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Introduction to Information Systems

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Software Resources system, application, procedures. Programs: OS , spreadsheet programs, payroll programs , ... record keeping, traditional accounting ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Information Systems


1
Introduction to Information Systems
Chapter 1
2
(No Transcript)
3
Cases on Information systems
  • American airlines
  • creating new businesses
  • Baxter company
  • competitive advantage
  • Mrs. Fields
  • organizational consequences
  • Open Market
  • fast evolution business risk

4
IS and IS resources
Management Challenges
PEOPLE
Business applications
Information technologies
Hardware
Software
Information Systems Resources
Development processes
Foundation concepts
Data
Networks
OBrien p7-8
5
The importance of Information Systems
  • An information system is a set of people ,
    procedures and resources that
  • collect
  • transform
  • disseminates
  • information in an organization.
  • Information is used for better management
  • Companies cannot operate any more without
    automated information systems

OBrien p 7-8
6
Properties of Information SystemsEnterprise
Perspective
  • major functional area of business
  • important cost that poses a resource management
    problem
  • important factor for efficiency, productivity,
    customer service and satisfaction
  • source of management information and support
  • important ingredient in strategic advantage and
    competitive position
  • vital , dynamic , and challenging career
    opportunity

OBrien p 10
7
Properties of Information SystemsEnterprise
Perspective
  • Worldwide information Society
  • Knowledge workers
  • Information create
  • use
  • dissiminate
  • Use information technology to manage people,
    finances, material, energy,
  • Ethical aspects
  • social aspects have - have not
  • privacy aspects supermarket

OBrien p 8
8
Ethical considerations
Applications of ICT
  • Improve market
  • knowledge
  • Improve
  • response
  • capabilities
  • Improve
  • persuasive
  • communications
  • Improve
  • strategy
  • selection

Potential harms
Potential risks
Possible responses
  • Infrigements on
  • privacy
  • Inaccurate
  • information
  • Collusion
  • Exclusion from
  • essential
  • facilities

How likely are legal actions, consumer boy
-cotts, strikes, other threats to occur
  • self-regulation
  • Advocacy
  • Education
  • Codes of ethics
  • Incentives
  • certification

OBrien p 9
9
The Role of Information Systems
Support of Strategic Advantage
Support of Managerial Decision Making
Support of Business Operations
OBrien p 11
10
The Internetwork- enterprises
The Internet
Intranets
Extranets
Enterprise
Intranets
Intranets
Supplier
Client
Intranets
Electronic Commerce
Other Organizations
11
Business Process Reengineering
  • Before
  • managers took all decisions
  • only experts can do complex jobs
  • information is available on only one specific
    place
  • Collaborators in the field need an office to
    receive, store, consult and send information
  • Today
  • everybody can take decisions
  • a generalist can do the work of an expert based
    on available information
  • information is available for everybody at the
    same moment in time
  • collaborators can send and receive information
    from everywhere

OBrien p 16
12
Information Systems
  • Information Systems Knowledge needed by
    managerial end users

Management of IS Resources and activities
Development of IS Solutions to business problems
Applications of IS To operations management and
strategic advantage
Technology of IS Hardware , software ,
Telecommunications, and Data Management
Foundation concepts of IS Fundamental Behavioral
and Technical Aspects
13
The System Concept
OBrien 18 -19
  • System
  • A group of interrelated components or
    interacting elements forming a unified whole.
  • input
  • processing
  • output
  • feedback
  • control


- environment - other systems
OBrien p 21
14
Other System Concepts
  • Subsystem
  • Interface
  • Open System
  • Adaptive system

OBrien p 23
15
Stakeholders in the Business Environment
The community
Competitors
Control
Management
Customers
Suppliers
Feedback
Information Systems
Economic Resources People Money Material
Land Facilities Energy Information
Organizational Processes Production Marketin
g Finance Personnel Other Processes
Goods and Services Products Services P
ayments Contributions Information Other Effects
Government Agencies
Stockholders
Input
PROCESSING Output

