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Current Situation

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What do I do to meet needs when forage quality is not the issue but forage quantity is? ... Reduces seepage. Decreases CP content to 21% Maintains high energy values ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Current Situation


1
Surviving
The Drought
2
Background
  • High Corn Prices
  • Scarce hay supply
  • Drought
  • Heat

3
Impact on-
  • Summer Grazing
  • Winter Feed
  • Water Supply
  • Nitrates / Poisonous Plants

4
What do I do to meet needs when forage quality is
not the issue but forage quantity is? DROUGHT!
5
Assess Situation
  • Inventory Cattle
  • Inventory Feed Supply
  • Do the numbers match?

6
Animal Management Issues
  • Pregnancy check, cull opens
  • Cull older, lower producing cows
  • Cull problem cows, disposition, arthritic, teat,
    udder and feet problems.

7
Conduct a feed and animal inventory
  • Use ASC-78 as a guide
  • Group animals by their needs
  • Compare how much feed is needed vs what is on hand

8
Allocation of Hay to Various Classes of Cattle
Based on Quality
  • Quality of Hay
  • High
  • Low
  • Classes of Cattle
  • Young Calves
  • Weaned Calves
  • Replacements
  • Yearlings
  • Bred Heifers
  • 2-year old Cows
  • Lactating Cows
  • Mature Cows, last 1/3 of gestation
  • Mature Bulls
  • Mature Pregnant Cows, first 2/3 of gestation

9
Nutritional Quality of Forages
Crude Protein TDN
Excellent 11.2 56
Good 9.5-11.1 50-56
Fair 8.2-9.5 50-56
Poor 7.3-8.2 50-55
Very Poor lt7.3 lt48
Source Parish, Jane et al. 2007. Producer Guide
to Coping with Drought Conditions
10
Approximate forage intake by beef cattle
Forage TDN DMI (BW)
Well-eared silage 60-70 2.5 to 3.3
Actively growing pasture 70 2.0 to 2.5
Legume hay, good 55-60 2.5 to 3.0
Grass hay, good 50-55 2.0 to 2.5
Mature grass hay 45-50 1.5 to 2.0
Grass hay, poor 40-45 1.0 to 1.5
Straw 35-40 1.0 or less
11
Are Alternatives Available on the Farm?
  • Corn that will make little or no grain yield
  • Chop it as silage
  • Do not graze or roll it for hay due to nitrates
  • Soybeans that will not set a bean
  • Graze or roll as hay, prevent bloat if grazing
  • Cut and roll when all leaves are still green

12
Soybeans for Hay or Silage
  • For silage, harvest at R6 stage
  • May need to wilt after cutting
  • Forage beans yield 3-4 tons/ac of DM
  • Grain beans yield 2-3 tons/ac of DM
  • Animals do not like the silage, eat 20 less than
    corn silage

13
Soybeans for Hay or Silage
  • Hay may need to be harvested at a little earlier
    stage
  • Should be conditioned to crush stem or hard to
    cure
  • If too mature at cutting, will lose bean due to
    conditioning
  • May have feeding loss of up to 20 due to stem
    refusal

14
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15
Baling or Grazing Corn Stalks
  • 120 bu corn 4 to 5 tons residue/acre
  • Cows consume grain, leaves, husks, cobs, stalks
    in order
  • 1 acre of stalks 30 days grazing/cow with
    mineral, protein supplementation
  • Should be strip grazed
  • Baling leaves much of the best (grain, leaves,
    husks) in the field

16
(No Transcript)
17
Corn Stalks
  • High Nitrates have been detected
  • Low quality feed
  • Requires protein and energy supplementation
  • Considerable waste in feeding
  • Stores poorly

