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Peter R' Grant

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That is, their identity motivates their political (protest) actions. ... in terms of a minority ingroup protesting the actions of a majority outgroup. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Peter R' Grant


1
Using Social Identity Theory and Relative
Deprivation Theory to Explain Social Protest Two
Tests of an Integrated Model
  • Peter R. Grant
  • University of Saskatchewan
  • Prairie Metropolis Centre
  • Dominic Abrams
  • University of Kent
  • Funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities
    Research Council and Citizenship and Immigration
    Canada through the Metropolis Project.

2
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Relative Deprivation Theory
  • Relative deprivation theory is a theory of social
    justice. Relative deprivation occurs when
    normative expectations that certain outcomes are
    fair or just are violated.
  • Egoistic relative deprivation results from an
    interpersonal social comparison that reveals a
    personal injustice. (E.g., I am getting a lower
    wage than other workers doing the same job.)
  • Situations that cause this kind of deprivation
    are stressful and tend to cause psychological
    distress and, for some people, illness (e.g.,
    depression).
  • Collective relative deprivation (CRD) results
    from a intergroup social comparison that reveals
    a social injustice (e.g., skilled immigrants are
    getting paid a lower wage than the native born
    with similar credentials) cognitive CRD.
  • This kind of deprivation results in emotions such
    as anger, dissatisfaction, and frustration
    affective CRD.
  • CRD motivates the endorsement of militant
    attitudes and participation in collective
    actions aimed at achieving social change (e.g.,
    boycotts, protests, lobbying, etc…).
  • Modeling techniques show
  • Cognitive CRD ? affective CRD ? protest
    actions/militant attitudes

3
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • A Theoretical Integration
  • The Importance of Social Identity
  • An important part of Social Identity Theory (SIT)
    is concerned with the conditions under which
    group members will actively work for social
    change through collective actions.
  • Recently, a persons group identity has been
    conceptualized as a guide toward an imagined
    desired future which motivates participation in
    collective political actions by minority group
    members who feel that their group is treated
    unfairly within society. That is, their identity
    motivates their political (protest) actions.
  • Some research shows that people who strongly
    identify with their group feel affective
    collective relative deprivation more strongly (a
    stronger affective reaction). This is because
    they place particular importance on the
    intergroup comparison.
  • Other research shows that people who strongly
    identify with their group are more likely to
    protest regardless of how much they experience
    collective relative deprivation. This is because
    they are more likely to act as a representative
    of the group. They support protest actions to
    achieve social change and to show their loyalty.

4
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
Identity
Aff CRD
Protest Actions
Cog CRD
5
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • A Theoretical Integration
  • The Importance of Social Change Beliefs
  • A neglected aspect of Social Identity Theory is
    the hypothesis that the development of radical
    (militant) social change beliefs is a necessary
    antecedent for involvement in protest actions.
  • A social change belief structure is one in
    which minority group members envisage that their
    group's position in the wider social structure
    can only be improved if there is a structural
    change. SIT specifies that members of
    disadvantaged groups are most likely to
    participate in collective actions to achieve real
    social change when their groups position in the
    current social system is perceived to be both
    illegitimately low and unstable (Tajfel Turner,
    1986). That is, a social change belief structure
    is part of a radical political ideology developed
    by members of a disadvantaged group in which
    viable alternatives to the political status quo
    can be imagined.
  • The neglected SIT hypothesis is that such social
    change beliefs mediate the relationship between
    group identity and collective protest actions AND
    between affective CRD and collective protest
    actions ( a double mediation).

6
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
Identity
Aff CRD
Cog CRD
Social Change Beliefs
Protest Actions
7
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • A Study of Scottish Nationalism
  • (Abrams Grant, submitted)
  • A longitudinal study of the economic, political,
    and educational development of youth from four
    regions of Britain.
  • A representative sample of Scottish youth (16 to
    18 years old in 1986) from all schools in
    Kirkcaldy, Fife (80 response rate)
  • Re-analysis of Wave 2 data (N 911) collected in
    April, 1988 in supplementary questions (Scottish
    sample only) relevant to the Scottish nationalist
    attitudes and intentions to vote for the Scottish
    Nationalist Party (SNP) among Scottish youth.

8
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Protest Measures
  • INTENTIONS TO VOTE SNP
  • If there was an election tomorrow, which
    political party….
  • SOCIAL CHANGE BELIEFS (NATIONALISM) (SA to SD)
  • Scotland could get along well without the
    rest of Britain
  • Scotland should manage its own resources
  • Scottish people will only get a fair deal
    through separate government
  • Collective Relative Deprivation Measures
  • COGNITIVE CRD (the same, less)
  • People in Scotland generally earn …. than
    people in England
  • AFFECTIVE CRD (SA to SD)
  • I feel frustrated and dissatisfied about
    the amount people earn in Scotland compared to
    people in England
  • EGOISTIC RD (SA to SD)

9
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Strength of Scottish Identity (SA to SD)
  • I have a strong sense of belonging to
    Scotland
  • I am not very proud to be seen as Scottish
    (reversed)
  • Its better to live here than any other
    part of Britain
  • Depression Measure (SA to SD)
  • If I could Id be a very different person from
    the one I am right now.
  • I feel unsure of most things in life.
  • I am happy to be the person I am. (reversed)
  • I sometimes cannot help but wonder if anything
    is worthwhile.
  • I feel that I am as worthwhile as anybody else.
    (reversed)
  • I am often troubled by emptiness in my life.

