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ENUM Overview ENUM Forum Canada


Senior Manager Strategic Technology Initiatives. NeuStar, Inc. 46000 Center Oak Plaza ... CRISP (aka not port 43)? The IRIS protocol ? IRIS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ENUM Overview ENUM Forum Canada

ENUM OverviewENUM Forum Canada
  • Richard Shockey
  • IETF ENUM WG Co-Chair
  • Senior Manager Strategic Technology Initiatives
  • NeuStar, Inc.
  • 46000 Center Oak Plaza
  • Sterling VA 20166 USA
  • rich.shockey_at_neustar.com 1 571.434.5651
  • siprshockey_at_iptel.org

  • How did we get here?
  • How does it work?
  • Where is it going

What is the IETF ?
  • Internet Engineering Task Force
  • Oversees the standards process for Internet
    protocols and technologies
  • Industry driven standards body
  • No membership whatsoever
  • Personal participation, anyone can participate
  • Work is done using mailing lists
  • Rough consensus and running code (no voting)
  • http//www.ietf.org/overview.html

What is the IETF ?
  • Work is done in Working Groups (i.e. ENUM WG)
  • WG has a charter, statement of activity, schedule
    and milestones and a mailing list
  • WGs can be instantiated and closed (by IESG)
  • Working Groups exist within an Area (currently 8
    areas, i.e. ENUM WG is part of Transport Area)
  • An area is managed by an Area Director
  • Area Directors are members of the IESG (Internet
    Engineering Steering Group)
  • The IESG and IAB (Internet Architecture Board) is
    chartered by the Internet Society

ENUM in a nutshell RFC 2916
  • take phone number

1 571 434 5651
  • turn it into a FQDN
  • ask the DNS
  • return list of URIs

Step 1 Explanation
  • Each digit in the FQDN can become a definable and
    distributed zone in DNS terms
  • Delegation can (biut doesnt have to) happen at
    every digit, including at last digit
  • Zones such as country codes, area codes or
    primary delegated blocks of numbers can be
    delegated as well as individual numbers
  • DNS defines authoritative name servers (NS
    records) for NAPTR/service resource records

The ENUM Delegation Tiers
The Response from the DNS
  • Input
  • Output All NAPTR RR will be returned to resolver
  • In this response the preferred contact method is
  • ord pr fl service
    regexp replacement
  • IN NAPTR 100 10 "u" E2Usip"
    "!.!sip15714345651_at_carrier.net!" .
  • IN NAPTR 100 15 "u" E2UVPIM"
    "!.!vpimserver1.carrier.net!" .
  • IN NAPTR 100 20 "u" E2Ufax"
    "!.!mailtofaxmachine4_at_neustar.biz!" .
  • Based on service requirements defined by the
    enumservice field, translate replacement field
    into URL and execute as required

  • RFC 2916 bis is the update of RFC
  • RFC number due at any moment
  • Main differences are
  • ENUM is now a DDDS application
  • enumservice field has changed
  • enumservices have to be registered with IANA
  • DNS security mentioned
  • Clarifications on text

Why E.164 Numbers for VoIP?
  • Addressing is the most important asset in ANY
    network service!
  • People know how to use Telephone Numbers
  • Telephone numbering system (E.164 is stable
    global and reliable
  • Billions of devices only use numeric key pads,
    especially wireless
  • In the case of Local Number Portability (FCC
    First Order and Report), MCI has stated that,
    based on a nationwide Gallup survey, 83 percent
    of business customers and 80 percent of
    residential customers would be unlikely to change
    service providers if they had to change their
    telephone numbers.
  • ENUM is perhaps the ultimate in number
  • VoIP and new IP Services (Instant Messaging,
    Video) can use Real Telephone Numbers!
  • URIs like sipuser_at_domain have advantages and
  • Biggest problem they cannot be dialed on the PSTN
  • In fact they cannot be dialed at all
  • URIs and telephone numbers will co-exist for the
    indefinite future

ENUM as glue
  • An URI (Address of Record) mapped to E.164 ENUM
    FQDN number allows you
  • Reach any destination IP C/UA directly from IP by
    dialing the full E.164 number as default
  • support for multiple dialing plans possible
    including corporate dial plans in a separate tree
  • see I-D draft-stastny-enum-numbering-voip-00.txt
  • In the future, if ENUM and SS7 can be integrated
    you can reach destinations on IP from the
    PSTN/ISDN as well
  • When does a C5 do a ENUM dip?

