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Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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An element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances ... Metals shiny, conductors of heat/electricity, malleable, ductile ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


1
Introduction to Matter
Chapter 3
Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
2
Elements
  • An element is a pure substance that cannot be
    separated into simpler substances by physical OR
    chemical means.
  • Made of only ONE type of particle (ATOM).
  • Have characteristic properties …
  • Physical melting point, boiling point, density,
    color,
  • hardness, and texture.
  • Chemical flammability and reactivity.
  • THREE categories of elements
  • Metals shiny, conductors of heat/electricity,
    malleable, ductile
  • Nonmetals dull, nonconductors, nonmalleable,
    brittle
  • Metalloids (semiconductors) characteristics of
    BOTH

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Compounds
  • A compound is a pure substance composed of TWO or
    more elements that are chemically combined.
  • Elements combine by reacting, or undergoing a
    chemical change, with one another.
  • A particle of a compound is a molecule.
  • Molecules are formed when atoms of two or more
    elements join together.
  • As an element does, each compound has its own
    properties, but they differ from the elements
    that form it (sodium chlorine SALT).

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Sodium bicarbonate
Acetic acid
Calcium carbonate
Compounds
9
Breaking down COMPOUNDS
  • HEAT
  • ELECTRICITY

10
COMPOUNDS in Nature
11
Mixtures
  • A mixture is a combination of two or more
    substances that ARE NOT chemically combined.
  • Pizza is a MIXTURE the cheese and tomato sauce
    do not react when they are mixed to make a pizza.
  • NO chemical change happens when a mixture is made
    (each substance keeps its identity).
  • Common ways to separate mixtures …
  • Picking
  • Distillation boiling to separate
  • Magnet
  • Centrifuge spinning to separate

12
Mixtures
13
Separating Mixtures
Distillation
Centrifuge
14
Solutions
  • A mixture that appears to be a single substance.
  • TWO parts
  • Solvent does dissolving
  • Solute gets dissolved
  • Examples
  • Air (oxygen in nitrogen)
  • Soft drinks (CO2 in H2O)
  • Antifreeze (alcohol in H20)
  • Salt water (salt in water)
  • Brass (zinc in copper)

15
Concentrated or Dilute?
Solubility of a solute the ability of a solute
to dissolve in a solvent at a certain
temperature. How do you increase solubility?
16
Suspension
  • A suspension is a mixture in which particles of a
    material are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas
    but are large enough that they settle out.

17
Colloid
  • A colloid is a mixture in which the particles are
    dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to
    settle.

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Classify that SUBSTANCE!
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