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Christina Preston International Doctorate in Education Faculty of Culture and Pedagogy Department of Learning, Curriculum and Culture

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same main question reworked from Impact2 ... same procedures reworked from Impact2. 20 minutes, pen and paper. Data collection. 2003 -2006 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Christina Preston International Doctorate in Education Faculty of Culture and Pedagogy Department of Learning, Curriculum and Culture


1
Christina Preston International Doctorate in
Education Faculty of Culture and
Pedagogy Department of Learning, Curriculum and
Culture
  • How do
  • multimodal concept maps
  • provide insights into teachers priorities in a
    digital technologies CPD context?

2
Questions for your consideration
  • Draft, 40,000 Ed.D. Professional study
  • Chapter One
  • Research question and literature survey
  • Chapter Two
  • The research design and tools
  • Chapter Three
  • The control group information transmission
    international computer-based training
  • Chapter Four
  • Cohort one mentored constructive action-based
    research between England and South Africa
  • Chapter Five
  • Cohort Two social interactional practice-based
    research in England (that includes members of my
    CoP)
  • Chapter Six
  • Conclusions that compare the results from the
    three cohorts (and includes the observations of
    the co-researchers who have published in this
    area).

3
Your advice in this seminar .
  • Background to the study
  • Appeal of the maps
  • Research questions
  • Data collection
  • Quantitative analysis by number
  • Qualitative analysis by word
  • Qualitative analysis by sign
  • Unexpected data
  • The role of the researcher
  • Recommendations to the researcher
  • Further research
  • Where to stop?

4
The background to the study
5
Despite the complexity of pedagogical practice,
and indeed as a result of its interdependence
with the regulatory frameworks of the national
community, there is very strong evidence that
innovation in pedagogy can be introduced rapidly
if they are tied to changes in what is assessed.
  • B. Somekh (2007)
  • Pedagogy and Learning with ICT
  • Routledge Oxford p.42

6
My professional practice-based research
7
Impact2 (2002) Becta Mavers, M., B. Somekh, et
al. (2002). "Interpreting the externalised images
of pupils' conceptions of ICT methods for the
analysis of concept maps." Computers and
Education 38 pp 187-207.
8
Impact2 (2002) Becta Mavers, M., B. Somekh, et
al. (2002). "Interpreting the externalised images
of pupils' conceptions of ICT methods for the
analysis of concept maps." Computers and
Education 38 pp 187-207.
9
The appeal of MCM
Fascinating cultural artifacts Mavers 2002
10
First map Amy CBT
Amy ECDL ICT skills course Amy ECDL ICT
skills course Figure Two Before Figure Two
After
11
Second map Amy CBT
Amy ECDL ICT skills course Amy ECDL ICT
skills course Figure Two Before Figure Two
After
12
First map Tom CBT
13
Second map Tom CBT
Bill ECDL ICT skills course Figure Three
After
14
The research questions
15
The research question
  • Can semiotic theory increase insights into
    teachers priorities as illustrated in MCM
    produced in the context of ICT CPD?
  • The three sub-questions are
  • In which ways do MCM scoring techniques provide
    insights into teachers priorities about
    digital technologies?
  • In which ways does the labelling of nodes in MCM
    provide insights into teachers priorities about
    digital technologies?
  • In which ways does the analysis of sign-making in
    MCM provide insights into teachers priorities
    about digital technologies?

16
  • The themes emerging from the grounded research
    study, the attendant literature and my practice

The varied ways in which teachers MCM design
reflects the cognitive theory that underpins
their CPD programme How the interpretation of
learning quality illustrated by the MCM is
affected by the multiple roles of the researcher
and the co-researchers
17
52 pairs of multimodal concept maps (MCM) (from
international collection of 250) all
map-makers were self-declared advisors
(teaching other teachers) all pairs collected
at the beginning and end of a one year course in
digital technologies same main question
reworked from Impact2 How do computers impact on
your personal and professional life? same
procedures reworked from Impact2 20 minutes, pen
and paper
Data collection 2003 -2006
18
Three cohorts Control group (CBT) x 18
advisory teachers taking an international
computer based training course (CBT) based on
information transmission (selected from
100) First cohort (MAR) x15 advisory teachers
working in one province in South Africa taking a
MirandaNet mentored action research (MAR) CPD
programme based on constructive learning
(selected from 30) Second cohort (SCoP) 19
advisory in England at the IOE taking a
MirandaNet designed a scholarly community of
practice CPD programme based on social
interaction (selected from 25) Some were also
members and co-researchers in the CoP,
MirandaNet).
Data collection 2003 -2006
19
Tools for semiotic analysis of the MCM
  • Number quantitative scores
  • connectivity scoring method from Impact2
    showing cognitive activity
  • new activity score presenting accumulation of
    concepts
  • Word qualitative content analysis
  • Score sheet developed Impact2 headings that
    concentrated on basic computer concepts, concrete
    and abstract
  • Transcript analysis that
  • establishes learning processes adapted from Daly
    and Pachler (2007)
  • establishes the map makers in SCoP as
    co-researchers
  • Word qualitative content analysis
  • Semiotic framework developed from the work of
    Jewitt, Kress, Mavers, Somekh, Van Leeuwen (with
    words included as one element of the analysis)

