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C3 International, LLC


... pin (top photo, below) shows typical aluminum soldering after 3,500 cycles. Treated pin (bottom photo) lasts 200,000 cycles w/o soldering. Case Study: Core Pins ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: C3 International, LLC

C3 International, LLC
Molecular Infusion Surface Treatment (MIST)
  • Technology Overview

C3 International
  • Founded in 1999 to commercialize diffused oxide
  • Headquarters Alpharetta, GA (Atlanta)
  • Oak Ridge National Labs (ORNL) Partnership
  • Winner, 2006 RD 100 Award
  • Provide Services and Products
  • Revolutionary Nanometer-Scale Surface Treatment
  • Ultra-thin films of chosen elements and oxides
  • Molecular Infusion Surface Treatment (M.I.S.T.)
  • Contract treatment services and OEM Licensing

C3 Molecular Infusion Surface Treatment
  • Oxide nanoparticles can provide superior
    mechanical and chemical performance in surface
    treatment applications
  • Attachment method of oxides in ultra-thin films
    has been elusive
  • Diffusion process for various elements (oxides
    and metals) was discovered in Russian research
    laboratories circa 1995
  • Technology was acquired by U.S. group and has
    been developed into a viable commercial process

Nano-scale for IC Industry
  • Materials science being driven by integrated
    circuit industry
  • Technical advances expand into other industries

C3 Nano-scale Thin Films
100 to 500 nanometers (.1micron to .5
Ultra -Thin Film
40 to 50 nanometers (.04 to .05 microns)
Infusion Layer
Substrate Material
  • Substrates of
  • Metals
  • Carbides
  • Ceramics
  • Cermets
  • Single Crystals
  • Non-Organic Material
  • The C3 process results in a conformal surface
    treatment diffused into substrate
  • Thicknesses of thin film 0.1 micron to 0.5
    micron (100 nm 0.1 µm)
  • Infusion layer produces a alloy layer firmly
    attached to substrate 50 nm deep

Infused Thin Films
  • Superior adhesion possible
  • with forced-diffusion into
  • substrate inner-granular boundaries
  • Nano-scale thin film becomes
  • locked to host material
  • During mechanical or chemical attack, residual
    effects remain
  • If thin film is worn away, substrate retains
    performance characteristics
  • A result of the inner-granular diffusion alloy
  • Opens possibility of downgrading a tools
    substrate and upgrading the wearing surface only
  • Put investment into the surface, not the core of
    the tool

Comparison Surface Treatment Methods
M.I.S.T. Process Attributes
  • Wide variety of elements can be applied to
    metals, ceramics, etc.
  • Zirconium Oxide, Cerium Oxide currently in wide
  • Choose from 57 elements for various effects
  • Ultra-thin film adhered to substrate
  • Flexible in nature
  • Conforms to surface (surface finish lt16 Ra is
  • No thermal coef. of expansion issues (CTE)
  • Infused to substrate superior adhesion
  • Lubrication
  • Solid state lubricant
  • Porosity can be added as holding sites
  • for liquid lubricants
  • Surface Protection
  • Corrosion protection
  • Environmental Boundary Coating
  • Thermal property tuning (emissivity,

Infused Nano-Film Characteristics
  • M.I.S.T. process produces fine-grain size
  • ORNL X-Ray diffraction study shows grain size to
    average 3 nm

ORNL Material Analysis
  • Zirconium Oxide (Zirconia) version of C3 M.I.S.T.
    process analyzed on
  • 304 Stainless coupons
  • Sputter profiles measured the interface formed
    between the substrate and thin film
  • Ultra-thin film diffused into substrate
  • Approximately 48 nm depth of Zirconia into
  • Multiple applications of the C3 process built up
    a 250 nm thin film
  • Final diffused nano-film can be described as an

SEM and Auger Analysis
  • M.I.S.T. process on SS 304
  • Sequence of SEMs and Auger maps taken during a
    sputter profile
  • As the coating is removed the underlying
    substrate is revealed
  • Zrred
  • Oblue
  • Cgreen

C3 Competitive Technologies
Nano-film Diffusion Process
Corrosion Resistance
  • Aqua Regia Test
  • Sample exposed to specific volume of 3 parts HCL
    to 1 part HNO3 for 1 hour

MIST 1000 Treatment
MIST 5000 Treatment
Corrosion Resistance
  • High Temperature Salt Spray Test
  • Samples heated to 1652F in air, then sprayed
    with 10 salt water solution for 1 hour. Test
    recommended by Alberta Research Council.

