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Presentation at Living With a Star System Architecture Team Meeting


Very high energy protons (20-500 MeV) on low apogee spacecraft. Flux gate magnetometer ... moves the local time of apogee for the remaining satellites with respect ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Presentation at Living With a Star System Architecture Team Meeting

  • Presentation at Living With a Star System
    Architecture Team Meeting
  • R. A. Hoffman
  • B. L. Giles

Mission Objectives
  • Obtain scientific understanding of the sources,
    transport and losses of radiation belt particles
  • Acquire the measurements necessary for the
    development of specification models and
    validation of physics-driven radiation belt models

Pre-Formulation Definition Team
Measurement Goals
Science Community
  • Coverage of full phase space distributions over
    local time and altitude
  • Electric and magnetic fields characterizations
    over frequency domain of interest to the
    radiation belts

User Community
  • Data products for specification and predictive
  • Data products for real-time telemetry for the
    operations community

Scope of the Mission
  • Region of interest extends to geosynchronous
    altitude, including
  • South Atlantic anomaly
  • Radiation belt precipitation
  • Input to radiation belts from beyond
    geosynchronous orbit provided by non-LWS programs
    (e.g., STP/Magnetosphere Constellation)
  • Galactic and solar cosmic rays are task of
    Sentinels with geomagnetic cutoff latitudes being
    task of modeling
  • Auroral precipitation is domain of Ionospheric

Phases of the Program
First phase utilization of current and near
future missions
  • Targeted data analysis activities
  • Development of modeling techniques and procedures
  • Instrument development activities

Second phase primary flight phase
  • Launch about 2008
  • Two year lifetime, five year goal
  • Data analysis

Third phase targeted flights to characterize
radiation belts
  • TBD missions
  • TBD instrumentation

Requirements table inserted here ...
All candidate orbits have an additional
spacecraft with 2.8 Re apogee for inner belt and
slot observations
Example Candidate Orbits
Inclinations lt12
6 S/C on 3 Petals
6 S/C on 6 Even Petals
  • 4 semi-radial cuts per period
  • Higher time resolution for L distribution
  • Petals evenly spaced in local time
  • Emphasizes local time distribution
  • Radial cuts in same direction simultaneously

Candidate Instruments in Priority Order
  • High-energy particles (1-20 MeV protons 1-10 MeV
  • Mid-energy particles (30 keV to 1 MeV)
  • Very high energy protons (20-500 MeV) on low
    apogee spacecraft
  • Flux gate magnetometer
  • Electric field probes (2 orthogonal axes in spin
  • Low energy ions and electrons (30 eV - 30 keV)
  • Option include mass analysis
  • Search coil magnetometer
  • Thermal plasmas density and temperature (lt 100
  • Option include energy and mass analysis

Suggested Near-Term Tasks
  • Review requirements parameters table
  • Further prioritize requirements
  • Develop better criteria for evaluation of
    candidate orbits
  • Review spacecraft requirements

Longer-Term Tasks
  • Obtain further input on instrument developments
  • Re-cost modified program with RAO

RBM Issues
  • Prioritize requirements to
  • a) optimize the number and distribution of
  • b) assess the complement of instruments on each
  • c) determine utilization of remote sensing
    techniques and missions
  • Seek partnering
  • a) with complementary spacecraft missions
  • b) to acquire additional launch opportunities
    for spacecraft
  • Develop core mission scenario based on realistic
    assessment of technological advances in the next
    few years
  • Minimize costs
  • mitigate impact of severe radiation environment
  • develop new concepts for instrument and
    spacecraft acquisition
  • evaluate risk of reduced environmental testing of
    multiple copies
  • identify commonalities between missions
  • Identify need for inclusion of auroral imaging
    within LWS
  • Ascertain responsibility for real-time telemetry,
    collection and distribution

Supplementary Material
  • The Radiation Belt Mapper mission scenario to be
    presented represents one possible approach.
  • Other approaches are possible and should be
    studied during the formal definition phase.

Therefore nothing presented should be considered
RBM Pre-Formulation Activity Timeline
February 15 Started with a clean slate March
9 Pre-Formulation Definition Team
Meeting March 13-15 Integrated Mission Design
Center (IMDC) March 20-23 Space Weather
Conference in Florida April 20
Resources Analysis Office results May 2
Space Weather Week in Boulder May 8 9
Return to IMDC May 10 - 12 LWS Workshop
Products of Pre-Formulation Definition Team
  • Definition of parameters, ranges, accuracies
  • Prioritization of parameters, independently for
    science and users
  • Development of four candidate orbit scenarios
  • Initial evaluation of orbit scenarios
  • Specifications of spacecraft requirements
  • Identification of candidate instruments with

Example Candidate Orbits
Inclinations lt12
5 S/C on 5 Nested Orbits
6 S/C on 3 Nested Petals
  • All precess differentially with local time
  • Simple orbit insertion
  • Inner and outer sets of petals precess
    differentially with LT
  • Greater distribution in radial distance and local

Evaluation of Candidate Orbits
  • Work in progress
  • Need for one or more of the spacecraft to be at
    intermediate inclination remains an open issue
  • Nested option eliminated upon initial evaluation
  • Initial IMDC and RAO results discouraged further
  • Current launch approach does not eliminate
    remaining candidates

Spacecraft Requirements
  • Spin stabilized, 6 - 10 RPM
  • Sun pointing within 15?
  • Identical spacecraft
  • Standard aerospace manufacturing/fabrication
    practices (ideal for industry participation)
  • Two-year lifetime, five year goal
  • High radiation environment
  • Continuous downlink for real-time telemetry
  • Full instrument complement on each spacecraft

Constraints Imposed on Feasibility Study
  • NASA approved launch vehicle
  • Launch from U.S. launch site
  • Use of single Delta II or equivalent in cost
  • Spacecraft components currently available or
    available near term
  • Instruments available today
  • Full environmental testing on all copies
  • Cost analysis based on past history
  • Cost analysis based on no commonality with other
    LWS missions

Mass to Orbit via Single Vehicle
  • Launch vehicle puts all spacecraft in 500 km x
    8400 km, 28 inclination orbit
  • Low-apogee and first high-apogee spacecraft are
    boosted to correct apogees and 12 inclination
  • Orbital precession moves the local time of apogee
    for the remaining satellites with respect to the
    first satellites
  • As each remaining spacecraft moves to the correct
    local time, it is boosted to the final apogee and
    its inclination is changed to 12
  • Insertion technique applicable to all candidate
    orbit configurations

Possible Spacecraft Design
  • Mission unique spacecraft design
  • Radiation shielding and stacking requirement
    precludes use of RSDO
  • Baseline materials to be composite
  • Few new manufacturing/fabrication techniques,
    standard aerospace practices (ideal for
    industry participation)
  • Hinged magnetic field booms
  • Deployable electric field antennas
  • No unusual integration difficulties

Not all subsystems shown in this view
Not all subsystems shown in this view
Possible Experiment Layout
Propulsion Tanks
Mid Energy
E-Field Probe
E-Field Probe
Search Coil
High energy particle telescopes not shown in this
E-Field Probe
E-Field Probe
Low Energy
Spacecraft accommodation on launch vehicle
  • Delta II 7920H-10 and Delta IV considered for
    pre-formulation study
  • Volume and placement not a constraint for either
    launch vehicle
  • Launch from Kennedy
  • No unusual appendices caging requirements
  • No unusual integration difficulties
  • No unusual deployment procedure

Not all subsystems shown in this view
Comparison Between Definition Team Program and
Definition Study