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Learning and Memory


positive reinforcement (reward) E.g.: Women wearing a perfume receives a complement ... people watch the actions of others and note the reinforcements they receive for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning and Memory

  • Learning and Memory

  • Learning refers to a relatively permanent change
    in behaviour that is caused by experience. Its
    an ongoing process.
  • Vicarious learning-social learning consequences
  • Incidental learning
  • Behaviour learning theories assume that learning
    takes place as a result of responses to external
  • Classical conditioning
  • Instrumental conditioning
  • fig.3.1.

Ana Oliveira
Classical Conditioning
  • It occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response
    is paired with another stimulus that initially
    does not elicit a response on its own.
  • Over time this second stimulus causes a similar
    response because it is associated with the first
  • . Ivan Pavlovs dog experiments.-Drooling
  • A bell (neutral stimulus) conditioned responseCS
  • dried meat powder - Unconditioned stimulus UCS
  • Nervous and automatic system repetition.
  • Stimulus generalization sound similar to a
  • Stimulus discrimination dont buy imitations
  • Ana Oliveira

Instrumental/Operant Conditioning
  • It occurs as the individual learns to perform
    behaviours that produce positive outcomes and to
    avoid those that yield negative outcomes.
  • Responses are made deliberately to obtain a goal.
  • Desired behaviour may be rewarded in a process
    called Shaping
  • Frequency marketing. E.g. B.P cards.

Ana Oliveira
Instrumental/Operant Conditioning
  • Instrumental Conditioning occurs in one of three
  • positive reinforcement (reward) E.g. Women
    wearing a perfume receives a complement
  • Extinction( the learned stimulus-response
    connection will not be maintained).
  • negative reinforcement E.g. women alone on a
    Saturday night because she did not use the
  • punishment (not to repeat ) E.g. Being
    ridiculed by friends for wearing a not good

Ana Oliveira
Cognitive Learning Theory
  • Importance of internal mental processes
    (different from behavioural).
  • People are problem-solvers who actively use
    information from the world around them to master
    their environment.
  • Is learning conscious or not?
  • School 1) Conditioning occurs because subjects
    develop conscious hypotheses and then act on
  • School 2) We move toward familiar patterns.
    Automatic responses.

Ana Oliveira
Observational Learning
  • Occurs when people watch the actions of others
    and note the reinforcements they receive for
    their behaviours-learning occurs as a result of
    vicarious rather than direct experience.
  • Memories are stored for later use.
  • Imitating the behaviour of others is called
  • Consumers attention must be directed to the
    appropriate model, who for reasons of
    attractiveness, competence, status, or similarity
    is desirable to emulate.
  • Consumer must remember what is said or done by
    the model
  • Consumer must convert this information into
  • Consumers must be motivated to perform these
  • Fig 3.3
  • E.g. M.Jackson H.Ford Cindy C. Claudia S.

Ana Oliveira
The Memory process-fig3.4
  • External Encoding information
    Storage information is
  • Inputs is placed in memory.
    retained in memory
  • -programming
  • Retrieval Information stored in
    memory is found as needed.

Ana Oliveira
Relationship among memory systems-fig 3.5
  • Sensory memory Short-term memory
    Long-term memory
  • Temporary storage Brief storage
    of informa Relatively permanent
  • of sensory information. tion currently
    being used storage of information
  • Capacity High Capacity
    Limited Capacity Unlimited
  • Duration Less than Duration
    Less than 20 Duration Long or
  • 1 second or a few seconds
  • seconds (hearing)

Elaborative rehearsal Information subjected to
elaborative rehearsal or deep processing (e.g.
its meaning is considered) is transferred to
long-term memory.
Attention Information that passes through an
attention gate is transferred to short-term
  • The forgetting process
  • Decay the structural changes in the brain
    produced by learning simply go away.
  • Forgetting also occurs due to Interference as
    additional information is learned, it displaces
    the earlier information. E.g. Ads in the same
    product category.
  • Products as Memory Markers
  • Nostalgia. E.g. Beetle. J.R.Ewing / Lukoil ads
  • Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli
  • The impression made is called Impact.
  • Recognition tends to stay longer than Recall.

Ana Oliveira
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