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General English Mahmoud Alimohammadi Hassan Khalili

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Title: General English Mahmoud Alimohammadi Hassan Khalili


1
  • ????? ???? ???? 3
  • ???? ???? ??????? ?????
  • ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????
  • ???? ????? ?????? ????? ????????

2
  • This volume is designed on the basis of the
    demands of university students for reading
    English textbooks in their relevant fields of
    study.

3
  • The reading selections not only acquaint you with
    a variety of reading skills but also improve your
    study skills.

4
  • The purpose of the book is to enhance your
    reading comprehension ability by increasing your
    vocabulary, improving your reading comprehension,

5
  • and knowledge of grammatical points, and by
    helping you learn the skills involved in using
    context clues.

6
  • The general aim and behavioral objectives are
    listed at the beginning of each unit to draw your
    attention to the main points and activities on
    which you are expected to concentrate.

7
  •   Study Guide
  • In each unit of this book, there is a reading
    passage which functions as the core around which
    the unit is structured.

8
  • The material within the passage is used for
    contextualizing the vocabulary and designing the
    various exercises and activities that improve
    reading comprehension.

9
  • Word Definitions and Exemplifications
  • The key words of the passage presented in each
    unit are defined and exemplified.

10
  • Reading Passage
  • Each unit comprises a reading selection which
    functions as its main part. The exercises
    preceding and following the passage are somehow
    related to it.

11
  • Word Formation Exercises -3 and -4
  • These exercises familiarize you with prefixes and
    suffixes

12
  • Word Formation Chart
  • This chart is presented in each unit and includes
    different forms of the words in the reading
    passage.

13
  • Comprehension Exercises -6, -7, -8, and 9
  • The exercises will help you find the references
    of some of the pronouns in the passage, improve
    your ability in guessing the meaning of idioms
    and words from the context,

14
  • and check your reading comprehension through
    True-False and Multiple Choice questions.

15
  • Structure Review
  • The dominant or complex structural patterns of
    each unit are briefly discussed in this part.

16
  • Appendix I Answer Key
  • You can find the answers to all questions of each
    unit in this part.

17
  • Appendix II Index of Prefixes, Roots and
    Suffixes
  • The list of common prefixes, roots and suffixes
    as well as the comprehensive lists of English
    prefixes and suffixes are presented in this part.

18
  • Appendix III Word List
  • The English-Persian Word List includes all the
    important words and phrases used in the book.

19
  • Unit 1
  • Word Elements Prefixes, Roots and Suffixes
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension

20
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to
  • 1.      Define the meaning of the words presented
    at the beginning of this unit, and do Exercises
    1-1 and 1-2.

21
  •  
  • 2.  Do Word Formation Exercises 1-3 and 1-4.
  • 3.  Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 1-5.
  • 4.   Do Comprehension Exercises 1-6, 1-7, 1-8
    and 1-9.
  • 5. Do Structure Review Exercise 1-10.

22
  • Unit 1 Summay
  • Word Elements Prefixes, Roots and Suffixes
  • There are three kinds of word elements prefixes,
    roots, and suffixes
  • A prefix is a group of letters that attaches to
    the beginning of a word root.

23
  • A root is the central, or main portion of a word.
  • A suffix is a group of letters that attaches to
    the end of a word root.

24
  • Example impolitely
  • im- is the prefix,
  • polite is the root,
  • im- means not.
  • impolite means not polite.
  • and ly is the suffix.

25
  • co- (together) exist coexist (to exist
    together)
  • co- (together) operate cooperate (to work or
    operate together)

26
  • Types of roots base words and combining roots
  • A base word is simply an English word that can
    stand alone, such as polite or operate, and may
    be joined to a prefix or a suffix.

27
  • Combining roots cannot stand alone as English
    words they are derived from words in other
    languages.
  • Example ject is derived from the Latin word
    jacere, which means to throw.

28
  • Ject combines with many prefixes to form new
    words.
  • Examples reject and eject
  • e- (out) ject (throw) eject
  • re- (back) ject ( throw) reject

29
  • Prefixes and roots often give an image of a word
    rather than a precise definition.
  • This image can help you to remember the meaning
    of a word.

30
  • Most suffixes change a word from one part of
    speech to another.
  • Example
  • Impolite is an adjective but impolitely is an
    adverb.

31
  • Suffixes may also indicate a plural or a past
    tense
  • Examples boys, reached
  • A few suffixes extend the basic meaning of a
    word root.

32
  • Example
  • The root, psych (mind), and the suffix logy
    (study of) are joined to form psychology (the
    study of the mind).

33
  • Using Word Elements
  • Word elements provide valuable clues to the
    meanings of unknown words, but they must be used
    carefully.

34
  • Some word elements have more than one spelling.
  • Example the root ject is occasionally spelled
    jac.
  • The prefix anti- is also spelled ant- (as in
    antacid and antagonist).

35
  • Some word elements have more than one meaning.
  • Example, the combining root gen can mean both
    birth and type( as in generate or generic)

36
  • If you combine your knowledge of word elements
    with context clues, you can usually determine the
    most appropriate meaning.

