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MEEC 3rd Group Meeting Gdll, Hungary May, 15 19, 2007


'European citizenship from the. perspective of five. European ... Martin Neubauer, born in 1972. ... Legislative power is held by a bicameral Federal Assembly. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MEEC 3rd Group Meeting Gdll, Hungary May, 15 19, 2007

MEEC 3rd Group Meeting Gödöllö, Hungary May, 15
19, 2007
MMag. Christa Müller Mag. Dr. Martin Neubauer
European citizenship from the perspective of
five European countries Spain, Slovakia,
Hungary, Czech Republic and Austria The
Austrian Case
Mag. Dr. Martin Neubauer
  • Martin Neubauer, born in 1972. received his
    Master's Degree and Doctorate in Economic and
    Social Sciences at the Karl-Franzens-University
    (Graz/Austria) and his Bachelor's degree in
    Russian (including studies of French, Croatian
    and Serbian) after having studied at the
    Karl-Franzens-University (Graz/Austria) and the
    Moscow Linguistic State University
  • He is currently working as senior lecturer as
    well as RD manager at the Department of Int.
    Management at FH Joanneum (Graz, Austria).

Tel. 43 (0)316/5453-6819 Fax 43
(0)316/5453-9-6819 E-mail martin.neubauer_at_fh-joa
MMag. Christa Müller
  • Christa Müller, born in 1976, received in January
    2004 her Masters Degree in Geography and in
    March 2006 her Masters Degree in Environmental
    System Research at the Department of Applied
    Geography at the Karl-Franzens-University
  • From January 2004 until July 2006 she was
    responsible for the project coordination in the
    EU- ASEAN Project "Cross cultural learning
    styles" at the FH JOANNEUM Graz, Department of
    International Management. Since August 2006 she
    is now coordinating three international EU
    projects A Leonardo da Vinci project called
    ADysTrain, a Grundtvig project called
    Multicultural Education for European
    Citizenship, and an Austrian Science and
    Research Liaison Office project called The Path
    of Internationalisation and Integration in the
    Europe of Regions.
  • She is also responsible for the project
    coordination of a Leonardo project called Making
    Tourism Work, at the Department of Health
    Management in Tourism.
  • .

Tel. 43 (0)316/5453-6719 Fax 43
(0)316/5453-9-6719 E-mail christa.mueller_at_fh-joa
  • In 1995 FH JOANNEUM started with four degree
    programmes and altogether 150 students. Currently
    about 3.500 students attend the 39 different
    programmes which are offered at the three
    locations in Graz, Kapfenberg und Bad
    Gleichenberg. Since some of the degree programmes
    are fairly young and only have first or second
    year students yet, the student population will
    continue growing.
  • FH JOANNEUM employs over 375 people in the areas
    of research, teaching and administration. Another
    444 people work for the institution on an
    independent contractors basis. As the student
    population also the number of staff members will
    grow in the future.
  • We are one of Austria's leading Universities of
    Applied Sciences. In order to maintain and
    consolidate this status, both our teaching and
    our applied research and development is modeled
    on the best colleges and universities in Europe.
  • Our RD activities (472 ongoing projects) help to
    accumulate a knowledge base for the university
    and society in general which improves not only
    our own competitive abilities, but also those of
    Styria as a whole. Additionally, the know-how we
    acquire from RD projects helps to ensure the
    high tuition quality in our degree programmes. As
    a university, we support international
    cooperation in teaching, research, and ongoing

About the Department
Dept. of Int. Mgmt.
Bachelors and Masters Degree Courses
Transfer Center RD
MSc. European Project Mgmt.
RD Projects
Austria Geography, Language and Population
  • The federal republic of Austria is located in the
    heart of Europe north of Italy and Slovenia,
    South of Germany, West of Slovakia and the Czech
    Republic. Its capital is Vienna. The population
    numbers approximately 8,2 million inhabitants.
    The climate is continental, generally temperate.
    Winters are cold, typically with snow in the
    mountains, but also some in the lowlands
    (unfortunately not this year -)) Summers are
    moderately warm with occasional showers. The
    population consists mainly of German speaking
    peersons (91,1) with some indigenous minorities
    including Slovenes, Croatians and Hungarians.
    Recent immigrant groups include Turks, Bosnians,
    Serbians and Croatians thus making up for the
    remaining 10. Even as most of the population is
    catholic, religion especially in the cities
    is only playing a minor role in day to day life.
    German is the official language spoken by most
    (98) Austrians, with profound differences
    between regional dialects.