18
What is an Acre of Stalks Worth to Graze?
Hay Cost/Ton 80 100 120 140
/lb of hay 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
/Cow for 30 days 34.00 42.50 51.00 59.50
19
Performance of Cows fed Baled Corn Stalks
Supplement Trt. CSM CSM Corn
Int. Wt. lbs 1088 1092
Wt. loss, lbs 28 36
Int. BCS 5.3 5.4
BCS loss -.45 -.50
Rosepine Res. Sta. Rep. 11, 2000 Free choice access to corn stalk bales for 42 days. Supplements were cottonseed meal at 1.3 lbs dry matter or 1.3 lbs 2.0 lbs of ground corn dry matter. Rosepine Res. Sta. Rep. 11, 2000 Free choice access to corn stalk bales for 42 days. Supplements were cottonseed meal at 1.3 lbs dry matter or 1.3 lbs 2.0 lbs of ground corn dry matter. Rosepine Res. Sta. Rep. 11, 2000 Free choice access to corn stalk bales for 42 days. Supplements were cottonseed meal at 1.3 lbs dry matter or 1.3 lbs 2.0 lbs of ground corn dry matter.
20
Cow Rations with Baled Corn Stalks
Ration 1 2 3 4 5
Stalks 12.5 10 10 10 10
SBHulls 3.5 10 3.3 2.2
CGF 4.0 3.3 4.4 6.1
Corn 2.3 2.3
DDGS 2.2
Protein Block X X
Limest. .1 .1 .1 .25
IRM Min .25 .25 .25 .25 .25
1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-November Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-November Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-November Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-November Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-November Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-November Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis.
21
Cow Rations with Baled Corn Stalks
Ration 1 2 3 4 5
Stalks 12.5 11 12.5 10 12.5
SB Hulls 11 11 5.5 4.5 3
CGF 1.1 2 5.5 4.5 3
Corn 5.7
DDGS 3.3
Protein Block X X X
Limest. .1 .1 .1
IRM min .25 .25 .25 .25 .25
1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-January Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-January Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-January Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-January Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-January Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis. 1200 pound pregnant, dry cow in mid-January Corn stalks valued at 48 TDN and 5.0 CP on DM basis.
22
Gain of Stocker Cattle on Normal or Drought Corn
Silage
Normal Drought Change
Trial 1
Head 44 44
ADG, lbs 2.06 1.88 9.6
Trial 2
Head 18 56
ADG, lbs 1.72 1.32 30
Nebraska Nebraska Nebraska Nebraska
23
Nutrient Analysis
DM Basis DM Basis DM Basis
Feed DM TDN CP
Corn Silage 34 69.9 8.2
Grass Hay 91.9 56.6 10.7
SB Silage 61 56 16
SB Hay 91.6 60.9 16.3
Corn Stalks 51.7 54 7.6
Source Dairy One Laboratory, Cornell University Source Dairy One Laboratory, Cornell University Source Dairy One Laboratory, Cornell University Source Dairy One Laboratory, Cornell University
24
Baseline Assumptions
Feed Stuff Tons / Acre DM tons / Acre TDN tons / Acre CP tons / Acre
Corn Silage 18 6.12 4.28 0.50
Grass Hay 1.5 1.38 0.78 .148
25
Nutritional Needs
Spring Calving Cow, 1200 lbs, Winter 120 days Spring Calving Cow, 1200 lbs, Winter 120 days Spring Calving Cow, 1200 lbs, Winter 120 days
TDN lbs CP lbs
Daily 12.37 1.81
Total 1484 217
26
What will it take?
Acres needed per cow Cows fed per acre
Corn Silage .17 5.7
Grass Hay .951 1.08
27
What will it cost?
Value per acre Total cost per acre Cost per cow
Corn Silage (120 bu) 420 559.27 95.07
Grass Hay (1.5 tons) 187.50 187.50 178.31
28
What can I pay for silage?
  • Based on previous estimate, hay costs 178.31 per
    cow to winter
  • How many tons of corn silage will it take to
    winter them?
  • gt 3.06 tons
  • You can pay 58.27 per ton of corn silage if hay
    is 125 per ton

29
What can I pay for Corn Silage?
80 100 120 140
Corn Silage (per ton) 37.29 46.62 55.94 65.26
Standing Corn (per ton silage) 29.32 38.65 47.97 57.29
Standing Corn (per acre) 527.76 695.70 863.46 1,031.22
30
If I need to buy feed, what should I buy, hay or
something else?
31
Nutrient dense feeds such as grains, commodities,
etc., are cheaper per unit of nutrient compared
to hay. Be sure and compare on a dry matter
basis.
32
Stretch Hay with Supplement
  • Feed the hay on hand and buy supplement
  • Corn will replace hay at the rate of 1.0 lb. Corn
    can replace 2.0 lb. of hay

