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SP 215 Small Group Communication Confidence in Groups

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Members who lack confidence are less likely to share what they know or voice their opinion. ... Person B: Uh, maybe so, anyhow, see you later. 51. Transform Climates: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SP 215 Small Group Communication Confidence in Groups


1
SP 215 Small Group Communication Confidence in
Groups
2
Small Group Communication
  • Welcome to class!
  • It is great to have you here! ?

2
3
Small Group Communication
  • Agenda
  • Lecture
  • Sample of group projects
  • Test One Returned ?
  • Work in groups

3
4
Group and Member Confidence
  • Members who lack confidence are less likely to
    share what they know or voice their opinion.
  • Confident members are more effective group
    members.
  • Confident groups are more likely to succeed.

5
Communication Apprehension
  • An individuals level of fear or anxiety
    associated with either real or anticipated
    communication with another person or persons.
  • About 20 percent of the general population
    experiences very high levels of communication
    apprehension.
  • Virginia P. Richmond and James C. McCroskey,
  • Communication Apprehension, Avoidance, and
    Effectiveness, 4th ed.

6
How Confident Are You?
  • Are you comfortable participating in group
    discussions?
  • Do you like to get involved in group discussions?
  • Are you afraid to express yourself at meetings?
  • Are you relaxed when answering questions at a
    meeting?

7
Sources of Communication Apprehension
  • List additional sources
  • Communication patterns in families
  • Negative past experiences
  • _______________________________
  • _______________________________

8
Communication Apprehension in Groups
  • High Apprehensives
  • Avoid group participation
  • Talk less often
  • Simply agree with others
  • Have difficulty focusing on a discussion
  • Make poor impressions on others
  • Low Apprehensives
  • Initiate discussion
  • Speak more often
  • Assert themselves
  • Provide quality input
  • May dominate discussions
  • Make good impression on others

9
Coping with Communication Apprehension
10
Match the Relaxation Techniques
  • __ Substituting positive thoughts for worrisome
    and irrational thoughts about communicating in
    groups
  • __ Imagining yourself succeeding as you
    participate in a successful group
  • __ Learning to stay relaxed as you imagine
    yourself in a variety of group situations,
    beginning with those that are comfortable and
    going on to those that produce more anxiety
  • A. Systematic desensitization
  • B. Cognitive restructuring
  • C. Visualization

11
Provide Constructive Feedback
  • Guidelines for providing constructive
    feedback that enhances member confidence
  • Focus on the behavior (rather than on the
    person).
  • Describe the behavior (rather than judge it).
  • Provide observations (rather than assumptions).
  • Choose an appropriate time and place to
    contribute feedback (rather than ignoring the
    circumstances).
  • Give feedback to help others (rather than to
    meet your own needs.

12
If you are a low apprehensive . . .
  • Be supportive of other group members by
  • providing constructive feedback.
  • _______________________________
  • _______________________________

13
Confidence in Virtual Groups
  • You may be more confident when communicating
    via computer because . . .
  • you control how you present yourself online.
  • you may not have to reveal information about your
    appearance, gender, race, status, or voice.
  • other members may overestimate your qualities and
    abilities based on your online responses.
  • you have more the time to construct suitable
    replies.

14
PowerPoint Quiz
  • Highly apprehensive group members . . .
  • a. are less intelligent than other members.
  • b. are less hard-working than other members.
  • c. are more intelligent and creative than other
    members.
  • d. are more likely to be seen as leaders.
  • e. can successfully participate in group
    discussions.