20
Theme one the cognitive theory underpinning the
three CPD programmes (Pachler 2005) Information
transmission learning concepts to reproduce for
a test Constructive learning mentored action
based research Social interaction sharing
practice based research in a CoP that continues
beyond the end of a course with the intention
of changing practice and policy Theme two
the perspective of the researcher (Adler and
Adler 1987) Peripheral member
researcher Active member researcher Complete
member researcher / CoP co-researchers
21
Quantitative analysis by number
22
Impact2 Method One
8 8
11 ratio
Quantitative analysis Marton 1994,Marton and
Booth1997, Pearson and Somekh 2000, Mavers,
Somekh, Rosterick 2002 (4,000 maps)
23
SCoP group Table of connectivity and activity
scores
24
  • Figure 5.2.b. Chart of ScoP connectivity scores

Figure 5.2.c. Chart of ScoP activity scores
25
2 cohorts of x20 teachers who had good IT skills
Significant differences between the cohorts in
cognitive activity
Draft charts
26
Neils first map
27
Second map Neil
28
Talking about mess no drawings, there are
absolutely no drawings on this because I tend to
concentrate on maps for developing linguistic
skills. Ive been doing mapping for a very long
time and teaching the children how to map so it
becomes almost second nature,
From Blooms perspective, my first map is
overcomplicated, difficult to read and inadequate
in categorising the concepts to prove higher
order thinking. In the second map, therefore, I
have consciously used the affordances of digital
mapping to refine and categorise my ideas to
illustrate higher order thinking.
Neil long term member of MirandaNet and expert
practice based research mapper
29
Tentative conclusions about MCM
  • Interesting results for groups if you are working
    as a peripheral researcher (PMR) but only tells
    you about qualitity of connections not quality
  • But inconsistent when individual scores are
    considered.
  • Professional peripheral researchers may still
    want to adapt scoring techniques to follow
    patterns of behaviour in one parameter.
  • But for classroom practice based researchers the
    numbers too small, techniques too time-consuming
  • Although discussions about the scores between the
    learners might be profitable.they will require
    triangulation with other methods
  • If relying on scores it seems necessary to teach
    mapping first, like Novak, and explain how the
    formulas are being used. Impact2 side-stepped
    this issue by interviewing the map makers

30
Qualitative analysis Word
31
Impact 2 Method Two
Qualitative analysis Signs and words
Score sheet establishing frequency of concepts
across a group
Spheres of Thinking Uses of computers
Abstract thoughts about computers Zones of Use
32
Greatest gain
Greatest gain
The SCoP group content analysis
33
Results the same analysis of the signs?
Daly and Pachler 2007 CBT MCM MAR MCM SCoP MCM transcripts collaborative map
cognition abstract and concrete concept decrease learning becomes work significant increase in abstract and concrete concepts significant increase in abstract, concrete and scholarly concepts
autobiography despondency and stress about tests decrease in humour great hopes of the potential of computers in learning concentration on the processes and emotions associated with learning
knowledge construction (constructivism) Limited - majority of scores drop Knowledge construction by individuals and the group
meta-learning none (An increase in the use of verbs of doing) Evidence at the start as well as at the end. Some significant higher order thinking.
Community (social interaction) 20 comment on communicating socially none professionally Hopes of local, national and global connections envisaged Professional community links a strong feature of the second maps
34
Words Tentative conclusions
  • A researchers find what they are looking for!
  • CPD programme content
  • Concrete and abstract concepts related to what is
    known. Very useful for needs analysis. Surprising
    what was known before the course started. Also
    indicated different nature of cohorts that were
    superficially advisors.
  • The cognitive theory underpinning the CPD
    programme
  • Daly and Pachler (2007) - social
    interaction with teachers (MTeach)
  • Manifest and latent concepts about learning
    process are valued
  • in words for the tutor.
  • cognition
  • autobiography
  • knowledge construction (constructivism)
  • meta-learning
  • community (social interaction)