Relevance of Education and Job Perspectives
  • According to a survey by Ernst Young in 2006, a
    majority of 85  of 1015 business managers claim
    education and workers qualification to be one of
    the major key factors before choosing a
    location/region/country for further investment.

Political situation
  • Austria is a Federal Republic, comprising nine
    provinces, each with its own provincial assembly
    and government. Legislative power is held by a
    bicameral Federal Assembly. The Lower House, the
    Nationalrat, has 183 members, elected for
    four-year terms. On 1 October 2006 a federal
    election was held. The Social Democratic Party
    (SPÖ) won the largest share of the vote. The
    conservative People's Party (ÖVP) is at second
    place. An SPÖ-ÖVP coalition, lead by Chancellor
    Alfred Gusenbauer was the final outcome after
    long negotiations.

Austrian Mood"
  • Most Austrians see themselves as liberal, modern
    and cultured. They prefer a mixture of a
    laid-back attitude (Gemütlichkeit) combined
    with a certain grumpiness. Many Austrians have a
    love for the mountains and outdoor activities
    (skiing, hiking). Women are treated as equals in
    most aspects. Austrians are generally
    approachable and glad to help, but are sometimes
    also very direct and outspoken.

Educational System I
  • Austrias educational system is highly developed
    and mainly state-run. Primary education lasts
    four years and usually starts at the age of 6.
    Secondary education continues at the age of 10
    with four years of junior high school and four
    (in the case of a liberal arts focus) to five (in
    the case of specialized commercial or engineering
    schools) years of senior high school. After
    twelve to thirteen years of high school
    graduation and successful completion of the high
    school exam - the Matura - students have a
    choice of entering the traditional university or
    the Fachhochschule (University of Applied

Educational System II
  • While University courses follow the more
    traditional and broad discipline orientated
    approach Fachhochschul"-courses provide
    professional and specialized training for
    specific occupations. Whilst there were no entry
    restrictions for the traditional universities
    until 2005, Austrian universities of applied
    sciences always had strict selection procedures
    in place. In 2005, access requirements were
    introduced for university programmes which are
    affected by the numerus clausus in Germany. This
    measure will probably be kept up until 2007 and
    restricts access to some university studies,
    mainly for medical study programmes, which now
    require an entry exam. In the winter semester
    2003/2004 there were 197.896 students in the
    traditional university track, and 20.591 students
    in Universities of Applied Sciences.

Educational System III
  • The state prescribed tuition fees for university
    programmes are EUR 363.36 per term for students
    from Austria and other EU - and EEA - countries,
    and EUR 727.27 for other foreign students
    (exemption and reimbursement regulations for
    students from developing countries or in mobility
    programmes are in place). This fees will be
    collected by all universities and most
    Fachhochschulen (with the exception of FH
    JOANNEUM where no fees are charged). Currently,
    the Austrian system of higher education -
    implementing the Bologna process - is in
    transition from the traditional structure under
    which there were only hybrid undergraduate/graduat
    e degrees (leading to the academic title
    "Magister) and doctoral degrees to the
    internationally compatible three-tiered structure
    offering bachelors, masters, and doctoral

Austrian University Sites
Österreichische Hochschulstandorte
Cultural Dimensions (acc. to Hofstede) I
  • When it comes to Power Distance Austria is very
    low with a score of 11, which hints at a culture
    with great equality between societal levels,
    organizations and inside families and a less
    rigid hierarchy. There are fewer barriers between
    people with high and low power levels which allow
    for a more cooperative interaction.
  • Individualism according to Hofstede in Austria
    (IDV 55) shows that Austrians tend to value the
    rights of the individual but also of the
    collective and do not put the importance of one
    over the other.

Cultural Dimensions (acc. to Hofstede) II
  • Uncertainty Avoidance rating (UAI 70) in Austria
    is quite high, which is in line with most other
    predominantly Catholic countries. Austrians
    obviously like to plan in advance and dislike
    surprises and ambiguity. It is a formal rule
    orientated society, where everyone and everything
    has a well defined place.
  • Austria ranks high in the Masculinity rating
    (MAS 79) pointing at a very achievement
    orientated culture, it is also important to
    display high social status. Traditional
    familyvalues have a lower importance.