ENUM is a DDDS Application
  • Dynamic Delegation Discovery System,RFC 3401
    through RFC 3405
  • RFC 3401 is the base document, but you have to
    read at least RFC 3401 through RFC 3404 to
    understand DDDS
  • RFC 3402 specifies the Algorithm of DDDS
  • RFC 3403 specifies the NAPTR Resource Record

Oh BTW ..Its about SIP
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) protocol
  • It is the Session Initiation Protocol
  • Integration of Voice-Text-Video sessions
  • Inventors M. Handley, H. Schulzrinne, E.
    Schooler, and J. Rosenberg
  • Became Proposed Standard and RFC 2543 in March
    1999 in MMUSIC WG.
  • Separate SIP WG established in September 1999.
  • Now new SIPPING (applications) and SIMPLE
    (presence and instant messaging) WGs using SIP.
  • RFC2543bis-09 I-D became RFC 3261 in June 2002
  • Added four new authors G. Camarillo, A.
    Johnston, J. Peterson, and R. Sparks.
  • Entire spec rewritten for clarity, but some new
  • Mostly backwards compatible with RFC 2543

Simple ENUM/SIP Call Flow SIP RFC 3261
ENUM Global Directory (DNS) Equates
1-202-555-1234 to sipmark_at_carrier.net to enable
Voice over IP using SIP
3. DNS returns NAPTR record containing SIP URL to
Calling Party UA
2. Calling party proxy UAC queries DNS for
location of end point
1. The caller simply dials the persons normal
telephone number
4. Calling party UA connects the call
ENUM and VoIP as a Hot Potato
  • ENUM is tightly linked with numbering
    administrations and therefore within the national
    regulatory framework
  • aka Country Code 1 - NANP
  • Deployment of ENUM is also tightly linked with
    the deployment of VoIP
  • Deployment of ENUM involves NRA's and Registries
    (in Europe primarily the ccTLD's)
  • Who those registries are a national matter
  • Surprise Surprise there are lots of Political
    questions to be answered

How do you use ENUM for?
  • Business with IP PBX or IP Centrex core
  • using geographic and/or numbers for networks
  • linking IP islands together globally via the
  • Residential with my geographic number or mobile
  • secondary line or as primary line (ported out)
  • Network to Network ...the Private ENUM issue.
  • Cable Operators
  • Inter-Intra Enterprise Dial Plan Management
  • Residential and Business ENUM-only number (
    European Focus )
  • IP device can be reached from PSTN and IP
  • calls may be dumped to IP in the originating
    network using IP specific prefixes like 050 in
  • Not possible in NANP due to NPA restrictions (non
    service specific)

Public ENUM Vs Operator ENUM
  • Public ENUM is the administrative policies and
    procedures surrounding the administration of
    e164.arpa as defined in RFC 2916
  • 1 to 1 mapping of E.164 number to URIs
  • Nation State Control
  • Generally speaking Consumer Opt In ( Consumer
    Control of the NAPTR records)
  • Operator (Private) ENUM is the use of DNS
    technology described in RFC 2916 in other
  • A Managed Service
  • Service Provider or Enterprise Controlled
  • Non Visible to the the general Internet user
  • VPNs
  • Access Control to the Data

Global Enterprise VoIP Dial Plan
  • IBM is deploying the biggest VoIP network of any
    major Fortune 500 company
  • IBM can unite global VoIP dialing plans across
    existing VPN and Intranet Links on diverse vendor
  • ENUM unites them through common administration
    and access plan