Financial Institutions
Labor Unions
OBrien p 24
16
Components of an Information System
OBrien 21 - 25
Communications media and network support
People Resources End users and IS specialists
Data Resources Data , Model , and Knowledge Bases
Control of System Performance
Input of Data Resources
Processing Data into Information
Output of Information Products
Machines and Media Hardware Resources
Software Resources Programs and Procedures
Storage of Data resources
Communications media and network support
OBrien p 25
Network resources
17
IS Resources and Products
  • People Resources
  • Specialists system analysts, programmers,
    operators
  • End users anyone else using the system
  • Hardware Resources
  • Machines computers, video monitors, disks,
    printers, scanners
  • Media floppies, tapes, disks, plastic cards,
    paper forms, ...
  • Software Resources system, application,
    procedures
  • Programs OS , spreadsheet programs, payroll
    programs , ....
  • Procedures data entry, error correction,
    paycheck distribution, ...
  • Data Resources database, model base, knowledge
    base
  • Product descriptions, customer records, inventory
    databases,...
  • Network resources
  • Communication media, network support, ...

OBrien p 26-27
18
Data versus Information
OBrien 24
  • Data
  • raw facts or observations
  • meaningless
  • time independent
  • machine efficient
  • general purpose
  • Information
  • informative value
  • time dependent
  • human efficient
  • specific
  • based on previous knowledge

Different types of information can be derived
from the same source of data .
19
Expanding Roles of Information Systems
OBrien 28
  • 1950s-1960s Data Processing
  • electronic data processing systems
  • transaction processing, record keeping,
    traditional accounting
  • 1960s-1970s Management reporting
  • Management Information Systems
  • mgt. reports for pre-specified information to
    support decision making
  • 1970s-1980s Decision Support
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Interactive ad hoc support of the managerial
    decision process

20
Expanding Roles of Information Systems (cont)
  • 1980s-1990s Strategic and End User Support
  • End User Computing Systems direct productivity
    support
  • Executive Information SystemsCritical
    Information
  • Expert Systems Knowledge based expert advise for
    end users
  • Strategic Information Systems for competitive
    advantage
  • 1990s 2000s Global internetworking
  • Internetworked information systems
  • for end-user, enterprise, and inter-organizational
    computing, collaboration, including global
    operations and management on the internet and
    other interconnected enterprise and global
    networks.

OBrien p 31
21
Types of Information Systems
OBrien 29
OBrien p 32-33
22
IT - usage in the Company
23
Nolan curve
Four stages of DP growth
maturity
control
contagion
initiation
24
NOLAN phases
Stage
Initiation
contagion
control
maturity
orientation
cost reduction
new functions
moratorium
database inquiry
organization
where first used
dispersed
central
controlled distributed
manager
operations manager
middle manager
middle manager
director
management view
lax
selling
controlling
a resource
applications
supporting
diversification
databases
end-user computing
control
little
very little
strong
normal
user involvement
interviews , manuals
PC's
project groups
transparent
25
Information systems in the Company
26
Electronic Banking
  • account status
  • exchange rates
  • economic information
  • bank transfers
  • order checks
  • reports
  • batch payments ( SWIFT, ...)

Security via magnetic cards, password , control
totals
27
Decision Support
  • financial models
  • what-if analyze
  • goal seeking
  • risk analysis
  • statistical analysis
  • management models
  • graphical representations
  • personal databases

28
Hospital Information Systems
  • patient registration
  • laboratory management
  • radiology
  • medical files
  • pharmacy
  • stock management and purchasing
  • human resources and scheduling
  • billing and A/C receivable
  • book keeping
  • operation theater

29
Other Applications
  • Transport
  • just in time
  • routing
  • shipping
  • Insurance
  • Tourism
  • Department stores
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