33
Alternative Feeds
Feed CP UIP, CP TDN, Starch
Corn 9.8 55 90 70
DDG 30.4 52 90 18
DBG 29 50 66 10.7
SBH 12 25 77 6
CGF 23.8 22 80 25.4
W Midds 18.7 21 69 37.8
NRC Beef 2000 Update, PAS 1669 - 99 NRC Beef 2000 Update, PAS 1669 - 99 NRC Beef 2000 Update, PAS 1669 - 99 NRC Beef 2000 Update, PAS 1669 - 99 NRC Beef 2000 Update, PAS 1669 - 99
34
How much hay does a cow have to have daily?
35
Limit fed Corn vs. Hay Rations for Cows, 3 Year
Summary
36
Limit Feeding High Energy Rations for Growing
Cattle
37
Economics of Corn vs. Hay to Cows
Feed Price, Price, Unit / lb
Shell Corn 175 175 Ton 0.0875
Supplement 300 300 Ton 0.15
Hay 125 125 Ton 0.0625
Daily Feed Cost, Per Day Daily Feed Cost, Per Day Daily Feed Cost, Per Day Daily Feed Cost, Per Day Daily Feed Cost, Per Day
Ration Ration Corn Based Corn Based Hay Only
Three Trial Average Three Trial Average 1.50 1.50 1.88
Winter Feeding Cost Winter Feeding Cost 195.00 195.00 244.40
Corn purchased at 4.90 / bu from feed
dealer Assumes 130 day winter feeding period
38
Assuming 130 Day Winter Feeding
  • Corn based may be cheaper depending on hay / corn
    price
  • Even if hay is cheaper, what is the goal?
  • Do we want to minimize costs, or maximize profit?
  • What is the value of a 21 lb increase in weaning
    weight and a 7 increase in conception rate?

39
Value of Increased Production
Hay Only Corn Based
Avg. WW 613 lbs 634 lbs
Conception Rate 84 91
Lbs. weaned / cow 515 lbs 576 lbs
Income per cow 515 565
Difference -------- 50
613 _at_ 100 / cwt, 634 _at_ 98 / cow
40
What about by-products?
41
Limitations
  • Moisture content
  • Nutrient profile
  • Storage
  • Contaminants
  • Economics
  • Availability
  • Transportation

42
Soy Hulls
  • Excellent palatability
  • Less starch content than grains therefore, less
    negative effect on forage utilization
  • Safer, less incidence of founder

43
Type of Energy Supplement and Gain of Steers on
Hay Based Rations
Supplement Corn/SBM Soyhulls
Steer Wt. lbs 626 629
Sup. Intake lbs 7 (.68 / day) 7 (.56 / day)
Hay Intake lbs 11.7 11.5
ADG, lbs 1.8 2.2
KY PR 417, p. 86 KY PR 417, p. 86 KY PR 417, p. 86
44
Corn Gluten
  • By-product of soft drink industry
  • May be wet or dried
  • Corn gluten feed is around 22-25 CP corn
    gluten meal is about 60 CP
  • Low starch

45
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46
Corn Gluten Feed
  • High level of Sulfur (around 0.6)
  • Limit to 50 of DMI due to its high sulfur
    content (Cu deficiency and polio)

47
Distillers Grain
48
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49
Distillers Grain (30CP)

DM Price /T DM Ton Feed Cost /DM
Dried 88 120 1760 6.8
Modified 50 58 1000 5.8
Wet 30 38 600 6.3

50
Storage of Wet Distillers Grains
51
Challenges
  • Transportation costs
  • Equipment needs for handling and storage
  • Rancidity

52
Methods of Ensiling
  • Silo Bags
  • Bunker Silos
  • Covered Piles

53
Ensiling WDG With Soy Hulls
54
Advantages of a 7030 Mixture (5050 DM basis)
  • Reduces dust in soybean hulls
  • Reduces seepage
  • Decreases CP content to 21
  • Maintains high energy values

55
Ensiling WDG with Crop Residues
  • On farm study
  • Blended corn stalks with MWDG
  • Blend was 60 DM
  • Cool at bag opening
  • Heated quickly

Garcia et al., 2004
56
Recommendations
  • DM of blends should be no more than 50
  • Drier blends do not preserve as well
  • Use of WDG over MWDG is preferred

57
Commodity Rations for Limit Feeding Cows, Early
Winter
Feed/Ration 1 2 3 4 5
CGF 7.8 2 5.5 3
SBH 12 4.5 9 6.0 6.5
Grass Hay 3 3 3 3 10
DDGS
Limestone .2 .1
Protein Block X
58
Commodity Rations for Limit Feeding Cows, Late
Winter
Feed/Ration 1 2 3 4 5
CGF 6.7 5.5 2.3
SBH 15 7.3 6.0 9.0 11
Grass Hay 3 3 3 3 10
DDGS 2.0 2.2
Lime .1 .1 .1
Protein Block X
59
Meet the nutritional needs
  • You must maintain body condition
  • Calving
  • Rebreeding