37
  • Finally, when you see a certain combination of
    letters in a word, those letters may not always
    form a word element.
  • 1.      The antihero is a villain.
  • 2.      We anticipate you will come.

38
  • The use of word elements is an excellent way to
    increase your vocabulary.
  • Prefixes, roots, and suffixes can help you unlock
    the meanings of thousands of difficult words.

39
  • Structure Review
  • Look at these sentences
  • a.       A prefix is a group of letters. The
    group of letters attaches to the beginning of a
    word root.
  •  
  • b.      A prefix is a group of letters that
    attaches to the beginning of a word root.

40
  • You can combine the two sentences in a to form
    a new sentence like b by an adjective clause.

41
  • In b, that attaches to the beginning of a word
    root is an adjective clause used as an
    adjective, because it describes the noun phrase
    a group of letters.

42
  • Unit 2Word Power and a
    World Power
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension

43
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to
  • 1.      Define the meaning of the words
    presented at the beginning of this unit, and do
    Exercises 2-1 and 2-2.

44
  •     
  • 2.      Do Word Formation Exercises 2-3 and 2-4.
  • 3.      Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 2-5.
  • 4.      Do Comprehension Exercises 2-6, 2-7, 2-8
    and 2-9.
  • 5.      Do Structure Review Exercise 2-10.
  •  

45
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Word Power and a World Power 
  • English is the worlds most important language
    today.
  • English is the most frequently taught second
    language in the world.

46
  • It is spoken over a vast area North America,
    Europe, Asia, Africa, and elsewhere.
  • It is the official language of many nations.

47
  • English has an enormous vocabulary.
  • Websters Third New International Dictionary
    contains 460,000
  • No other language comes close to English in a
    count of general vocabulary.

48
  • Size of vocabulary
  • German dictionary under 200,000 words.
  • French dictionary about 150,000 words,
  • Russian dictionary maybe 130,000.

49
  • Advantages of enormous vocabulary
  • A language can make the process easier or harder
    by providing or not providing appropriate words.

50
  • English speakers have a head start over speakers
    of other languages in being able to express
    themselves clearly and concisely.

51
  • speakers with a good command of vocabulary can
    say things in more subtly different ways than
    others can.
  • The expressive power of language is enormous.

52
  • Disadvantages of enormous vocabulary
  • We have to use a dictionary frequently to look up
    the words we dont know.

53
  • The ever increaing richness of English places a
    burden on us when we first learn words and their
    meanings.

54
  • English is extraordinarily well endowed with
    words.
  • It is a versatile language.
  • The supply of words is ever on the rise.

55
  • Structure Review
  • Look at these sentences
  • a.    English is the tongue of people.
  • b.   English is the mother tongue of several
    hundred million people.

56
  • c.  English is a language.
  • d. English is the most frequently taught second
    language.

57
  • a and c are simple sentences that lack color,
    interest and detail.
  • b and d are expanded with modifiers and give
    more specific information.

58
  • In b, the noun people is modified by three
    adjectives several, hundred and million.
  • In d, the noun language is modified by the
    most frequently taught second.

59
  • In this phrase, frequently is an adverb which
    modifies the participle taught which, in turn,
    is used as a modifier to modify the noun
    language.

60
  • Nouns may also be used to modify other nouns. In
    b, mother modifies tongue.

61
  • In brief, nouns may be modified by adjectives,
    other nouns and participles (the -ed, -en and
    -ing forms of verbs).
  • Adjectives also may be modified by adverbs.

62
  • Unit 3
  • Why and How Do We Read? (1)
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension.

63
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to
  • 1.      Define the meaning of the words
    presented at the beginning of this unit, and do
    Exercises 3-1 and 3-2.

64
  •        
  • 2.      Do Word Formation Exercises 3-3 and 3-4.
  • 3.      Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 3-5.
  • 4.      Do Comprehension Exercises 3-6, 3-7, 3-8
    and 3-9.
  • 5. Do Structure Review Exercise 3-10

65
Unit 3 Summary Why and How Do We Read? (1)
  • Reading for pleasure
  • Some people pursue leisure reading seriously to
    improve themselves, to widen their knowledge or
    skills.

66
  • Example
  • People buy daily newspapers, magazines and
    journals to keep themselves informed and
    up-to-date on topical issues.

67
  • We also indulge in leisure reading for the sheer
    pleasure of reading or for relaxation.
  • In this case our reading habits are sporadic

68
  • Reading for study
  • When we read for study, we read because we have
    to read.
  • In this case we know that our understanding of
    the message will be tested.

69
  • We therefore set aside time for it.
  • We prepare ourselves physically, mentally and
    emotionally for it
  • and we create an environment around ourselves
    that is conducive to reading.

70
  • Reading for gist
  • We read the whole text but only to gain a general
    idea of it.
  • You can only follow a presentation in a seminar
    if you already know the gist of the paper.

71
  • Reading for specific information
  • When we are looking for specific information in a
    book, a chapter or a passage, it saves time to
    skim over those sections, chapters or paragraphs
    that are not relevant.

72
  • Reading for close understanding
  • Your intention is to learn as much as you can
    about either a subject or a topic.