ENUM Public or Internal
MSO Market Optimal Service Routing
  • MSO can now optimize VoIP call termination
    strategies by routing calls directly from one
    operator to another ENUM acts a element in a
    overall Least Cost Routing Strategy
  • Essentially Friends and Family dialing plans
    among MSOs

ENUM e164mso.net
(Very short) ENUM History
  • 1999 - IETF ENUM WG formed
  • Sept. 2000 IETF ENUM WG RFC2916
  • 2001 Various Workshops (ITU-T, Europe, US,
    Asia, )
  • 2002 ITU-T Interim Procedures (IAB, RIPE-NCC)
    ITU-T generic TLD Investigation
    ETSI TS 102 051 "ENUM Administration in
  • 2003 ETSI TS 102 172 "Minimum Requirements for
    Interoperability of European ENUM
    Trials" IETF various enumservices on
    standards track IETF RFC2916bis WGLC
  • 2004 Planned IETF new ENUM RFC, IANA
    registered enumservices ITU-T final
    decision on ENUM domain ETSI ENUM
    Workshop (Feb 2004) and Plugtest

(Very short) ENUM Trial History
  • 2002 US ENUM Forum Trial Platforms in
    AT, UK, SE, DE, CN, N Austrian ENUM
    Trial in operation (Sept. 2002)
  • 2003 Various national and international ENUM
    Trials using different scenarios and
    numbering resources and using
    different ENUM-enabled products
    National and international demos and
    presentations (IETF, ITU-T, VON,
    ICANN, ) SIP communities start using
    ENUM (FWD, Sipphone, iptel, at43, )
    Pre-commercial deployment starts
  • 2004 ENUM ready for production and deployment
    (at least in some countries)

The IAB ITU Agreements
  • Core Principal Nation-State control of the
    national portions of the e164.arpa tree.
  • RFC3026 Blaine, R. "Liaison to IETF/ISOC on
    ENUM" RFC 3026, January 2001
  • RFC 3245 Klensin, J. Editor "The History and
    Context of Telephone Number Mapping (ENUM)
    Operational Decisions  Informational Documents
    Contributed to ITU-T Study Group 2  (SG2)", RFC
    3245, March 2000
  • Interim Procedures for the delegation of E.164
    Shared Country Codes for Networks and Groups of
    Countries  http//www.itu.int/ITU-T/inr/enum/pr
    ocedures.html http//www.itu.int/ITU-T/inr/enum/p

Large Scale IPC Trial at43
  • Large Scale Trial on IP Communications using ENUM
  • University of Vienna 100.000 Students
  • re-use of existing student account credentials
    via RADIUS
  • iptel.org SIP Express Router as SIP proxy with
    call routing, ENUM processing, PSTN interworking
  • some functions based on Asterisk open-source
  • voice-mail, conference bridge, IVR,
  • PSTN Connection CISCO 5300 PSTN/ISDN Gateway
    with PRA
  • Various Soft- and Hard-phones, WiFi-Phones,
  • IP Connection to other universities, communities
    and "IP-PBX"
  • Applications Crash test for VoIP, Chat, IM,
    Presence, SMS, use of SIM-Cards
  • IP calls free, PSTN-gtIP calls by caller IP-gtPSTN
    with call-by-call accounting
  • Naming, Numbering and Addressing with ENUM
  • Base sipltstudent-idgt_at_sip.univie.ac.at
  • Austrian number for private networks 43 59966
  • global UPT number 87810 2843 nnnnnn
  • NAPTR 100 10 "u" "E2Usip"
    "!\\4359966(.)!sip\\1_at_sip.univie.ac.at!" .