60
Energy Deficiencies Affect
  • Cow Rebreeding
  • Calf Health/Survival
  • Calf Growth Rate

61
Energy Deficiencies Decrease Calf Survival
Through Lowered Immunoglobulin Transfer to Calf
62
Timing of Deficiency Influences Effect
  • Pre-calving deficiency ? days of post partum
    interval
  • Post-calving deficiency ? conception

63
BCS and Cow-calf Performance
64
Limit Forage Consumption
  • Supplement Forage
  • Feed in Hay racks
  • Utilize all hay before moving rack
  • Delay feeding by 12 hours after roll eaten
  • Move feeding area to reduce mud

65
Rumensin for Wintering Cows
  • 50 60 of total cost is winter feed
  • Prevent and control coccidiosis
  • Improved feed efficiency
  • Feed in 1 lb of feed daily

66
Cow and Calf Performance, Feed Intake, lbs Cow and Calf Performance, Feed Intake, lbs Cow and Calf Performance, Feed Intake, lbs
Control Rumensin
Precalving Hay 26.8 23.2
Postcalving Hay 30.5 26.2
SBH 3.5 3.0
67
Feed Prices
Soybean Hulls 70/ton Supplement 5.35 or 6.85 /lb Hay 120 or 40/ton
Total Feed Costs and Savings Total Feed Costs and Savings Total Feed Costs and Savings Total Feed Costs and Savings
Control Rumensin Difference
Hay _at_ 120 168.50 146.27 22.23 (13.2)
Hay _at_ 40 63.86 56.51 7.35 (11.5)
68
Cost per day on Purchased Hay
Cost of hay per ton
75 100 125 150
25 lb 0.94 1.25 1.56 1.88
30 lb 1.13 1.50 1.88 2.25
Disappearance per day
69
Cost per day on Hulls / Hay Substituting Concept
(Late Winter)
Cost per ton of hay
100 125 150
140 1.20 1.24 1.28
160 1.35 1.39 1.43
180 1.50 1.54 1.58
Cost per ton of soy hulls
Ration 15 lbs soy hulls, 3 lbs grass hay
70
Cost per day on Hulls / Hay Stretching Concept
(Late Winter)
Cost per ton of hay
100 125 150
140 1.57 1.70 1.82
160 1.68 1.81 1.93
180 1.79 1.92 2.04
Cost per ton of soy hulls
Ration 11 lbs soy hulls, 10 lbs grass hay, w/
protein block
71
Restricting Hay Intake for Cows Nursing Calves
Hay Access, hrs 4 8 24
B. Wt. Ch. -125 -61 -44
Final BCS 5.4 5.5 6.1
BCS Ch. -.63 -.25 .15
Calf ADG lb 2.17 2.15 2.21
Milk, lbs 9.9 9.9 10.1
Hay Disap. 22.4 32 36
lt24 hr. 38 11.1 -------
PAS 21182-189 PAS 21182-189 PAS 21182-189 PAS 21182-189
72
Restricting Hay Intake for Cows in Last Trimester
of Gestation
Hay Access hrs 3 5 7
B. Wt. Ch. 52 70 106
Final BCS 5.3 5.3 5.6
Hay Disap. 15.4 17.6 20
lt7 hours 23 12 ---------
PAS 21182-189 PAS 21182-189 PAS 21182-189 PAS 21182-189
73
Savings from Limit Hay Feeding Lactating Cows
Access 4 Hours 8 Hours 24 Hours
Hay Consumed 22.4 32 36
Hay Savings / Day 13.6 lbs 4 lbs ---------
per day 0.85 0.25 ---------
Saving over 130 days 0.88 tons 0.26 tons ---------
Total Savings 110.50 32.50 ---------
Hay valued _at_ 125 per ton
74
Savings from Limit Hay Feeding Dry Cows
Access 3 Hours 5 Hours 7 Hours
Hay Consumed 15.4 17.6 20
Hay Savings / Day 4.6 lbs 2.4 lbs ---------
per day 0.29 0.15 ---------
Saving over 130 days .299 tons .156 tons ---------
Total Savings 37.38 19.50 ---------
Hay valued _at_ 125 per ton
75
Early Weaning of Calves
  • Decreases nutrient needs of the cow
  • Cheaper to feed calf than cow
  • Calves as old as 50 days can be weaned
  • Feed conversion 4 to 5 lbs/lb of gain
  • Good health practices
  • Must be able to reach feed and water