73
  • Reading for a close understanding can come about
    as a result of study assignments, after-lecture
    reading or studying for examinations.

74
  • Therefore, we have to read and understand any
    material that has been touched on by the tutor.

75
  • Structure Review
  • Look at these sentences
  • 1.a. We read. 
  • b.  We read because we enjoy reading.
  • 2.a. We read.
  • b. We read when we have the time during a
  • lunch break

76
  • 3.a. It does not matter.
  • b. It does not matter if we understand the
    whole passage.
  • An adverb clause is used as an adverb to modify
    a verb.

77
  • An adverb clause may begin with because, when,
    before, whether, unless, etc.
  • There are some adverb clauses that indicate
    contrast.
  • Such clauses begin with although, while and soon.
  •  

78
  • Examples 1a, 2a and 3a are simple
    sentences.
  • In 1b, because we enjoy reading is an adverb
    clause that answers the question why about the
    verb read.

79
  • In 2b, the adverb clause is when we have the
    time during a lunch break. This clause specifies
    the time of the verb read.

80
  • In 3b, if we understand the whole passage is
    an adverb clause that refers to the condition of
    the verb matter.

81
  • There are other forms of adverb clauses that are
    classified on the basis of the type of
    relationship they express.

82
  • Remember that you can put an adverb clause in
    front of, within, or after the independent
    clause.

83
  • Unit 4Why and How Do We Read? (2)
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension.

84
  • Behavorial Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to 
  • 1. Define the meaning of the words presented at
    the beginning of this unit, and do Exercises 4-1
    and 4-2.
  • 2. Do Word Formation Exercises 4-3 and 4-4.

85
  •    
  • 3.   Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 4-5.
  • 4.      Do Comprehension Exercises 4-6, 4-7, 4-8
    and 4-9.
  • 5. Do Structure Review Exercise 4-10.

86
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Why and How Do We Read? (2)
  • Inferring
  • This sounds rather like guessing what the text
    says but the reason we can do it is that we can
    base our guesses on good information from
    elsewhere in the text.

87
  • Rather than use guessing to describe what we are
    doing when we read, we say we are inferring.

88
  • To infer is to reach an opinion either from facts
    or through reasoning.
  • Somebody can say something that you, by
    inference or deduction, can interpret.

89
  • When reading, you can infer meanings from context
    even when you do not know the meaning of some of
    the words.
  • This is determined by the surrounding words and
    general context.

90
  • Inferring the meaning of unknown words
  • We can infer the meaning of a word from the
    context within which it is used.

91
  • The meaning of a word is determined by a set of
    circumstances that surround it and differentiate
    its meaning from any other word.

92
  • Example
  • For example, look at the following two
    sentences
  •  
  • 1. He affects an air of superiority.
  • 2. Loud noise affects our concentration

93
  • In the first sentence, affects means puts on
    because of the context of superiority.
  • In the second sentence, affects means interferes
    with because of the context of the word
    concentration.

94
  • Predicting messages
  • From what we already know of a texts content and
    meaning we can predict more about what the writer
    will go on to say.

95
  • To predict is to guess what is going to happen or
    what the writer is going to say.
  • In our reading we can predict what the writer is
    going to say because

96
  • We are familiar, through past experience, with
    the ideas being expressed
  • b. the writer has used words and phrases whose
    uses we are familiar with.

97
  • Example
  • Prevention is better than ?????(cure).
  • Predicting a message depends both on our
    familiarity with the language and on our prior
    knowledge of the topic.

98
  • Skipping
  • As we read we skip many words, yet we still
    understand the message.
  • This is particularly so when we are reading for
    pleasure.

99
  • Take for example, the following sentence
  • When one area becomes inhospitable, the birds
    migrate to more propitious environments.

100
  • If you only know inhospitable, birds and migrate,
    then you can guess from the context that
    propitious describes a situation opposite to
    inhospitable or hospitable.

101
  • In reading you can save yourself time by skipping
    less important words and still get the message.

102
  • However, do not skip the key unfamiliar words.
  • If this happens, then you should use a
    dictionary.

103
  • Structure Review
  • Look at these sentences
  • Simple Present
  • Mary uses a dictionary. (Active Voice)
  • A dictionary is used (by Mary). (Passive Voice)

104
  • Simple Past
  • Mary used a dictionary. (Active Voice) 
  • A dictionary was used (by Mary). (Passive Voice)

105
  • Present Continuous
  • Mary is using a dictionary. (Active Voice)
  • A dictionary is being used (by Mary). (Passive
    Voice)

106
  • Mary was using a dictionary. (Active Voice)
  • A dictionary was being used (by Mary). (Passive
    Voice)

107
  • Future
  • Mary will use a dictionary. (Active Voice)
  • A dictionary will be used (by Mary). (Passive
    Voice)

108
  • Present Perfect
  • Mary has used a dictionary. (Active Voice)
  • A dictionary has been used (by Mary). (Passive
    Voice)

109
  • Past Perfect
  • Mary had used a dictionary. (Active Voice)
  •  
  • A dictionary had been used (by Mary). (Passive
    Voice)

110
  • Present Infinitive
  • Mary has to use a dictionary. (Active Voice)
  • A dictionary has to be used (by Mary). (Passive
    Voice)

111
  • In an active voice sentence, the doer of the
    action (verb) is emphasized.
  • But in a passive voice sentence, the action
    (verb) is emphasized.