10
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Full Theoretical Model Tested in this Study
  • Circles show theoretical constructs indexed by
    more than one survey item (not shown). That is,
    the measurement model is not shown.

Scottish Identity
Political Engagement
Social Change Beliefs
Cog CRD
Aff CRD
Intentions to Vote SNP
Depression
ERD
11
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Goodness of Fit CFI 0.97, Std RMR .03
    (excluding ERD).
  • ?² (33, N 837) 76.49, p lt .001.

Political Engagement
Scottish Identity
.16
.57
.23
Cog CRD
Social Change Beliefs
Aff CRD
.21
Intentions to Vote SNP
.39
.37
.13
.01, ns
Depression
ERD
.34
12
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • A Study of Skilled Asian and African Immigrants
    to Canada
  • (Grant, 2008 Grant Nadin, 2007)
  • Reconceptualizing Affective CRD
  • Consider the measure of affective CRD shown
    earlier I feel frustrated and dissatisfied
    about the amount people earn in Scotland compared
    to people in England
  • This item contains both emotions and an external
    attribution which blames the English (the
    majority) for the lower wages of Scottish
    workers. This attribution involves perceived
    discrimination an adversarial attribution
    (Simon Klandermans, 2001).
  • Intergroup Emotions Theory specifies that if the
    ingroup is harmed, ingroup members feel anger and
    if the goals of the ingroup are blocked, ingroup
    members feel frustration and resentment.
  • In this second study, a model was tested which
    conceptualized affective CRD as both an
    attribution of perceived discrimination and
    accompanying emotions. Theoretically, these
    emotions provide a sustain motivation to engage
    in prolonged collective political actions
    provided two conditions are met 1) the
    intergroup context continually makes salient the
    relative disadvantage of the ingroup and 2)
    ingroup members identify with their group (they
    experience emotions because the fate of the
    ingroup is experienced personally).

13
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions

Cultural Identity
ve
ve
Emotions
ve
ve
Perceived Discrimination
Collective Protest Actions
Cog CRD
ve
ve
14
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Identifying with Two Ingroups
  • Recent immigrants are an interesting group to
    study because not only do they have a strong
    identification with the culture in which they
    raised, but also they have an emerging national
    identification with their new country (two
    ingroups).
  • My hypothesis was that immigrants with a strong
    national identity will be less likely to
    perceived their groups relative disadvantage in
    Canadian society as discriminatory, less likely
    to react with a negative emotional response, and,
    hence, less likely to engage in collective
    protest actions.
  • This is because the experience of unfair
    treatment at the hands of members of ones new
    countrymen and countrywomen is more likely to be
    construed as well meaning, though misguided, and
    is less likely to provoke perceptions of
    discrimination and accompanying emotions.
  • My second hypothesis was that immigrants with a
    strong national identity are less likely to
    engage in protest actions because such actions
    could be construed as unpatriotic.
  • The study explored the value of casting minority
    majority relations in terms of identification
    with partially overlapping cultural and national
    ingroups, rather than in terms of a minority
    ingroup protesting the actions of a majority
    outgroup.

15
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions

Cultural Identity
ve
ve
Emotions
ve
ve
Collective Protest Actions
Perceived Discrimination
Cognitive CRD
ve
ve
-ve
-ve
Canadian Identity
16
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Method
  • Procedure Respondents
  • The questionnaire was given to the participants
    during a local gathering.
  • The participants were skilled immigrants to
    Canada from Asia (72.8) or Africa (27.2)
    currently experiencing credentialing problems
    (56.3 women).
  • 67.1 had an income of less than 20,000 a year.
    For a married couple this income is below the
    Canadian poverty line.
  • Half of the sample was in their 30s with roughly
    25 in their 20s and another 25 in their 40s.
  • 46.9 Christian, 24.8 Muslim, 18.6 no religion.
  • 73.5 had lived in Canada less than 4 years.
  • 61 learned English as a child and 43.0 were
    educated in English. None of the respondents
    spoke English as their native tongue.