35
Signs (with words as one semiotic unit)
36
The framework criteria
  • Information Transmission
  • Concepts graphic and words
  • Modalities
  • Materiality of Meaning
  • Dimensionality
  • Constructive learning process (autobiography)
  • Compositional elements and their interrelations
  • Narratives
  • Affectual and ludic qualities
  • Dynamics
  • Social interaction process
  • Representations and interaction between the map
    maker, audience/viewer (and co-researcher)

37
Signs Tentative conclusions
Fascinating opportunity for researchers, tutors,
practice-based researchers, and co-researchers
to view a snapshot of a learners priorities at
one point in time to deduce how those
priorities might merge with those of the tutor
to increase skills in organising and
communicating concepts to benefit those who are
digitally literate to offer an innovative means
of assessment of and for learning to act as a
scaffold in conversations with and between
learners about learning progress over a period of
time to act as a scaffold for promoting social
interaction Suggestions for researchers
decide to teach mapping first, or not develop
data collection procedures about graphics,
digital maps, collaborative maps and remotely web
maps avoid scoring
38
Adjusting the semiotic framework?
  • Information Transmission
  • Concepts graphics and words
  • Modalities
  • Materiality of Meaning
  • Dimensionality
  • Constructivism (autobiography)
  • Compositional elements and their interrelations
  • Narratives
  • Affectual and ludic qualities
  • Dynamics
  • Social interaction (add Daly and Pachler
    elements)
  • Representations and interaction between the map
    maker, audience/viewer (and co-researcher)
  • Dynamics?
  • Compositional elements and their interrelations?
  • N.B. Only one collaborative map by accident and
    one digital map

39
Adding to the framework for semiotic analysis
in terms of constructive learning and social
interaction? ?
Daly and Pachler 2007 CBT MCM MAR MCM SCoP MCM transcripts collaborative map
cognition abstract and concrete concept decrease learning becomes work significant increase in abstract and concrete concepts significant increase in abstract, concrete and scholarly concepts
autobiography despondency and stress about tests decrease in humour great hopes of the potential of computers in learning concentration on the processes and emotions associated with learning
knowledge construction (constructivism) Limited - majority of scores drop Knowledge construction by individuals and the group
meta-learning none (An increase in the use of verbs of doing) Evidence at the start as well as at the end. Some significant higher order thinking.
Community (social interaction) 20 comment on communicating socially none professionally Hopes of local, national and global connections envisaged Professional community links a strong feature of the second maps
40
Adding to the framework for semiotic analysis?
  • Constructive learning and social interaction
  • Somekh and Pearson (2003-2006) - PERLS - with
    young learners
  • A theory of transformatory learning mediated by
    context
  • Learning creatively
  • Learning as an active citizen (not quite
    community)
  • Engaging powerfully with new ideas
  • Reflecting on own learning

41
Social interaction and learning The
unexpected..
42
The unexpected.. The pain of learning.
43
Malcolm anxiety and concern
44
Malcolm the fun narrativeurse Figure
Nine Before
45
(No Transcript)
46
The unexpected.. The power of collaborative
theory development
47
Malcolm and other co-researchers a scholarly
contribution to e-learning theory en After
48
The unexpected..
  • A practitioner and an academic journal volume
    about MCM

49
Who are the researchers? Who are the learners?
  • CBT Peripheral member researcher only
  • Evaluated a course designed, taught and tested by
    three different groups
  • MAR Active member researcher only
  • Involved for the duration of the CPD as a member
    of a MN team designer, tutor of tutors, mentor
    of action research, evaluator and researcher
  • SCoP Complete member researcher
  • During CPD as a member of a MN team designer,
    tutor of tutors, mentor of action research,
    marker, evaluator and researcher.
  • But.
  • Involved course members as map makers and
    co-researchers who provided evidence from a
    valuable perspective
  • One group develop a MCM to explain e-learning
    theory based on their practice based evidence
  • Beyond duration Involved in MirandaNet Fellowship
    MCM working parties and
  • publications that have influenced me

50
Further research work
  • Further development of
  • analysis criteria to explore evidence of learning
    processes
  • the uses of the MCM for assessment for learning
    for individuals and groups
  • the value of collaborative and digital mapping
  • the potential for internal and external
    assessment

51
Id like to do my thesis as a digital concept map
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