112
  • The passive is formed in one of the following
    ways
  • be past participle
  • auxiliary be past participle
  •  

113
  • Notice that the form of be for the continuous
    tenses is being
  • for the future tenses and for the present
    infinitive, be
  • and for the perfect tenses, been.

114
  • The subject of a passive sentence is actually the
    object of its counterpart active sentence.

115
  • The actual subject of an active sentence is
    placed after the verb in by phrase, or is
    omitted from the sentence.

116
  • Passive sentences are used when the doer of the
    action is
  • obvious,
  • unknown,
  • unimportant or
  • less important than the action (verb).

117
  • Remember that passive sentences often sound
    impersonal and objective, and are frequently used
    in textbooks.

118
  • Unit 5
  • Using the Dictionary
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension

119
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to
  • 1.      Define the meaning of the words
    presented at the beginning of this unit, and do
    Exercises 5-1 and 5-2.
  • 2.      Do Word Formation Exercises 5-3 and 5-4.

120
  •    
  • 3.   Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 5-5.
  • 4. Do Comprehension Exercises 5-6, 5-7, 5-8 and
    5-9.
  • 5. Do Structure Review Exercise 5-10.

121
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Using the Dictionary
  • There are many different types of dictionaries.
  • The smallest is the pocket or abridged
    dictionary, usually a paperback, which gives
    short definitions.

122
  • The most complete kind is the unabridged
    dictionary.
  • Between these two sizes is the college-level
    dictionary, which includes enough detail for most
    college students.

123
  • Learning to use this important tool takes
    practice.

124
  • A skillful dictionary user can find not only the
    meaning of a word but also its pronunciation, its
    history, and other words related to it.

125
  • A standard dictionary entry contains the
    following parts
  • 1.      The word
  • The entry word is printed in boldface type and
    divided into syllables.
  •  

126
  • 2. The pronunciation
  • A key at the bottom of each page of a dictionary
    shows you how to interpret the pronunciation
    symbols.

127
  • This key gives a common word that contains the
    sound represented by that symbol

128
  • For example, the symbol a (which represents the
    first sound in amicable) should be spoken like
    the sound of a in the word pat.

129
  • An accent mark (?) follows the syllable that
    should be stressed when you pronounce a word.
  • In amicable, only the first syllable is
    stressed.

130
  • If two syllables have accent marks, the syllable
    with the darker accent mark receives more stress.

131
  •  
  • 3.      The part of speech
  • The parts of speech you will most often encounter
    are commonly abbreviated as follows
  • n. ? noun tr. v. ? transitive verb
  • adj. ? adjective intr. v. ? intransitive verb
  • adv. ? adverb

132
  • 4. The definition
  • Choosing the best definition is often a very
    difficult task.
  • Be sure to read all of the definitions before you
    select one.

133
  • Ordering definitions.
  • In the American Heritage Dictionary, Third
    College Edition, the most general definition of a
    word is given first, and the least general is
    given last.

134
  • In Websters Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary,
    the oldest definition of a word appears first,
    and the newest definition last.

135
  • In the Random House College Dictionary,
    definitions are ordered from the most commonly
    used to the least commonly used.

136
  • Dictionary definitions usually state only the
    precise, or denotative, meanings of words.
  • But words also have implied, or connotative,
    meanings.

137
  • Example
  • Skinny and slender have the same denotative
    meaning, thin.
  • But they differ in connotative meaning.

138
  • Skinny has negative associations, or
    connotations, and is an uncomplimentary word
  • slender has positive connotations and is a
    complimentary word.

139
  • Dictionaries give some hints about connotative
    meanings.
  • 5.      The etymology
  • In this section, the history of a word is traced
    to its origin.
  • The word amicable comes to us in its present form
    from Middle English.

140
  • Before this, the word appeared in Late Latin as
    amicabilis, which can be followed back still
    further to the Latin word amicus, meaning
    friend.

141
  • 6.      Related words
  • Related words usually differ from the entry word
    because they contain suffixes, or word endings.

142
  • For instance, under the main entry amicable (an
    adjective), two nouns (amicability, amicableness)
    and an adverb (amicably) are also listed.

143
  • Structure Review
  • Look at these sentences
  • 1.a. The word contains the sound that is
    represented

  • Adjective Clause
  • by the symbol.
  • b. The word contains the sound represented by
    the

  • Reduced Phrase
  • symbol.

144
  • 2.a. These are the parts of speech that you

  • Adjective Clause
  • will encounter.
  • b. These are the parts of speech you will
    encounter.

145
  • In sentence 1a., the relative pronoun that is
    the subject of the adjective clause.
  • In sentence 1b, the full adjective clause is
    reduced to a phrase.
  • In 1b, that and is are omitted.

146
  • In sentence 2a, the relative pronoun that is
    used as the direct object of the adjective
    clause.
  • However, in sentence 2b, that has been left
    out.
  •  

147
  • Remember that you can reduce such adjective
    clauses without changing their meanings.