How to meet Austrians
  • In Austrian handshakes are the predominant way of
    greeting. They are usually quick and firm,
    maintain eye contact while shaking hands and
    greet everyone present when arriving and leaving,
    even if you have to leave earlier. Additionally
    in Austria it is usual to greet children too and
    always shake hands with woman before man.
    Viennese men may kiss the hand of a woman, which
    is a somewhat outdated but very traditional way
    of greeting. Foreign men are not expected to
    follow this tradition. -)

Talking to people
  • Always use the formal pronoun when talking to
    people which are older then you or in a superior
    position. At universities in Austria and Germany
    du is frequently used, especially between
    students, but sometimes even with teaching staff.
    Observe Austrian students for clues if you are
    unsure. Using titles is important in Austria and
    common in Germany, though more so in formal
    communication then in private meetings. As long
    as you do not know the person you are
    communicating with closer, always use titles when
    addressing them unless they tell you to do

Austria Germany?!?!
  • Austrians are not Germans!!!
  • Austria and Germany differ in many aspects and
    Austrians generally dislike to be referred as
    Germans. Often things are handled in a slow pace,
    especially if time is available, be patient. In
    Austria you are not allowed to smoke in public
    buildings, public transport services and many
    other places. Try only to smoke if others around
    you are doing so.
  • BTW Austria defeated Germany in football last in
    1978 (32)!!!

Methodology I
  • Although research on learning styles in different
    contexts is available, significant lack of
    knowledge in the cross cultural field is evident
    due to the fact that country comparisons were
    seldom undertaken and the influence of culture
    was underestimated.
  • Two different approaches of how to deal with the
    collection of quantitative data were chosen.

Methodology II
  • In the first project having a focus on Austria,
    Germany, Singapore and Thailand a new
    questionnaire was designed. The new instrument is
    a collection of a total of 92 items on students
    attitudes concerning learning, studying and
    learning environments. The 92 items are grouped
    into sections on group behaviour, professors,
    teaching methods, individual study behaviour, the
    physical environment and demographic
  • In the second and third project integrating
    Austria, Germany, France, India, Mexico, Peru,
    Argentina and Colombia we were using already
    existing instruments (ASSIST to measure
    approaches to learning, ETLQ for the learning
    environment and GLOBE/CPQ to measure culture plus
    some sociodemographic questions.

About the survey
  • In total, more than 11.000 students in Austria,
    Germany, Asia and Latin America took part in the
    survey reaching out to roughly 30 institutions of
    higher education. To realize country/region
    dependable output, as well as to be able to grasp
    cross-cultural differences, institutions of
    higher education, located in most densely
    populated areas within the participating
    countries had been chosen.

Some more about Austria and Germany
  • In Germany professors will expect their students
    to use their own judgment concerning deadlines.
    Universities are strongly recommended to set up
    courses on time-management in an early stage of
    studying to prepare the German students for
    global competition.
  • Austrian students like to have theory explained
    with practical applications and to hear examples
    and see illustrations. A student should take
    notes concerning the presented examples also and
    be prepared to be asked how the practical
    application of knowledge in exams should be
    implemented. Students should not stick to learn
    only the theory.

Being a student in Austria
  • The hierarchical relationship between professors
    and students is not very strong, it is allowed
    and common for students to You should be aware
    that criticism as well as an intensive discussion
    is often expected in class Austria. Students are
    more outspoken and will approach professors on a
    more informal way than other cultures. Sometimes
    this may even appear to be rude or disrespectful
    but this is not the case, it is just another way
    of communication. Try to act in class, always be
    directly involved and do not hesitate to question
    or criticize different models explained or
    discussed by professors or your fellow students.
    If you are unsure of the matter listen carefully
    and try to find the one or other comment from
    your point of view. It is better to risk being
    wrong, then to say nothing at all.

Teaching Austrian students
  • Austrian students show preference for professors
    who show empathy and accept students
    suggestions. This means that students seek in
    professors qualities as good listening,
    understanding, sensitivity, people skills and
    approachability. It is fair to assume that they
    have a dislike for professors who are distant,
    "cold, factual, dont allow interaction, are
    cynical or condescending.
  • Furthermore Austrian students would like to have
    professors who are not just instructors, but
    mentors or coaches people, who are open to
    their suggestions, are accessible and take an
    interest in the students development and
    personal wellbeing. Even if you are not planning
    to involve yourself too much in students matters
    you should still try to lend an ear if they try
    to talk to you about something. It is important
    that you do not treat students being of lesser
    status, but actively try to incorporate them in
    the learning process and seek their opinion.

Thank you for your attention