17
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Measures
  • Illegitimacy and instability were measured by two
    parallel questions
  • In general, is the social status of immigrants
    from your country of origin relative to other
    Canadians legitimate (stable) or not?
  • Respondents answered on a 5-point scale. Scores
    were multiplied and divided by 5 to create the
    measure of cognitive CRD.
  • Perceived discrimination against immigrants in
    the Canadian labour market (4 items) and
    generally in Canadian society (6 items) were used
    to measure the attribution of blame component of
    affective CRD using a Likert scale.
  • In Canada, immigrants face discrimination from
    potential employers because they do not have
    Canadian work experience.
  • In Canada, immigrants face discrimination
    because of their race.
  • Strength of cultural and national (Canadian)
    identity was measured by a 6 item version of
    Brown et als (1986) scale.

18
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Respondents were asked whether or not they had
    engaged in a variety of collective protest
    actions on behalf of their cultural group during
    the last year. The protest measure was the sum of
    the number of protest actions.
  • The intention measure asked respondents to
    indicate the likelihood that they would take the
    same actions in the year to come (0, 25, 50,
    75, or 100). The average likelihood was the
    measure.
  • I have worked with others to lobby the
    government to improve the position of my cultural
    group in Canada.
  • I have participated in peaceful public
    demonstrations to improve the social position of
    my cultural group in Canada.
  • Other items include writing letters, signing
    petitions, attending meetings, and supporting
    community initiatives and businesses.

19
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions

Cultural Identity
.09, ns.
r .32
.20, p lt .10
Emotions
.61
Protest Intentions
Perceived Discrimination
.28
Ill x Unstable
.25
-.29
.13, ns
Canadian Identity
Goodness of Fit CFI 0.91, Std RMR .074, ?²
(71, N 108) 111.74, p lt .01.
The EQS Results Which Generally Support the
Theoretical Model
20
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Researchers have also examined collective
    efficacy as a determinant of collective actions
    how much impact individuals perceive their
    collective group can have on the political
    process (Abrams Randsley de Moura, 2002, p.
    206) to improve their groups unjust situation.
  • The recent review by Van Zomeren, Postmes,
    Spears (2008) summarizes evidence which
    demonstrates that collective efficacy is an
    important proximal determinant of collective
    action.
  • One of the important functions of a strong group
    identity is that it provides minority group
    members with a sense of collective efficacy
    (empowerment) to fight their groups relative
    disadvantages in society.

Collective Efficacy
Identity
Collective Protest Actions
Aff CRD (Injustice)
21
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
An Integrated Model
Social Conditions Illegitimate x Unstable
Minority Group Identity
Perceived Collective Efficacy
ve
ve
ve
ve
ve
Affective CRD
Cognitive CRD
Collective Protest Actions
ve
ve
-ve
ve
-ve
National Identity
Boundary Impermeability
22
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
Minority Group Identity
Social Conditions Illegitimate x Unstable
Perceived Collective Efficacy
ve
ve
ve
ve
ve
Affective CRD
Cognitive CRD
Collective Protest Actions
ve
ve
-ve
ve
-ve
National Identity
Boundary Impermeability
23
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
Minority Group Identity
Social Conditions Illegitimate x Unstable
Perceived Collective Efficacy
ve
ve
ve
ve
ve
Affective CRD
Cognitive CRD
Collective Protest Actions
ve
Social Change Beliefs
ve
ve
-ve
ve
-ve
National Identity
Boundary Impermeability
24
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
Minority Group Identity
Social Conditions Illegitimate x Unstable
Perceived Collective Efficacy
ve
ve
resentment, anger, frustration
ve
ve
ve
ve
ve
Perceived Discrimination
Cognitive CRD
ve
Collective Protest Actions
Social Change Beliefs
ve
ve
-ve
ve
-ve
National Identity
Boundary Impermeability
25
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
Minority Group Identity
Social Conditions Illegitimate x Unstable
Perceived Collective Efficacy
ve
ve
resentment, anger, frustration
ve
ve
ve
ve
ve
Perceived Discrimination
Cognitive CRD
ve
Collective Protest Actions
Social Change Beliefs
ve
ve
-ve
ve
-ve
National Identity
Boundary Impermeability
26
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
Minority Group Identity
Social Conditions Illegitimate x Unstable
Perceived Collective Efficacy
ve
ve
resentment, anger, frustration
ve
ve
ve
ve
ve
Perceived Discrimination
Cognitive CRD
ve
Collective Protest Actions
Social Change Beliefs
ve
ve
-ve
ve
-ve
National Identity
Boundary Impermeability
27
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
Minority Group Identity
Social Conditions Illegitimate x Unstable
Perceived Collective Efficacy
ve
ve
resentment, anger, frustration
ve
ve
ve
ve
ve
Perceived Discrimination
Cognitive CRD
Collective Protest Actions
ve
Social Change Beliefs
ve
ve
-ve
ve
-ve
National Identity
Boundary Impermeability
28
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
  • Questions?

Questions?
29
Integrating SIT and RDT to Explain Protest Actions
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