148
  • Unit 6Using Reference Books and Libraries
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension.

149
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to
  •  
  • 1.      Define the meaning of the words
    presented at the beginning of this unit, and do
    Exercises 6-1 and 6-2.
  • 2.      Do Word Formation Exercises 6-3 and 6-4.

150
  •      
  • 3. Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 6-5.
  • 4.  Do Comprehension Exercises 6-6, 6-7, 6-8 and
    6-9.
  • 5.  Do Structure Review Exercise 6-10.

151
  • Unit 6 Summary
  • Using Reference Books and Libraries
  • Using your dictionary
  • If you do not know the meaning of a key word or
    content word and cannot guess it from the context
    within which it is used, it would be a very grave
    mistake to skip it.

152
  • Most dictionaries give
  • the word,
  • its meaning or
    meanings,
  • spelling and
    pronunciation.

153
  • Some words have more than one meaning and it is
    important to know exactly what meaning you are
    looking for.

154
  • Example
  • voice described as
  • the sound, made in the throat, that humans use
    for speaking and singing,
  • the quality or power of this a good singing
    voice a quiet voice

155
  • All entries in dictionaries are arranged
    alphabetically or according to their spelling.

156
  • You should equip yourself with a dictionary which
    will give you most of the words that you require
    and a variety of definitions for each word.

157
  • Rogets Thesaurus brings together words with
    similar meanings through a classification under
    the same heading.
  • Suppose we wanted one word for lessening pain.

158
  • If we turn to the section dealing with pain we
    might find the word we want.
  • Rogets Thesaurus gives only a variety of words
    in the same semantic field.

159
  • Selecting reading for pleasure
  • For leisure reading we select subjects or topics
    that interest us.

160
  • Language level and suitability
  • In selecting our reading materials we should
    choose those whose language level is at or
    slightly higher than our own level of competence.

161
  • Reading materials for study
  • When you enroll for a course you are given a
    Reading List.
  • This is graded into essential reading,
    recommended reading and optional reading.

162
  • All institutions of learning, from primary
    schools to post secondary institutions, should
    have a library.
  • In educational institutions the libraries are
    both lending and reference.

163
  • Books in a library are catalogued both by subject
    and by author.
  • Each title is written out on a card that includes
    title, author, publisher, date of publication and
    catalogue number.

164
  • From the card you will obtain the authors name,
    the title of the book you want and the catalogue
    number.

165
  • If you know the subject and the author of the
    book then you look in the author catalogue under
    the relevant subject section and obtain the
    catalogue number and hence the book.

166
  • The most important information you need when you
    go to the library is the catalogue number of the
    book that you require.

167
  • Structure Review
  • Look at these sentences
  • 1. a. If we know one word but think that there
    is a better one still, we can look it up and will
    find a whole set of associated words.

168
  • b. If you want the meaning of a word, you have
    to turn to a dictionary.

169
  •  
  • c. If, however, after borrowing the book you find
    the language level much higher than your
    expectations, you will not enjoy reading it.

170
  • 1. If we were to look up a new word, we would
    find some definitions for it.

171
  • In sentences 1a, b, and c there is a real
    possibility.
  • So we say If we know ., we will (can,
    may, must, have to, ought to, ) find .

172
  • In sentence 2, we are imagining the situation.
  • So we say If we were .., we would .. .

173
  • When we imagine a situation,
  • we use if past (if I were / If I knew / If he
    didnt, etc.).
  • In this case the meaning is present, not past.

174
  • Some other examples are as follows
  • John would read more if he had more time. (But he
    doesnt have much time.)
  • We wouldnt have any money if we didnt work.
    (But we work.)

175
  • Unit 7
  • Learning
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension.

176
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to 
  • 1.      Define the meaning of the words
    presented at the beginning of this unit, and do
    Exercises 7-1 and 7-2.
  • 2.      Do Word Formation Exercises 7-3 and 7-4.

177
  • 3.  Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 7-5.
  • 4.  Do Comprehension Exercises 7-6, 7-7, 7-8 and
    7-9.
  • 5.  Do Structure Review Exercise 7-10.

178
  • Unit 7 summary
  • Learning
  • Thinking about learning
  • Learning is time-consuming, needing proper
    experience through extensive reading, practice,
    and discussion with others.

179
  • cultivate interest in your studies through
    learning to deal fully with the new experiences
    as you gain deeper insights into your various
    subjects.

180
  • Learning and retaining
  • Whatever is learned has to be stored or retained
    in your mind until it is required or its
    recollection is triggered by a similar
    experience.

181
  • Learning, retaining and remembering form a
    continuum in the process of studying.

182
  • Revising and thinking
  • Thinking is aimed at finding new information and
    solving new problems.
  • Improving your powers of thinking can be done
    through practice,

183
  • through wider reading, and skilful ordering of
    the information learned, and linking past
    knowledge to new situations.

184
  • Evidence of your having understood takes for
    granted that you can retain the information long
    enough to recall it should occasion, such as an
    examination, demand.