DNS Technology as a replacement for SS7
  • ENUM/DNS and or SIP can provide a more
    sophisticated, less expensive and easier to
    deploy Number Translation Services for service
  • The natural evolution of NextGen telephony
    signaling systems
  • SCP costs 1 Million Dollars PRIs per dip
  • DNS Box 25 K maximum BIND9
  • SS7 signaling is complicated, expensive and
    disruptive in an all IP architecture
  • Number Portability- Geographic number to routing
    number mapping (NP dip)
  • http//search.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-yu-te
  • Its there
  • It works Its global It scales Its open

Public ENUM Status - What about the US?
  • US DOMESTIC POLICY August 13, 2003
  • United States Government reiterates its support
    for RFC 2916 and endorses moving forward with
    ENUM based on the concept of a Industry Managed
  • LLC is forming NOW !
  • Similar to Number Portability Structure
  • http//www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/press/2003/enum_0
  • United States ENUM Forum - Created by industry to
    develop policy and steps to Implement ENUM in the
    United States
  • http//www.enumf.org
  • Participants include WCOM, ATT, Sprint, SBC,
    Verizon, NeuStar, Cox , CW, Cisco, Telcordia

ENUM Global Status 23 Active National Trials
  • UK National Trials Well Underway 2003
  • http//www.ukenumgroup.org/
  • Austrian National ENUM trials have begun with
  • http//www.enum.nic.at
  • Jointly working on 822-10 ITU-UPT code as well
  • http//www.visionng.org
  • Sweden running since Dec 2002..
  • http//enum.autonomica.se/
  • ITU ENUM web pages
  • http//www.itu.int/osg/spu/enum/index.html

ENUM Global Status National Forums
  •  http//etjp.jp/english/
  • Poland
  • http//www.dns.pl/ENUM/
  • Korea
  • http//www.enum.or.kr/
  • The Netherlands, Germany, Brazil, China
  • Approved ENUM Delegation list
  • http//www.ripe.net/enum/request-archives/
  • ETSI Plugfest
  • http//www.etsi.org/plugtests/calendar.htm

Lessons learnt in the ENUM Trials
  • ENUM technology works,
  • Most problems solved, but shift in focus for the
    business models.
  • The original business model of ENUM for
    residential subscribers with opt-in for existing
    numbers has problems
  • Potentially it's only a second line service
  • 911 issues
  • privacy problems with multiple services (e-mail
  • Validation and re-validation of the number holder
  • How to enable Metcalfe's Law?
  • The usefulness, or utility, of a network equals
    the square of the number of users

IETF Work Today
  • Privacy Security
  • Operational Experience
  • servicefield IANA registration
  • SIP
  • H.323
  • Presence
  • FAX T.30 and Internet Fax
  • VPIM
  • web - msg

Privacy and Security issue
  • http//www.shockey.us/enum/draft-ietf-enum-privacy
  • What is ENUM
  • Calling party control
  • Global Directory Service
  • List all available URI for all possible services
  • Called Party control - IMHO the answer
  • Minimal Routing Data Base
  • SIP AOR only
  • Let SIP do the dirty work

Security / Authentication issues
  • What about DNSSEC
  • Its not ready yet. Period.
  • Who can register the TN and why?
  • Punt Its a national issue
  • How do you determine if the ENUM registrant has
    valid rights to the number?
  • Punt Its a national issue

  • Provisioning protocols the ENUM system
  • Tier 1 Tier 2 interactions (SOAP ?)
  • XML object based on PROVREG work ?
  • WHOIS ?
  • Strong technical reasons for wanting a WHOIS like
    service here
  • CRISP (aka not port 43)?
  • The IRIS protocol ?

  • Developed in IETF to provide capability sets
    existing in telecom Intelligent Network
  • Text based protocol designed to allow registries
    of Internet resources
  • to express query and result types specific to
    their needs
  • while providing a framework for authentication,
    structured data, entity references and search
  • Encompasses the following
  • a decentralized system using DNS hierarchies
    where possible for location
  • built upon standard Internet building blocks
  • does not impose any informational trees or
  • may be used with multiple application transports,
    including BEEP

IRIS Features
  • XML based
  • Internationalization
  • Localization of data tags and content
  • Identifying contact equivalences
  • Support of Internationalized Domain Names
  • Unified Service
  • Structured queries and results
  • Distinction
  • Authentication the process used to verify the
    identity of a user
  • Authorization the access policies applied to a
    user based on authentication

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