferomtery

- Migration Deconvolution

- Reverse Time Datuming

Why RTD?

SMAART JV. Pluto 1.5 Vp model

0

Depth (Km)

9

0

30

Distance (km)

Why RTD?

POIC image

KM image

6

Depth (km)

9

5

25

5

25

Distance (km)

Distance (km)

Why RTD?

Offset (km)

Complex Rough topography Large velocity variation

RTD

Depth (Km)

Less Complex

Implement RTD

S

r

Depth

d(xx)g(sx) d(sx)

x

x

Distance

Implement RTD

d(sr)

S

R

g(sx)

Depth

x

x

Target-oriented RTD (LuoSchuster , 2002)

Distance

Outline

- POIC Review

- RTDPOIC
- SMAART Data
- Conclusions

Why RTD

SMAART JV. Pluto 1.5 Vp model

0

Depth (Km)

9

0

30

Distance (km)

SMAART JV Data

KM Depth Images

After Datuming

Before Datuming

6

Depth (km)

9

5

25

5

25

Distance (km)

Distance (km)

POIC Depth Images

After Datuming

Before Datuming

6

Depth (km)

9

5

25

5

25

Distance (km)

Distance (km)

Depth Images after Redatuming

Reflectivity Model

KM image

6

Depth (km)

9

5

25

5

25

Distance (km)

Distance (km)

Depth Images after Redatuming

POIC image

KM image

Depth (km)

Distance (km)

Distance (km)

Outline

- POIC Review

- RTDPOIC
- SMAART Data
- Conclusions

Conclusions (RTDPOIC)

- RTD helps reveal deeper structure

- RTD KM provides good depth image

- RTD POIC helps to suppress multiples

and preserve the primaries

Overview

- Imaging Multiples

- Waveform Inversion

- CDP Interferomtery

- Migration Deconvolution

- Scattering Deconvolution

CDP Transfer Function Deconvolution

D(sx) T(sx)

T(xg)

overburden

CDP Transfer Function Deconvolution

0 0.6

0 600

Depth (m)

Time (s)

0 0.6

0 0.6

Time (s)

Time (s)

0 600 m

0 600 m

X (m)

X (m)

CDP Transfer Function Deconvolution

0 0.6

0 600

Reflections

Depth (m)

Time (s)

0 0.6

0 0.6

Time (s)

Time (s)

0 600 m

0 600 m

X (m)

X (m)

CDP Transfer Function Deconvolution

0 0.6

0 600

Reflections

Depth (m)

Time (s)

0 0.6

0 0.6

Scattering

Time (s)

Time (s)

0 600 m

0 600 m

X (m)

X (m)

CDP Transfer Function Deconvolution

0 0.6

0 600

Reflections

Depth (m)

Time (s)

0 0.6

0 0.6

Scattering

ScatteringReflections

Time (s)

Time (s)

0 600 m

0 600 m

X (m)

X (m)

CDP Transfer Function Deconvolution

Mig. Of Data w/o Scattering

Mig.Decon of Data with Scatter

0 X (m) 600 m

0 X (m) 600 m

FD Experiment

1500

0

Generalized-source wavefield

Dpeth (m)

Time (s)

Reflection wavefield

3500

3

Offset (m)

1000

Depth (m)

3500

0

1500

GSM Results

GSM of one shot gather

GSM of three shot gathers

1500

Dpeth (m)

3500

Offset (m)

1000

Offset (m)

1000

0

0

Reduced Form GSM

Ray tracing of line source (picked direct

wave)

Reduce form GSM result

1500

Dpeth (m)

3500

Offset (m)

0

1000

Offset (m)

0

1000

Conclusion

Overview

- Transfer Function Deconvolution

- Waveform Inversion

- CDP Specular Interferomtery

- VSP Specular Interferometry

- Refraction Interferometry

Conclusion

(No Transcript)

Reciprocity Correlation Equation Lucky 2D

Reflection Data

k

G(Ax)G(xB)

Im(G(AB)

B

Phase of Common Raypath Cancels

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