185
  • Ways to maximize learning
  • Identification of study material
  • Unless you are sure of what you are required
    to learn you are likely to waste time learning
    unnecessary material.

186
  • In learning and studying you aim at acquiring
    specific knowledge or skill for a specific
    purpose (e.g. to pass an examination)

187
  • In the case of learning for a specific purpose it
    is important therefore, to know precisely what
    you are required to know.

188
  • Motivation
  • Motivation to learn is important.
  • You have to be prepared to make an effort to
    learn what is assigned.

189
  • Examinations usually provide strong motivation to
    learn the assigned material, keeping in mind its
    importance and relevance to your college or
    university career.

190
  • Study intervals
  • The effectiveness of your studying is governed by
    your concentration span.
  • This refers to the period of time you can
    concentrate on a problem or study before the mind
    begins to wander.

191
  • Study in short intensive spurts, taking breaks in
    between to enable your mind to rest and reinforce
    itself for the next spurt.

192
  • Many short periods of intensive learning are
    better than one long period.
  • Learn the material over and over again in quick
    successive repetitions.

193
  • Go over it constantly in order to allow your
    learning process to strengthen the impression
    made of the material on your mind.

194
  • This enables your mind to retain and recall what
    you have learned for long periods afterwards.

195
  • With practice you gain confidence and experience
    in handling the material to be learned.
  • Recite the study materials without referring to
    it while you are summarizing the material to be
    learned.

196
  • New material will disrupt old facts.
  • Trying to learn two different items at the same
    time can result in confusion.
  • Try to learn one fully, then differentiate the
    first from the second.

197
  • Cover all the syllabus
  • Study thoroughly all the required examination
    material.
  • Be sure from the very beginning why you are
    studying the material to enable your memory to
    program itself.

198
  • There is little positive result in having a
    negative view of material you do not like and yet
    the examination syllabus demands that it be
    studied.

199
  • Use accurate sources
  • Avoid sources of errors in learning by
    programming your memory to be as observant,
    objective, thorough and accurate as possible.

200
  • In this case it helps to pick up as much
    information as you can on your required
    examination reading.

201
  • and gradually eliminate material that appears
    inaccurate in view of standard or acceptable
    sources.

202
  • Structure Review
  • Look at the following sentences
  • 1.  Learning is time-consuming.
  •  
  • 2. Thinking is aimed at finding new information
    and solving new problems.
  •  

203
  • 3. Trying to learn two different items at the
    same time can result in confusion.
  •  
  • 4. Improving your powers of thinking can be done
    through practice.

204
  • A gerund is a noun that is derived from a verb.
  • A verb can be turned into a gerund by adding
    (-ing) to its simple form.

205
  • In sentences 1 and 2, the words learning and
    thinking are gerunds.
  • Gerunds function as nouns in sentences.
  • A gerund may take an object, a complement, and
    other modifiers

206
  • In sentences 3 and 4, trying to learn two
    different items at the same time and improving
    your powers of thinking are gerund phrases.

207
  • Unit 8
  • Remembering What YouHave Learned
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension.

208
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to
  • 1. Define the meaning of the words presented at
    the beginning of this unit, and do Exercises 8-1
    and 8-2.
  • 2. Do Word Formation Exercises 8-3 and 8-4.

209
  • 3 . Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 8-5.
  • 4.. Do Comprehension Exercises 8-6, 8-7, 8-8 and
    8-9.
  • 5.  Do Structure Review Exercise 8-10.

210
  • Unit 8 Summary
  • Remembering What You Have Learned 
  • Remembering is closely linked to understanding
  • Learning by rote is not what we are talking about
    when we are discussing remembering.

211
  • Memorizing
  • Below is a simple statement of fact
  • Language policy has been one of the most
    difficult aspects of national development in
    Africa.

212
  • In memorizing we can take the statement at face
    value .
  • We need not go any further if all we are
    interested in is the memorization of facts.

213
  • However, examinations have purposes other than
    just testing our mastery of facts in a particular
    subject.

214
  • For example, exams help to select individuals for
    positions in society and
  • measure powers of critical thinking and
    application of knowledge and skills to different
    situations.

215
  • Understanding
  • This is the most effective method of studying.
  • It involves reading behind the words to obtain
    meanings, concepts, principles, reasons, etc.

216
  • There are cases, however, where memorization is a
    useful way of studying.
  • This is particularly so for
  • scientific formulae,
  • poetry and
  • some passages in literature

217
  • Memory can be short- or long-term.
  • Short-term memory is where once you have
    experienced or learned something you remember it
    for a short time but later you cannot remember
    it.

218
  • Long-term memory is where once you have learned
    something for an adequate length of time, the
    idea or picture can be recalled with relative
    ease much later.

219
  • An example involving long-term recall is your
    address.
  • For long-term memory sufficient time is needed
    for your mind to register and integrate the data
    without being rushed.

220
  • If adequate time is given for the material to
    sink in then the retention span is greatly
    increased.
  • This means that effective memorizing requires
    sufficient time for practice and rehearsal.

221
  • Types of memory
  • There are three known types of memories, visual,
    audio and kinetic.
  • In studying one should utilize all of them but
    give emphasis to ones strong memory points.

