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THE ROLE OF FORESTS IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

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Title: THE ROLE OF FORESTS IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE


1
THE ROLE OF FORESTS IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • JANA ALBRECHTOVÁ
  • Charles University in Prague, CZ
  • BARRETT N. ROCK
  • University of New Hampshire,
  • Durham, USA

Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
2
Barrett N. Rock
  • 1994/5 Senior Scientist and Assistant Director
    of the GLOBE Program
  • Professor, University of New Hampshire, durham,
    USA

Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
3
Global Carbon Cycle and Warming Role of Forest
Ecosystems
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
4
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
5
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
6
Mauna Loa Monthly Carbon Dioxide RecordKeeling
Record 1958 - 1999
Source C.D. Keeling and T.P. Whorf
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
7
Source http//www.esd.ornl.gov/iab/iab2-2.htm
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
8
Tree Physiology Behind Forest Role in Global
Climate Change
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
9
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
http//www.gp.com/EducationalinNature/water/treewa
ter.html
10
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
http//www.gp.com/EducationalinNature/water/treewa
ter.html
11
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
http//www.gp.com/EducationalinNature/water/treewa
ter.html
12
Energetic balance of forest evapotranspiration
One large tree can release up to 400 liters of
water into the atmosphere in one day! Cooling
function of one tree Evaporation - 1 L of
water. energy 0.7 kWh - 400 L 400 x
0.7280 kWh That means Tree cooling capacity
during 12-hr day corresponds to 280/1223 kW

Capacity of 46 refridgerators (of 500 W input)
Capacity of 10 air-cinditioning facilities
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
13
Energetic balance of forest evapotranspiration
Cooling capacity of forest in a landscape through
evapotranspiration 1 m2 .... 4 L of water
during 1 day 50 km2 .. 200 milions L
app. energy produced during 1 day in all power
stations in the Czech Republic
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
14
Global Climate Change Role of forest Ecosystems
Regional Example of NE U.S.
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
15
The New England Regional Assessment
Available On-Line at http//www.necci.sr.unh.edu/
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
16
Annual Temperature Changes Regional Weighted
Average 0.74 F
Since 1895 - New Hampshire exhibit a change that
is over double the regional average (0.92o C),
while the adjacent state of Maine has actually
cooled (-0.21o C).
Available On-Line at http//www.necci.sr.unh.edu/
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
17
Relationship between Forest Health and Human
Impacts on It Monitoring Forest Health
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
18
global ecological problem of Northern Hemisphere
In the Czech Republic acidic air-borne
pollution, harsh climatic conditions and forestry
management
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
19
Forest Ecosystem Population Tree Organ
Cell
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
20
Forest Ecosystem Population Tree Organ
Cell
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
21
Forest Ecosystem Population Tree Organ
Cell
Remote sensing
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
22
Monitoring Forest Health in schools
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
23
Forest Watch Bridging Science and K-12 Education
Through Studies of White Pine Stands
Program established and directed by Barrett N.
Rock
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
24
Map of original Forest Watch Schools and ozone
monitoring sites
Map of current Forest Watch Schools and ozone
monitoring sites
Over 280 schools are currently involved in this
research partnership
Eastern White Pine Pinus strobus
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
25
Forest Watch offers students and teachers
authentic opportunities in science by
participating in on-going research to assess the
health of forests in New England.
Schools set-up permanent 30m X 30m sampling plots
and conduct several ecological and biophysical
measurements on tagged white pine, looking for
signs of ground-level ozone damage, biomass
indicators, and other forest health concerns.
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
26
Project Jak se mají smrky How are spruces?
Czech version of FOREST WATCH
expansion of the GLOBE project / BIOMETRY
collaboration with organization TEREZA
1999 pilot year - 20 schools 2000 50 schools
support of the Ministry of Education and Youth of
CR
Program established by Jana Albrechtova
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
27
Protocols of the project How are spruces?
Basic Part
- GLOBE protocols
- GLOBE protocols
- Academy of Science, Dr. Cudlin
Advanced Part
- Academy of Science, Dr. Pokorny
28
Brush type of branching
Determination of crown branching type and
degree of defoliation
A
Orientation of increments is not vertical or
horizontal but something between, i.e. branch
looks like brush.
Total crown shape
Lateral view on the branch
Profiel view on the brnach
Percentage of crown defoliation
Worksheet 2.6 B.- Jak se mají smrky How are
spruces? (Albrechtová et al. 2001),
fotodocumentation taken from Sanasilva - Müller
and Stierlin, 1990
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
29
Evaluation of tree growth capacity
For evaluation of tree growth capacity it is
necessary to find out, what types of buds occur
on a sampled branch. We will deal with buds on
the second-year increment only.
In spring buds start to outgrow and burst Such
buds are growing buds. It is easy to recognize
them almost all new branch grew out of them.
Young neeldes may be quite light colored.
These buds are on cut surfaces completely brown,
no trace of chlorophyll. These are aborted buds.
They have looked suspicious from the surface
already.
?
When curved, malformed needles grow out from the
bud, we speak about damaged bud. In this case two
regenerated buds were formed on its place.
Aborted bud is dry and thus brown terminally and
on its place two regenerated buds were formed.
This is dormant bud, since it nslept during the
winter and it also oversplet the spring. You can
cleraly recognize the embryonic shoot with green
leaf primordia.
Buds, which did not burst in spring can be either
sleeping (dormant) or aborted. We can find it out
only when we cut buds in two halves.
Wroksheet 2.15.- part of the manual Jak se mají
smrky How are spruces? (Albrechtová et al.
2001)
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
30
Questions
Shall we deepen education of new generation in
monitoring forest health ?
1
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
31
Questions
Are the programs like Forest Watch and How Are
Spruces suitable for adopting as local GLOBE
protocols?
2
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
32
Source W. Eugene Smith The Family of Man
Exhibition
What Will the Future Be? Our Decisions Today Will
Shape Tomorrow
Albrechtova, Rock, GLOBE conference 2005
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