15
Assertiveness
  • Assertiveness
  • Speaking up and acting in your own best
    interests without denying the rights and
    interests of others

16
Assertive Group Members
  • Appear confident, honest, open, and cooperative
  • Volunteer ideas and opinions
  • Ask and answer questions without fear or
    hostility
  • Stand up for their beliefs, even when others
    disagree
  • Express their feelings openly
  • Respect and defend the rights and opinions of
    other group members

17
Balancing Passivity and Aggression
  • Passivity may characterize group members who lack
    confidence.
  • Reluctant to express opinions and feelings, fear
    criticism, and usually do what they are told
  • Aggressive members act in their own self-interest
    at the expense of others.
  • Critical, insensitive, combative, and even abusive

18
Passive-Aggressive Members
  • Passive-aggressive members mask aggression with
    the appearance of passivity or cooperation
  • They. . .
  • rarely exhibit aggressive behavior
  • have little respect for the rights of others
  • often they get their way by
  • undermining others behind their backs
  • deceiving others about their intentions

19
Assertiveness Skills in Groups
  • Devote significant time to prepare for meetings.
  • Enlist an assertive colleague who will make sure
    youre given time to speak.
  • Express your opinions clearly.
  • Establish and maintain direct eye contact.
  • Assume an assertive body language.
  • Express your feelings as well as thoughts.
  • Speak expressively (volume, pitch, rate).

20
Culture and Assertiveness
  • Assertiveness, in the Western sense of direct
    self-expression, is generally not appropriate in
    other cultures that value less direct
    communication.
  • Many women are uncomfortable expressing
    themselves assertively.
  • Assertive language seems inconsiderate and harsh.
  • As a result, some female members may become a
    muted group.

21
Types of Assertions
  • Basic Assertion
  • Empathetic Assertion
  • Escalating Assertion
  • Three-Part Assertion

22
Basic Assertion
  • Begin with an I want or I feel statement.
    Example I feel uncomfortable about asking Abe
    to take sides in this discussion.
  • Example ___________________________
  • __________________________________
  • __________________________________

23
Empathic Assertion
  • Use a two-part statement (1) acknowledge the
    other persons situation or feelings and (2)
    stand up for your rights. Example I know youve
    really been busy, but I need you to make more
    time for our group project.
  • Example ___________________________________
  • ___________________________________
  • ___________________________________

24
Escalating Assertion
  • Gradually escalate the force of your assertion,
    become increasingly firm, and even mention some
    type of resulting action. Example If we dont
    finish this project by tomorrow, Ill be forced
    to schedule a Saturday meeting.
  • Example _________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________

25
Three-Part Assertion
  • Three-part statement (1) When you do _____
    (describe the behavior), (2) The effects are
    _____ (describe how the behavior affects you),
    (3) Id prefer _____ (describe what you want).
    Example When you failed to get us the report we
    needed, we couldnt complete the project on time.
    Im both hurt and angry. Next time, Id like you
    to do what you say youll do.
  • Example _________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________

26
PowerPoint Quiz
  • What kind of assertive statement is made in
    the following example I appreciate your desire
    for a unanimous vote. At the same time, I
    strongly believe that this decision could
    backfire and cause serious problems in the
    future.
  • Basic assertion
  • Empathic assertion
  • Escalating assertion
  • Three-part assertion

27
Hows the weather?
27
28
Climate
  • Climates are everywhere we turn.
  • People place a lot of stock in knowing the
    weather, why?
  • To know what to expect, of course.

28
29
What is group climate?
  • Group climate refers to the social tone of the
    group relationship.

29
30
What is group climate?
  • A climate does not involve specific activities as
    much as the way people feel about each other as
    they carry out those activities.

30
31
How do communication climates develop?
  • As soon as people start to communicate, a climate
    begins to develop.

31
32
How do communication climates develop?
  • Verbal messages certainly contribute to the tone
    of a relationship, however, many of the
    climate-shaping messages are non verbal
    (smiles, frowns, eye contact, tone of voice, use
    of personal space, facial expressions, etc.).

32
33
Why do some messages create a positive climate
and others a negative one?
  • Climate is determined by the degree to which
    people see themselves as valued.
  • When people feel valued, its usually because
    they are receiving confirming messages.