222
  • Some people have stronger visual memories, i.e.
    they tend to photograph and remember what they
    learn because they can see it in their minds.

223
  • Others have auditory memories and can remember
    better what they hear.

224
  • The third category of people have kinetic
    memories and will remember better by writing out
    what they have read or heard.
  • One should use all three but exploit the
    strongest.

225
  • Finally, graphs, charts, formulae, dates and laws
    are best learned and memorized word for word with
    deliberate attempts to remember their visual or
    mental pictures using flashcards.

226
  • Mnemonic study techniques
  • Mnemonic techniques of study are memory aid
    devices to help you recall significant
    information.

227
  • They fall into two categories.
  • The first category involves breaking down
    information into major points under which you put
    subsidiary points.

228
  • This is called the headline approach because the
    major points are headlined with the relevant
    subsidiary points coming under each headline.

229
  • Mnemonics are of use also in dealing with lists
    of unrelated items in order to create a bond or
    link between them.

230
  • This can be done by building up mental images,
    using key letters to form words or phrases,
    associating single words with the facts in
    question,

231
  • associating facts with stories, sentences,
    rhymes and rhythms.
  • Examples
  • The excretory system of the body skin, kidneys,
    intestines, liver and lungs.
  • Here the mnemonic device could be the word
    SKILL.

232
  • You can acquire the skill of studying by better
    mastery of the studying techniques, i.e.
    learning, retaining and remembering.

233
  • Structure Review
  • Look at the following sentences
  • 1. Remembering is closely linked to
    understanding.
  • 2.  Effective memorizing requires sufficient
    time for practice and rehearsal.

234
  • 3. Understanding involves reading behind the
    words.
  • 4.  Remembering can be helped by managing your
    time properly.

235
  • A gerund or gerund phrase can be used as the
    subject, direct object, or object of preposition
    in a sentence.
  • Remembering and effective memorizing in
    sentences 1 and 2 are the subjects of the
    sentences.

236
  • Reading behind the words in sentence 3 is the
    direct object and managing your time properly
    in sentence 4 is the object of preposition by

237
  • Unit 9Applying Your Knowledge
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension.

238
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to
  •  
  • 1.  Define the meaning of the words presented at
    the beginning of this unit, and do Exercises 9-1
    and 9-2.
  • 2.  Do Word Formation Exercises 9-3 and 9-4.

239
  • 3..  Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 9-5.
  • 4..  Do Comprehension Exercises 9-6, 9-7, 9-8
    and 9-9.
  • 5.  Do Structure Review Exercise 9-10.

240
  • Applying Your Knowledge
  •  Apply any theory you learn in your various
    subjects or courses.
  • Applying, testing and drawing up hypotheses of
    any theories learned involves questioning,
    problem-solving, integrating and creating.

241
  • Questioning
  • Questioning calls upon you to ask questions about
    the material covered to satisfy yourself of the
    veracity of the messages you receive.

242
  • Questioning enables you to get more information
    than you get from the initial message.
  • For example few lectures or even books provide
    all the information on any one subject.

243
  • In order to raise relevant questions you must
    identify important or crucial points in the
    content of the messages received.

244
  • Ordering and categorizing the levels of
    importance of the received messages will help you
    to raise meaningful questions in the order of
    priority.

245
  • Asking unnecessary questions wastes time and is
    irritating to the rest of the group.
  • Do not avoid raising questions for fear of being
    considered less knowledgeable.

246
  • Asking questions should not be for show or for
    challenging the authority of your tutors or
    lecturers it should be thoroughly genuine for
    learning and revising.

247
  • Problem solving
  • Problem solving is encountered in all aspects of
    life.
  • Human beings are always confronted with problems
    that they have to find solutions to.

248
  • Solutions to problems are not fixed they depend
    on the subject or course being examined.

249
  • Integrating
  • Integrating is concerned with finding
    relationships with respect to a body of unrelated
    materials finding links between a variety of
    different materials.

250
  • The unrelated materials could be theories or
    opinions, facts on their own, a body of facts,
    formulae, and equations.

251
  • You will need firstly to find out the common or
    similar elements or parts of the sets of
    materials facts, formulae and equations.

252
  • Integration is enhanced by ordering the variety
    of materials according to a hierarchy, or order
    of importance.

253
  • In integrating different sets of materials, you
    have to reorganize your understanding of the
    materials in question.

254
  • Creating
  • Both problem solving and integrating precede and
    aid creating.
  • You have to be able to solve problems and
    integrate information (messages) before you are
    able to create or to develop something new.

255
  • Creating could consist of new hypotheses,
    formulae, equations, methods or applications in
    scientific terms and new literature and art in
    the field of humanities.

256
  • To apply productively the theories learned
    involves the mental abilities of questioning,
    problem solving, integrating and creating.

257
  • Structure Review
  • Look at these sentences
  • 1. What amounts to courtship will precede
    arrangements for regularizing the official status
    of husband and wife.
  •  
  • 2. You are aware of how you will be tested.

258
  • 3.  She feels that she has learned the study
    materials.
  •  
  • 4. This means that you know the author of the
    book.
  •  
  • A noun clause is a dependent or subordinate
    clause. It functions as a noun in the sentence.