76
Early Weaning Rations, 300 lb Calf, ADG 2.0 lbs
Feed/Ration 1 2 3 4
Corn 2.0 2.3
CGF 1.5 3.3
Soy Hulls 5 3.3
Alfalfa hay 5.5
Grass hay 5
SBM-44 2 2.2 1.7
SBM-49 1.0
DDGS 1.3 1.65
Limestone .15 .1 .15
Dical Phos. .1
77
Preconditioning Rations - Normal Wn. Weights
Ration 1 2 3 4 5
Grass Hay 3.3 4.4 6
Alf. Hay 5.5 5.0
SB Hulls 4.4 6.5 6.4 1.1
CGF 3.3 1.1
Corn 5.7
SB Meal 2.0 .7 2.0 1.8
DDGS 1.6 2.2
IRM St. Min. .25 .25 .25 .25 .25
500 lb calf, ADG 2.5 lbs for 45 days. Grass hay 50 TDN and 9 CP Alfalfa 62 TDN and 19.9 CP DM basis. 500 lb calf, ADG 2.5 lbs for 45 days. Grass hay 50 TDN and 9 CP Alfalfa 62 TDN and 19.9 CP DM basis. 500 lb calf, ADG 2.5 lbs for 45 days. Grass hay 50 TDN and 9 CP Alfalfa 62 TDN and 19.9 CP DM basis. 500 lb calf, ADG 2.5 lbs for 45 days. Grass hay 50 TDN and 9 CP Alfalfa 62 TDN and 19.9 CP DM basis. 500 lb calf, ADG 2.5 lbs for 45 days. Grass hay 50 TDN and 9 CP Alfalfa 62 TDN and 19.9 CP DM basis. 500 lb calf, ADG 2.5 lbs for 45 days. Grass hay 50 TDN and 9 CP Alfalfa 62 TDN and 19.9 CP DM basis.
78
Feed Price Assumptions
Feed Price Feed Price
Sh. Corn 175 / ton DDGs 175 / ton
Corn Gluten 150 / ton Alfalfa Hay 200 / ton
Soy Hulls 160 / ton Grass Hay 125 / ton
SBM 44 285 / ton Limestone 3.05 / bag
SBM 48 293 / ton Dical 10.25 / bag
79
Feed Cost of Gain Early Weaning Rations
Ration Cost per Day Cost / lb gain
1 Alf, corn, SBM 1.04 0.52
2 Hay, Corn, SBM 0.84 0.42
3 Hull, Gluten, SBM, DDG 0.88 0.44
4 - Hull, Gluten, SBM, DDG 0.82 0.41
80
Feed Cost of Gain (Pre-conditioning Rations)
Ration Cost per Day Cost / lb gain
1 Hay, SH, CGF, SBM 1.17 0.47
2 Hay, SH, DDG, SBM 1.11 0.45
3 Hay, SC, SBM 1.24 0.50
4 Alf, SH, SBM 1.40 0.56
5 Alf, SH, CGF, SC, DDG 1.20 0.48
81
KY Feeder Steers (Week of 9-27-07)
Average Weight Avg. Price per cwt Value per head Difference
3wts 121.21 424.24
4wts 114.25 514.13 89.89
5wts 110.33 606.82 92.69
6wts 106.42 691.73 84.91
7wts 102.36 767.70 75.97
8wts 102.86 874.31 106.61
82
Sellout now and buy back in spring?
  • Stock cows averaging near 650 this fall
  • Pairs ranged from 850 to 1,000 last spring
  • Wintering costs (140 days _at_ 1.75) 245
  • Mkt. value winter feed savings 850 to 950
  • Considerations
  • Prices for pairs this spring
  • Quality
  • Tax considerations

83
Warning
  • Consider all alternatives before you pay too much
    for poor-quality large round hay bales or other
    sources of roughage.

84
Long Term Adjustment
  • Store a surplus of hay (carry-over)
  • Consider some warm season grass pasture
  • Select cattle for reproductive efficiency
  • Calving season

85
QUESTIONS?
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