33
34
Whats a confirming message?
  • A confirming message is one in which the group
    members acknowledges important parts of each
    others presenting self.
  • Confirming messages are validating the other
    people in the group youre saying they exist.

34
35
Confirming messages occur on three increasingly
positive levels.
  • 1. Recognition The most fundamental act of
    confirmation is to recognize the other person.
    This gives a person validation.

35
36
Confirming messages occur on three increasingly
positive levels.
  • 2. Acknowledgement Acknowledging the ideas and
    feelings of others is a stronger form of
    confirmation than recognition.

36
37
Confirming messages occur on three increasingly
positive levels.
  • 3. Endorsement Where as acknowledgement means
    you are interested in the other, endorsement
    means that you agree with them.

37
38
  • We cannot always agree with everything someone
    has said therefore, we may send a disagreeing
    message.

38
39
Disagreeing Message and a Disconfirming Message
  • A disagreeing message says, I acknowledge you
    but do not agree with you.
  • A disconfirming message says, You dont exist
    and/or we dont react.

39
40
There are three types of disagreement
  • 1. Argumentativeness has been defined by
    scholars as presenting and defending positions on
    issues while attacking positions taken by others.
  • Note Attack the issues, not the people this
    maintains a positive climate.

40
41
There are three types of disagreement
  • 2. Complaining When people arent prepared to
    argue, but still want to register
    dissatisfaction, they tend to complain. Studies
    have shown there are positive and negative
    complaints.

41
42
There are three types of disagreement
  • 3. Aggressiveness The most destructive way to
    disagree with another person is through
    aggressiveness.
  • Verbal aggressiveness is the tendency to attack
    the self-concepts of other people in order to
    inflict psychological pain.
  • Aggressiveness demeans the worth of others like
    name calling, put downs, sarcasm, taunting and
    yelling.

42
43
Disconfirming Messages
  • Remember a disconfirming message says, You dont
    exist!
  • Group members send disconfirming messages in
    seven (7) different ways

43
44
Disconfirming Messages
  • 1. Impervious Response Ever have someone call
    you and you didnt return the call?

44
45
Disconfirming Messages
  • 2. Interrupting Response occurs when one
    person begins speaking before the other person is
    through making a point.

45
46
Disconfirming Messages
  • 3. Irrelevant Response is making a comment
    totally unrelated to what the other person was
    just saying.

46
47
Disconfirming Messages
  • 4. Tangential Response shifts or steers the
    conversation in a new direction.

47
48
Disconfirming Messages
  • 5. Impersonal response Pseudo responses.
    Conversation filled with impersonal,
    intellectualized, and generalized statements.

48
49
Disconfirming Messages
  • 6. Incongruous Response contains two messages
    that tend to deny or contradict each other.
  • One verbal (denotative) and the other non-verbal
    (connotative).
  • He Darling, I love you!
  • She I love you too. (giggles)

49
50
Disconfirming Messages
  • 7. Ambiguous Response contains a message with
    more than one meaning. Highly abstract.
  • Person A Id like to get together with you soon.
    How about Tuesday?
  • Person B Uh, maybe so, anyhow, see you later.

50
51
Transform Climates
  • 1. Seek more information Understand the message
    being sent before you respond.

51
52
Transform Climates
  • 2. Ask for specifics If someone yells, Youre
    being unfair, Dont say, No Im not! Instead
    ask, What do I do thats unfair?

52
53
Transform Climates
  • 3. Guess about specifics It seems to
    contradict 2 but sometimes questions about
    specifics will not be met with success. Go
    Hunting. For example, So whats bothering you,
    is it.. or.?

53
54
Transform Climates
  • 4. Paraphrase the speakers ideas or feelings.

54
55
Transform Climates
  • 5. Ask what the other group member wants.

55
56
Transform Climates
  • 6. Ask what else is wrong.

56
57
Transform Climates
  • 7. Agree with the truth.

57
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