259
  • The noun clauses may be introduced by the
    following words
  • who, what, which, whom, whose, whoever,
    whichever, whatever, where, when, how, why,
    whether, that

260
  • Since a noun clause may be used in the same way
    in which a noun is used, it can occur anywhere in
    the sentence where a noun can occur.

261
  • In sentence 1, the noun clause what amounts to
    courtship is the subject of the sentence.
  • In sentence 2, the noun clause how you will be
    tested is the object of preposition.

262
  • In sentences 3 and 4, the noun clause that she
    has learned the study materials and that you
    know the author of the book are both objects of
    the sentences.

263
  • Unit 10Preparing for Examinations
  • General Aims
  • This unit is designed to help you learn a number
    of words and the skills involved in using context
    clues, and to promote your reading comprehension.

264
  • Behavioral Objectives
  • After carefully reading this unit, you are
    expected to
  •  
  • 1. Define the meaning of the words presented
    at the beginning of this unit, and do Exercises
    10-1 and 10-2.
  • 2. Do Word Formation Exercises 10-3 and 10-4.

265
  • 3.  Do Word Formation Chart Exercise 10-5.
  • 4. Do Comprehension Exercises 10-6, 10-7,
    10-8 and 10-9.
  • 5. Do Structure Review Exercise 10-10.

266
  • Unit 10 Summary
  • Preparing for Examinations
  • The purpose of exams
  • A large number of people are spending time
    reading for study in order to pass examinations.

267
  • Generally examinations are meant to
  • a. measure to what extent you have gained a
    certain body of knowledge and skills
  • b. measure how much or how effectively you
    have studied or learned a particular subject

268
  • c. find out the degree to which you can apply or
    relate the basic knowledge and skills to new
    circumstances or situations
  • d. predict your future level of success in your
    chosen field of study or profession

269
  • e. measure your general level of ability,
    endurance and hard work to manage examinations at
    your respective level
  • f. select and arrange individuals for
    assigning duties and positions in society

270
  • g. motivate you to work hard throughout the
    period of your study at school, college or
    university
  • h.  train you to have a disciplined approach to
    life.

271
  • Important points to consider
  • a. Knowing the material that will be covered by
    the examinations.
  •  

272
  • b. Being aware of the type of examination
    questions likely to be set, e.g. objective,
    true-false, multiple choice, matching, completion
    or essay.

273
  • c. Finding out
  • the number of papers you are expected to sit
  • the time allocation for each paper and
  • the number of questions you are expected to
    attempt.

274
  • d. Revising regularly over the period of your
    study in school, college or university, leaving
    some weeks for final revision

275
  • You should allocate particular times every week
    for revising material already covered, linking
    the new course material with what went before.

276
  • e. Practicing answering examination questions in
    simulated examination conditions.
  • Go over critically what you have done or ask a
    fellow student to do so and discuss it with him.

277
  • f. Discussing in groups helps to organize what
    you have read.
  • Group discussion helps you to clarify your
    thoughts.

278
  • Listen to your lecturer or tutor for areas of
    topic emphasis or preferences.
  • Identify you tutor preferences particularly
    during tutorial sessions.

279
  • Attend all classes, lectures and tutorials to
    make sure that you have a complete feel of the
    teachers and lecturers preferences.

280
  • Avoiding fatigue and boredom by building up the
    needed energy for study through motivation,
    courage and determination to succeed in
    examinations.
  • You must have adequate sleep to remain in good
    health.

281
  • In addition, you must have a proper diet, receive
    medical treatment when needed, exercise
    adequately and regularly, understand and be
    absorbed in your coursework.

282
  • Avoiding anxiety for it is most likely to disrupt
    and interfere with your examination performance.

283
  • In many instances anxiety is a result of your
    fear of failing in the examinations on realizing
    that you have not put in enough work or prepared
    adequately.

284
  • J. Adopting an examination technique by getting
    adequate sleep on the night of the examination.
  • Having the required writing material and physical
    aids.
  • Doing everything possible to keep calm.

285
  • Structure Review
  • Look at these sentences
  • 1. It would be useful to reflect what
    examinations are. 

286
  • 2.  Find the degree to which you can apply or
    relate the basic knowledge and skills to new
    circumstances or situations.

287
  • 3. It is important to know the type of questions
    because the manner of answering them varies from
    type to type.

288
  • 4. Revision of material covered for
    examinations must be routine.
  • This means you should allocate particular times
    every week for revising material already covered.

289
  • In sentence 1, it refers to to reflect what
    examinations are. It is a pronoun.
  • In sentence 2, which refers to the degree.
    Which is a pronoun.

290
  • In sentence 3, it refers to to know the type
    of questions and them refers to questions.
  • It and them are pronouns.

291
  • In sentence 4, This refers to Revision of
    material covered for examinations must be
    routine.
  • This is a pronoun.

292
  • Most pronouns function like nouns or noun
    phrases.
  • Pronouns share several characteristics, most of
    which are not found in nouns.

293
  • Their name implies that they replace nouns, but
    this is to a great extent far from true.

294
  • Thank you !
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