MIST 1000 Treatment
MIST 5000 Treatment
Micro Welding
  • When exposed to molten metal, micro welding
    occurs in tool steels, stainless steels, etc.
  • This also applies to machining operations where
    micro-welding is one failure mechanism in metal
    cutting tools
  • Metal forming operations can experience micro
    welding in high stress areas

Case Study Molten Aluminum Attack
Thermocouple Sheath Test 1010 steel exposed to
molten/liquid aluminum
Case Study Wallace Dunker Test
  • Case Western Reserve University trial using
    Wallace Dunker Test
  • Test blocks made from test steel sized 2 x 2 x 7
    inch rectangular shape
  • 1.5 inch diameter hole in the center for internal
    water cooling
  • Four corners with 0.010 inch radius intensifies
    the predominately uniaxial stresses
  • Test produces considerable constraint and high
    thermal fluctuations during immersion and removal
    from the aluminum 380 alloy bath (1350F)
  • Specimen is immersed for 12 seconds
  • Specimen then removed from the bath for
  • 24 seconds to produce the thermal cycle
  • Outer surface of the specimen sprayed with
  • water-base lubricant prior to dunking
  • Water flows through the central hole at
  • a constant rate of four gallons per minute
  • C3 treated test block ran for 15,000 cycles
  • Ni-based super alloy performance unsatisfactory

Case Study Ladle Durability
  • Aluminum Foundry Ladles
  • Casting ladles made from 440 SS
  • Ceramic paint applied at start of each shift
    after cleaning
  • Standard 1200 pours to failure
  • MIST process applied to identical ladle
  • Treated ladle lasted 52,125 pours

Case Study Core Pins
  • Die Cast core pins
  • H13 Steel in low pressure operation
  • MIST process results in 7X life over Nitrided
  • (See graph at right)
  • Untreated pin (top photo, below) shows typical
    aluminum soldering after 3,500 cycles
  • Treated pin (bottom photo) lasts 200,000 cycles
    w/o soldering

Case Study Intricate Die Molds
  • Complex auto transmission valve body die casting
  • H13 die with heat treatment Nitriding
  • 383 Aluminum pour _at_ 1250F
  • 8000 part limit before intense soldering occurs
  • C3 M.I.S.T. process applied to untreated mold
  • After 27,000 parts mold fails due to fin fracture
    unrelated to surface treatment

Case Study Shot Sleeves
  • High pressure die casting shot sleeves
  • H13 construction with water cooling circuits
  • Molten Aluminum _at_ 1150-130F temperatures
  • 4.0 ID size
  • Graphite bead lube between shots
  • Normal life 20,000 cycles to tool failure
  • C3 treated shot sleeves last 98,000 cycles
  • Beryllium plunger tips last longer when used with
  • treated sleeves
  • Standard life with untreated sleeves 7,200
  • Tip life when operated in treated sleeves
    12,500 shots
  • Coefficient of friction reduced between tip and
    sleeve with infused nano-film of ZrO2

Case Study Metal Forming
  • Infused nano-films of Zirconia extend metal
    forming tool life
  • Stamping
  • Forging
  • Also applicable to punches and extruders
  • Extends life of shearing blades
  • Reduces need for coolants
  • Surface finish of stamped parts
  • is improved

Case Study Metal Cutting Tools
  • Infused nano-film of ZrO2 extends
    cutting tool life
  • Near-diamond hardness in nano-film and substrate
  • Tool life and/or cutting speed improved
  • Surface finish of machined part is improved
  • Synergistic with coolants and cutting fluids

C3 Process Critical Applications Benefits
  • Gun Barrel Program
  • High temperature rise in short time frame
  • High rate of mechanical wear at high T
  • Exposure to caustic chemicals at high T
  • Close dimensional tolerances
  • Hazardous material electroplating currently used
    (hard chrome plating)
  • Performance is key
  • Lubricity of C3 film improves range lethality
  • Greater rounds per minute possible for longer
  • Extended time between replacement

C3 Process Friction Reduction
  • Bearing Steel Wear Friction Test

Two bearing steel coupons were tested. The coupon
coated with the C3 infused thin film gave a 10
reduction in the coefficient of friction and
provided an 80 reduction in wear rate as
compared to the standard steel coupon. All tests
run using reference test oil.
C3 Process Provides Multiple Benefits
  • C3 Process addresses multiple areas of concern
  • Can withstand extremely high temperature rise
  • 4500ºF in 100 milliseconds
  • Infusion into grain boundaries provides alloying
  • Zirconia infusion provides high wear hardness
  • Zirconia is second only to industrial diamonds in
  • Zirconia infusion provides inert barrier to
    caustic chemicals
  • Nano-scale film does not cause dimensional change
  • Application process is quick, with no HazMat
  • Carrier fluid classification similar to kerosene
  • No large capital investment needed
  • Well-suited to licensing to manufacturers

C3 Process Catalytic Surfaces
  • C3 infused surface treatment can make surfaces
    chemically active
  • CeO2 coating prevents carbon deposits
  • CeO2 plus other elements increase surface
    activity (Platinum, etc.)
  • Turbine engine combustion chambers
  • Automotive engine combustion chambers
  • MEMS engine combustion rate
  • Diesel Particulate Filters
  • Oil Refinery Piping systems
  • Extends process pipe life by 600
  • Jet/Turbine engine fuel injector nozzles
  • Reduces internal coking

C3 International, LLC
  • 1370 E Union Hill Industrial Court
  • Alpharetta, GA 30004
  • Phone 678/624-0230 Fax 678-356-0733
  • www.c3international.com
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